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Maximus the Confessor

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[[Image:Maximus.jpg|right|frame|St. Maximus the Confessor]]Our venerable and God-bearing Father '''Maximus the Confessor''' (ca. 580-662) was an Orthodox Christian [[monasticism|monk]] and [[asceticism|ascetical]] writer known especially for his courageous fight against the [[heresy]] of [[Monothelitism]]. His [[feast day]]s in the Church are celebrated on [[January 21]] and, for the [[Translation (relics)|translation ]] of his [[relics]], on [[August 13]].
==Life==
He was born in the region of Constantinople, was well educated, and spent some time in government service before becoming a [[monk]], having been a member of the old Byzantine aristocracy and holding the post of Imperial Secretary under Emperor [[Heraclius]]. Around 614, he became a monk (later [[abbot]]) at the [[monastery]] of Chrysopolis. During the Persian invasion of the Empire (614), he fled to Africa.
From about 640 on, he became the determined opponent of [[Monothelitism]], the [[heresy|heretical]] teaching that [[Jesus Christ]] had only one will. In this, he followed the example of St. [[Sophronius I of Jerusalem|Sophronius of Jerusalem]], who was the first to combat this heresy starting in 634.
Maximus supported the Orthodoxy of [[Church of Rome|Rome]] on this matter and is said to have exclaimed: "I have the faith of the Latins, but the language of the Greeks." He argued for [[Dyothelitism]], the Orthodox teaching that Jesus Christ possessed two wills (one divine and one human), rather than the one will posited by Monothelitism.
After [[Pyrrhus of Constantinople|Pyrrhus]], the temporarily deposed Monothelite Patriarch of Constantinople, had declared his defeat in a dispute at Carthage (645), Maximus obtained the heresy's condemnation at several local [[synod]]s in Africa, and also worked to have it condemned at the [[Lateran Council|Lateran Council of 649]]. He was brought to Constantinople in 653, pressured to adhere to the ''[[Typos]]'' of Emperor [[Constans II]]. Refusing to do so, he was exiled to Thrace. (Pope St. [[Martin the Confessor|Martin of Rome]] was tried around the same time in Constantinople, and thus deposed and exiled to Crimea.)
In 661 Maximus again was brought to the imperial capital and questioned; while there, he had his tongue uprooted and his right hand cut off (to prevent him from preaching or writing the true faith), and then was again exiled to the Caucasus, but died shortly thereafter.
==Hymns==
[[Image:StMaximConfess.jpg|right|thumb|Maximus the Confessor]]
[[Troparion]] (Tone 8) [http://oca.org/FStropars.asp?ID=100249]
:Champion of Orthodoxy, teacher of purity and of true worship,
*[http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsViewer.asp?FSID=100249 St Maximus the Confessor] ([[OCA]])
*[http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsViewer.asp?FSID=102285 Translation of the relics of St Maximus the Confessor] (OCA)
*[http://www.goarch.org/en/chapel/saints.asp?contentid=/396 Maximos the Confessor], January 21 ([[GOARCH]])*[http://www.goarch.org/en/chapel/saints.asp?contentid=/162 Maximos the Confessor], August 13 (GOARCH)
*[http://www.comeandseeicons.com/m/phn60.htm Icon of St. Maximos the Confessor]
[[Category:Church Fathers]]
[[Category:Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers]]
[[Category:Monastics]]
[[Category:Saints]]
[[Category:Byzantine Saints]]
[[Category:7th-century saints]]
[[ar:مكسيموس المعترف]]
[[fr:Maxime le Confesseur]]
[[mk:Преподобен Максим Исповедник]]
[[ro:Maxim Mărturisitorul]]

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