==The beginnings of Chinese Christianity==
[[Christianity]] was first introduced to China via an [[Assyrian Church of the East|Assyrian]] mission in in 635, and is commemorated in the [[Nestorianism|Nestorian]] Stele of Xi'an.
[[Orthodoxy]] arrived in China, via Siberia, in 1685. In that year, the Kangxi Emperor resettled the inhabitants of the [[Russia]]n border towns he had captured in China. [[Maxim Leontiev]], a [[priest]] who went with them, dedicated the first Orthodox church in Beijing. In the first century-and-a-half of its presence in China, the church did not attract a large following. It is said that in 1860 there were not more than 200 Orthodox in Beijing, including the descendants of the naturalized Russians.
In the second half of the 19th century, however, the Orthodox Church made bigger strides. The [[Russian Orthodox Mission in China|Spiritual Mission of the Russian Orthodox Church]] in Beijing was blessed with scholarly and religious clergy. Numerous translations into Chinese of religious publications were made.
The mission published four volumes of research in Chinese studies in the 1850s and 60s. Two clerics became well-known for scholarship in the subject, Father [[
Yakiuf Bichurin]], and the [[Archimandrite]] [[ Palladius]], who also compiled a "very valuable" dictionary.
The Boxer (Yihetuan Movement) Rebellion of 1898-1900, an anti-Western and anti-missionary uprising in China, saw violent attacks on Chinese converts to Christianity. The Orthodox Chinese were among those put to the sword, and in June every year the 222 Chinese Orthodox, including Father [[Mitrophan]], who died for their faith in 1900 are commemorated during the upheavals as remembered on the [[icon]] of the [[Holy Martyrs of China]]. In spite of the uprising, by 1902 there were 32 Orthodox churches in China with close to 6,000 adherents. The church also ran schools and orphanages.
By 1949, 106 Orthodox churches were operated in China. In general, the parishioners of these churches were Russian refugees, and the ethnic Chinese population was about 10 ,000 persons. The Cultural Revolution destroyed the young Chinese Orthodox Church almost totally.
===Leaders of the Russian Mission===
Leontieff]], 1685-1712.*Archimandrite [[ Ambrose ( Umatoff)]] , 1755- 1771.*Archimandrite [[Peter ( Kamensky) ]], 1820- 1830.*Archimandrite [[ Policarp ( Tougarinoff)]], 1840- 1849.*Archimandrite [[ Ioakinf ( Bichorin)]], 1806-1821.* Father [[ Daniel Siviloff]], 1820-1830.* Father [[ Avvakum Chestnoy]], 1830-1840.*Archimandrite [[Pallady ( Kaffaroff)]], 1849- 1859 and 1864-1878.*Archimandrite [[Gury ( Karpoff)]], 1858-1864.* Father [[Flavian]], 1878- 1884.*Archimandrite [[Amfilochy (Loutovinoff)]], 1883-1896.*Metropolitan [[ # Innocent (Figurovsky) of Beijing|Innocent (Figurovsky) of Beijing and All-China]]. Archimandrite 1897-1901, Bishop of Beijing 1902-1921, Archbishop of Beijing and All-China 1922-1928, Metropolitan 1928-1931.*Archbishop [[Simon (Vinogradov)]], 1928-1933.
*Archbishop [[Victor (Svyatin) of Krasnodar and Kuban|Victor (Svjatin) of Beijing]]. Bishop of Shanghai 1928-1933, Bishop of Beijing and All-China 1933-1938, Archbishop 1938-1956.
*Saint [[John Maximovitch]], Bishop of Shanghai 1934-~1946, Archbishop ~1946-1949.
===Episcopacy of the Autonomous Chinese Orthodox Church===
*Bishop [[Vasily (Shuan) of Beijing|Vasily (Shuan)]] of Beijing and All-China, 1956-1962.
*Bishop [[Symeon (Du) of Shanghai|Symeon (Du)]] of Shanghai,
*[[Russian Orthodox Mission in China]]
*[[Holy Martyrs of China]]
* Dr. Kevin Baker. [http://www.mellenpress.com/mellenpress.cfm?bookid=6574&pc=9 A History of the Orthodox Church in China, Korea and Japan]. The Edwin Mellen Press, 2006.
(ISBN 0-7734-5886-7; ISBN 978-0-7734-5886-4; Pages: 288)