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Council of Florence

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'''The Council of Florence''' was held in Florence, Italy, during 1438-1439, as a second reunion council to heal the [[Great Schism ]] between East and West, the first being the [[Councils of Lyons|Council of Lyons ]] in 1274. The Florentine Council was itself a continuation of the Council of Ferrara, which was itself a continuation of the Council of Basel convoked in 1431 by Pope Martin V. 
==The Emperors==
*'''Manuel II''' – First petitions He first petitioned [[Pope ]] John XXIII , an antipope, then later his successor Martin V , for a council to discuss union in the hopes of gaining his support in battle against Moslem forces whittling away at the Empire.*'''John Palaeologus VIVIII''' – The He was the son of Manuel II , and his successor is , was the prominent figure in the future discussions of the Council. He psychologically intimidates intimidated those whom he has had brought with him to the council and to gain the support that he needs he needed. He even goes went so far as to solicit the vote of his Chamber Master, the man servant who turns turned down his sheets at night.
==The Popes==
*'''Martin V''' – The He was the Pope of the initial phase of planning. He sends sent delegates to the Emperor demanding that the Council be held in ItaliaItaly. With threats and bribes , he manages managed to secure the promise of the Emperor to come to Italy with his delegates. A clever and conniving man, Martin realizes realized that his own future job security requires required that the East back him as Pope since His Bishops his bishops were already gathering in Basle to depose him.*'''Eugenius IV''' – Was He was in attendance at the Council of Florence. He holds held all the power, the . The Greek Emperor forbids forbid his theologians from offending the him. His aging counterpart, the [[Patriarch ]] [[Joseph II of Constantinople|Joseph]], was failing in health and was impotent to defend his place of honor and rights. Eugenius holds held the purse strings as well and the Greeks are were even reliant on him for food, shelter, and transportation.
==The Greek Delegates==
*'''[[Mark of Ephesus|Mark]], Metropolitan of Ephesus''' – By He was by all accounts the most outspoken defender of [[Orthodoxy]], he handles handled the discussions on the hard topics of [[Purgatory]], the addition of the [[Filioque ]] and its their doctrinal errors. He is was silenced in later debates by his own Emperor after harsh debates with John , the Dominican Provincial , in which it is was obvious that the Latin position was faltering. He is was by all accounts the only delegate present for the signing of the end documents who refused to do so.*Bessarion of Nicea – Plays He played the reluctant second chair to Mark during the initial debates and helps helped throw the match later after Mark is was silenced. For his loyalty to the union the Pope rewards rewarded him with the title of Cardinal and gives gave him lavish gifts.*'''George Scholarius''', philosopher – Plays He played a supportive roll in the discussions, is was faithful to Orthodoxy. Is later in life he was made Patrirach by the Moslems and takes took the name [[Gennadius Scholarius]].*'''[[Joseph II of Constantinople|Joseph]], Patriarch of Constantinople''' – Initially He initially strongly opposes opposed the councils localcouncil's locale, which was to have it been in Constantinople, but capitulates capitulated due to weakness and age. Dies He died mysterious in June before the documents are were to be signed, but manages managed “supposedly” to make have made all the necessary concesions concessions to the Pope, as to within his authority and dignity , in a letter left written two days before the request by the Pope was even made. He  "To the other afflictions which the Orthodox delegation suffered in Florence were added the death of Patriarch Joseph of Constantinople. The Patriarch was found dead in his room. "On the table lay (supposedly) his testament, Extrema Sententia, consisting in all of some lines in which he declared that he accepted everything that the Church of Rome confessed. And then: "In like manner I acknowledge the Holy Father of Fathers, the Supreme Pontiff and Vicar of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Pope of Old Rome. Likewise, I acknowledge purgatory. In affirmation of this, I affix my signature." "There is no doubt whatever that Patriarch Joseph did not write this document. The German scholar Frommann, who made a detailed investigation of the "Testament" of Patriarch Joseph," said: "This document is so Latinized and corresponds so little to the opinion expressed by the Patriarch several days before, that its spuriousness is evident. "The Testament" appeared in the history of the Council of Florence quite late; contemporaries of the Council knew nothing of it." [http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ecumenism/stmark.aspx OrthodoxInfo] The Patriarch was buried in the cemetery of a Dominican Church dedicated the Theotokos. *'''[[Isidorethe Apostate|Isidore]], Metropolitan of all Russia''' – Arrives He arrived late to the council in August, but manages managed to arrive before the transferal of the council from Ferrara to Florence due to “plague” conditions in the city of FerrerraFerrera. Had He made a grand tour of his territories before he went on came to Italy. After Mark was silenced [[Isidore the Apostate|Isidore ]] takes a minor roll as second fiddle to Besserion as the two trip over each other trying to sell Orthodoxy out. For his attempts to promote the Latin cause he is was made a Cardinal by the Pope and given authority not only over the Russian lands but the Churches [[church]]es and Dioceses [[diocese]]s of the Former former Russian lands. He is was sent by the Pope to Constantinople to settle the uproar of over the Patriarchal elections and to officially declare the union there. Due to the uproar , Metrophanes’ election by default causes he is resulted in his being forced to flee. He then goes went to the territory of Russia to announce the Union and receives received only slightly better treatment there.*'''[[Metrophanes II of Constantinople|Metrophanes of Cyzicus]]''' - The future Patriarch of Constantinople, you surely wouldn’t guess by the minor roll he played in the debates, a sell sold out to the Latins and was not even a strong figure he is . He was chosen after literally everyone else refuses. I think they may even have asked the Master of the Bed Chamber mentioned earlierrefused.
==Minor Greek figures present==
*'''Dorotheus of Trebizond'''
*'''Anthony of [[Heraclea]]'''
*'''Macarius of Nicomedia'''
==The Latin Debaters==
*'''Nicholas Albergati''' – Took the lead with the Purgatory issue.
*'''Jullian Caesarini''' – Lead Led debate on Filioque at first.
*'''John, Dominican Provincial''' – the strongest of the Latin speakers an O.P. he was highly educated and used scholastic methods and arguments to craft his defense of Latin practice. He later led the discussion without opposition on ezymes and papal authority.
*'''Andrew of Rhodes''' – Minor roll in the early discussions.
*Constantine N. Tsirpanlis, ''Mark Eugenicus and the Council of Florence: A Historical Re-evaluation of His Personality''. 1979.
==OnlineSee also==* [[Sylvester Syropoulos]]* [[Timeline of Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic relations]] ==External links==
*[http://books.google.com/books?id=lgGfW-WFjpIC&pg=PA303&dq=Council+of+Florence&lr=&ei=ALq1SKf8HaHOjgGP0YiDAQ ''The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge: Embracing Biblical, Historical, Doctrinal, and Practical Theology and Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Biography from the Earliest Times to the Present Day''] by Johann Jakob Herzog, Philip Schaff, Albert Hauck, Samuel Macauley Jackson, Charles Colebrook Sherman, George William Gilmore. Funk and Wagnalls Company, 1909.
*[http://books.google.com/books?id=bTgKBlEJGlsC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Council+of+Florence&lr=&ei=ALq1SKf8HaHOjgGP0YiDAQ#PPP1,M1 ''The History of the Council of Florence''] by Basil Popoff, Aleksandr Vasilýevich Gorski, John Mason Neale. Joseph Masters, 1861.
 
[[Category: Councils|Florence]]
[[Category: Robber Councils|Florence]]
 
[[ro:Sinodul de la Ferrara-Florenţa]]
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