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Church of China

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==The beginnings of Chinese Christianity==
[[Introduction to Orthodox Christianity|Christianity]] was first introduced to China via an [[Assyrian Church of the East|Assyrian]] mission in in 635, and is commemorated in the [[Nestorianism|Nestorian]] Stele of Xi'an.
[[Orthodoxy]] arrived in China, via Siberia, in 1685. In that year, the Kangxi Emperor resettled the inhabitants of the [[Russia]]n border towns he had captured in China. [[Maxim Leontiev]], a [[priest]] who went with them, dedicated the first Orthodox church in Beijing. In the first century-and-a-half of its presence in China, the church did not attract a large following. It is said that in 1860 there were not more than 200 Orthodox in Beijing, including the descendants of the naturalized Russians.
In the second half of the 19th century, however, the Orthodox Church made bigger strides. The [[Russian Orthodox Mission in China|Spiritual Mission of the Russian Orthodox Church]] in Beijing was blessed with scholarly and religious clergy. Numerous translations into Chinese of religious publications were made.
The mission published four volumes of research in Chinese studies in the 1850s and 60s. Two clerics became well-known for scholarship in the subject, Father [[Yakiuf Iakinf (Bichurin) of Beijing|Iakinf Bichurin]], and the [[Archimandrite]] [[PalladiusPallady (Kafarov) of Beijing|Pallady]], who also compiled a "very valuable" dictionary.
The Boxer (Yihetuan Movement) Rebellion of 1898-1900, an anti-Western and anti-missionary uprising in China, saw violent attacks on Chinese converts to Christianity. The Orthodox Chinese were among those put to the sword, and in June every year the 222 Chinese Orthodox, including Father [[MitrophanJi]], who died for their faith in 1900 are commemorated during the upheavals as remembered on the [[icon]] of the [[Holy Martyrs of China]]. In spite of the uprising, by 1902 there were 32 Orthodox churches in China with close to 6,000 adherents. The church also ran schools and orphanages.
Rising out of the ruins of the Boxer revolt, a new missionary attitude was established by Fr. Innocent. Having been recalled to St. Petersburg for consultations concerning the mission, Fr. Innocent was consecrated bishop and returned to Beijing as Bishop of Beijing in August 1902, with jurisdiction over all the churches along the Chinese-Eastern Railway.  Rebuilding the mission began immediately, funded by the Chinese government in payment for the damages caused by the Boxer Revolt. Additionally, nearly all of China was opened to missionary work. New churches and chapels began to appear. A church and school were opened in Yongpingfu in Zhili province. Also in Zhili province some twenty chapels were opened by a Chinese priest. In Weihuifu, a church and school were founded through the gratitude of a Henan province official who had received protection from Russians during the revolt. By 19491916, the Russian Orthodox Mission in China had grown greatly. In Beijing, three monasteries were established: Dormition Monastery, the Hermitage of the Exaltation of the Cross in Xishan (Western Hills near Beijing), and a women’s monastery. There were nineteen churches including four in Beijing and 32 missions including 14 in Zhili province, 12 in Hebei, four in Henan, one in Xi’anfu, and one in Mongolia. The Mission also controlled 17 schools for boys and three for girls. In addition the Mission maintained a number of institutions relate to publication of books, and various work shops. Evangelization of Chinese increased, and by 1916 the number of baptized Chinese numbered 5,587, including 583 who were baptized in 1915. The vast majority of teachers in the Mission schools were Chinese. Following the Bolshevik revolution in Russia in 1917, 106 the Mission lost its support base and had to fend for itself. At the same time the arrival of many Russian refuges in China greatly increased the number of Orthodox believers. The number of churches also increased, largely to support the Russian arrivals. This led to the establishment of new dioceses. In China, dioceses were operated established around the cities of Shanghai and Tianjin, in addition to Beijing. A diocese in Harbin had developed out of support for the Russian colony associated with the Eastern ChinaRailway.  During the years after the Bolshevik Revolution many of the Orthodox bishops joined with the exile [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia]], that was initially headquartered in Karlovci, Yugoslavia, but later in Munich, Germany and then New York in the United States. At the end of World War II, and with the arrival of Soviet forces, particularly in Manchuria, the Moscow Patriarchate gained [[jurisdiction]] over the Russian bishops in China and Harbin.  In general1949, after establishment of the People’s Republic of China that was under the control of the Chinese Communist Party, treaties between the parishioners Soviet and Chinese governments led to transfer of jurisdiction of these the Russian churches were Russian refugeesto the Chinese. In 1956, in fulfillment of agreements between the Soviet Union and Communist China, the Moscow Patriarchate granted autonomy to the Church of China formally ending the ethnic Russian Mission in China. At that time the Church of China had two Chinese population was about 10bishops, a number of priests, and an estimated 20,000 personsfaithful. Abp. Victor of Beijing, the last Russian bishop in China and leader of the last Spiritual Mission departed for the Soviet Union in 1956, closing the three hundred year old Russian Orthodox Mission in China. After the departure of the Russians in 1956, the Church in China labored under the restriction of the Communist government, but came under severe restrictions as the Cultural Revolution began in the early 1960s. The With widespread confiscation and destruction of church property the Cultural Revolution destroyed the young Chinese Orthodox Church almost totally. The last Chinese bishop, [[Vasily (Shuan) of Beijing]], reposed in 1962 and a successor has not been named.
