The use of an oil in Christian ceremonies is mentioned in many early Christian documents including writings by Theophilus and Tertullian. [[Cyril of Jerusalem]] details the practices of using oil or ointment that is “symbolically applied to the forehead, and other organs of sense.” He further notes that the “ointment is the seal of the covenants” of baptism and God’s promises to the believer who is anointed. He taught that being "anointed with the oil of God” was a sign of a Christian (‘’''Christos''’’ meaning “anointed”), and a physical representation of receiving the Gift of the Holy Spirit.
In Orthodox Christianity, chrism is a prominent part of the baptism ceremony in which under normal circumstances the newly enlightened, including infants, is anointed during [[chrismation]] that immediately follows the baptism itself. Chrism is used also
during consecration of [[church]]es in which the [[altar]] table and walls are anointed.
Chrism is a mixture of olive oil
mixed with aromatic essences following the pattern of the preparation of anointing oil described in [[Exodus]] 30:22-33. Chrism is prepared when needed during [[Holy Week]]. The preparation rite begins on [[Holy Week|Holy Monday]] and ends with the Divine Liturgy on [[Holy Week|Holy Thursday]] when the new chrism is carried in during the [[Great Entrance]] and placed upon the altar table. The chrism is prepared by the ruling [[bishop]] of each [[autocephaly|autocephalous]] church, assisted by members of the [[Holy Synod]]. After its preparation the chrism is distributed to the bishops, who in turn pass it to the [[parish]]es where it is needed.