===Leaders of the Russian Mission===
*Father [[Maxim LeontieffLeontiev]], 1685-1712.*Archimandrite [[Ambrose Ilarion (UmatoffLezhaisky)]], 1715-1717. *Archimandrite Antony (Platkovsky) 1729-1735. *Archimandrite Illarion (Trusov) 1736-1745. *Archimandrite Gervasy (Lintsevsky) 1745-1755-1771.*Archimandrite [[Peter Ambrose (KamenskyUmatov)]], 18201755-18301771.*Archimandrite Nikolai (Tsvet) 1771-1781. *Archimandrite Ioakim (Shishkovsky) 1781-1794.*Archimandrite [[Policarp Sofrony (TougarinoffGribovsky)]], 18401794-18491807.*Archimandrite [[Ioakinf Iakinf (BichorinBichurin) of Beijing|Iakinf (Bichurin)]], 1806-1821.*Father Archimandrite [[Daniel SiviloffPeter (Kamensky)]], 18201821-1830.*Father Hieromonk Benjamin (Morachevich) 1830-1840). *Archimandrite [[Avvakum ChestnoyPolicarp (Tougarinov)]], 18301840-18401849.*Archimandrite [[Pallady (KaffaroffKafarov) of Beijing|Pallady (Kafarov)]], 18491850-1859 1858 and 18641865-1878.*Archimandrite [[Gury (KarpoffKarpov)]], 1858-1864.*Father Archimandrite [[Flavian(Gorodetsky) of Kiev and Galich|Flavian (Gorodetsky)]], 18781879-18841883.*Archimandrite [[Amfilochy (Loutovinoff)]], 18831884-1896.*Metropolitan [[# Innocent (Figurovsky) of Beijing|Innocent (Figurovsky) of Beijing and All-China]]. Archimandrite 1897-1901, Bishop of Beijing 1902-1921, Archbishop of Beijing and All-China 1922-1928, Metropolitan 1928-1931.*Archbishop [[Simon (Vinogradov) of Beijing|Simon (Vinogradov)]], 19281931-1933.
*Archbishop [[Victor (Svyatin) of Krasnodar and Kuban|Victor (Svjatin) of Beijing]]. Bishop of Shanghai 1928-1933, Bishop of Beijing and All-China 1933-1938, Archbishop 1938-1956.
*Saint [[John Maximovitch]], Bishop of Shanghai 1934-~1946, Archbishop ~1946-1949.
===Episcopacy of the Autonomous Chinese Orthodox Church===
*Bishop [[Vasily (Shuan) of Beijing|Vasily (Shuan)]] of Beijing and All-China, 1956-1962.
*Bishop [[Symeon (Du) of Shanghai|Symeon (Du)]] of Shanghai, 19511950-1960's1965.
==Orthodoxy Today==
*[[Russian Orthodox Mission in China]]
*[[Holy Martyrs of China]]
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in China]]
==Further Reading==
* Dina V. Doubrovskaia. ''[,M1 The Russian Orthodox Church in China]''. In: Stephen Uhalley and Xiaoxin Wu, '''[ China and Christianity: Burdened Past, Hopeful Future]'''. M.E. Sharpe, 2001. 499 pp. (pp.163-176). (ISBN 0765606615; ISBN 9780765606617)
* Dr. Kevin Baker. [ A History of the Orthodox Church in China, Korea and Japan]. The Edwin Mellen Press, 2006. 288 pp.
: (ISBN 0-7734-5886-7; ISBN 978-0-7734-5886-4)
* Eric Widmer. [ The Russian ecclesiastical mission in Peking during the eighteenth century]. Harvard Univ Asia Center, 1976. 262 pp. (ISBN 0674781295; ISBN 9780674781290)
* Hieromonk Damascene, Lou Shibai, You-Shan Tang. [ Christ the Eternal Tao]. Valaam Books, Platina, California, 1999. 554 pp. (ISBN 0938635859; ISBN 9780938635857)
* Zhang Sui (张绥) (1943- ). [ The Orthodox Church and Orthodox Church in China] (东正教和东正教在中国).
:Shanghai: Xuelin Publishing House (上海 : 學林出版社 : 新華書店上海发行所发行), 1986. 345 pp.
:''(In Chinese; Available through the National Library of Australia, [ here].)''
==External links==
===Further Reading===
* Dr. Kevin Baker. [ A History of the Orthodox Church in China, Korea and Japan]. The Edwin Mellen Press, 2006.
(ISBN 0-7734-5886-7; ISBN 978-0-7734-5886-4; Pages: 288)

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