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In the 20th century, Western Rite Orthodoxy continued:
:The dream of Western Orthodoxy did not die with Overbeck. In 1911, an Old Catholic bishop, Arnold Harris Mathew, entered into a short lived union with the Patriarchate of Antioch, under Metropolitan [[Gerasimos (Messarah) of Beirut]]. Even though this union was short-lived, it provided a model for future Western groups who would seek to return to Orthodoxy...
[[Image:Fon-du-Lac Circus.jpg|left|thumb|300px|The so-called "Fond du Lac Circus" of November 1900 (the consecration of Reginald Weller, co-adjutor bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Fond du Lac). Saint [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon]] is pictured on the far right, with Father Sebastian Dabovich (with the beard and hat), and the clean shaven [[priest]] behind him is Saint [[John Kochurov]] of Chicago, Protomartyr of the Bolshevik Revolution. The famous Anglo-Catholic Bishop of Fond du Lac and close friend of Tikhon, Charles Grafton, is seated on the front row, in the middle.]]
:In 1926, the so-called "Polish Catholic National Church" (headed by Fr. Andrew Huszno) (really no more than six [[parish]]es) was received into the [[Church of Poland|Polish Orthodox Church]]. This group flourished until the Second World War, during which it was wiped out due to Nazi aggression.[http://occidentalis.blogspot.com/2004/09/western-rite-history-part-four.html]
[[Image:Kovalevsky-Maximovitch.jpg|right|thumb|250px|Bp. [[Jean-Nectaire (Kovalevsky) of Saint-Denis]] and St. [[John Maximovitch]] in 1964]]
:''Main article: [[Orthodox Church of France]]''
In 1937, the [[Church of Russia]] received a small group under Louis-Charles (Irénée) Winnaert (1880-1937), under the name ''l'Eglise Orthodoxe Occidentale'' ("Western Orthodox Church"). Winnaert's work was continued, with occaisional conflict, by [[Jean-Nectaire (Kovalevsky) of Saint-Denis|Evgraph Kovalevsky]] (1905-1970) and [[Denis (Chambault)|Lucien Chambault]], the latter of which oversaw a small Orthodox Benedictine community in the rue d'Alleray in Paris. After 1946, Kovalevsky developed the [[Orthodox Church of France|Eglise Orthodoxe de France]] to restore the [[Gallican Rite|Gallican usage]] based on the letters of St. [[Germanus of Paris|Germanus]], a 6th century [[bishop]] of Paris, as well as numerous early Western missals, and sacramentaries. This resulted in the [[Divine Liturgy according to St Germanus of Paris]].
Archimandrite [[Alexis van der Mensbrugghe]] was also associated with them, desiring the restoration of the ancient Roman rite, replacing medieval accretions with Gallican and Byzantine interpolations. Eventually Fr. Alexis was consecrated a bishop of the [[Church of Russia]] episcopacy in 1960, continuing his Western Rite work under the auspices of the Moscow Patriarchate.
==The United States==
[[Image:Alexander Turner2.jpg|right|frame|Fr. [[Alexander Turner]] celebrating the [[Mass]]]]The most successful and stable group of Western Rite parishes originated within the Orthodox Church under Bishop Aftimios in the 1930s as part of the American Orthodox Catholic Church. In 1932, Bp Aftimios consecrated an Episcopalian priest as auxiliary Bishop of Washington and assigned him to the Western Rite parishes. However, in 1934, due to the Bolshevik Revolution which sundered any ethnic unity in America, Bp Aftimios' group was left in canonical limbo.
The Western Rite group, known as the [[Society of Clerks Secular of St. Basil]] (SSB), was founded by the Bishop of Washington, Ignatius Nichols, as a devotional society for clergy and laity based on daily recitation of the Western Breviary. His successor was Alexander Turner. Consecrated a bishop by Nichols in 1939, Turner pastored a small parish in Mount Vernon. After Nichols' repose in 1947, Turner concluded that there was no future for the SSB outside of canonical Orthodoxy. Through Fr Paul Schneirla, he began unofficial dialogue with Metropolitan Antony Bashir. Even before this, Turner had been promoting the Western Rite Orthodox idea through his periodical ''Orthodoxy''. [http://occidentalis.blogspot.com/2004/09/western-rite-history-part-five.html]
In 1961, the Society was received into the Syrian Antiochian Archdiocese on the basis of Metropolitan Antony's 1958 edict. Upon reception, Bishop Alexander Turner became a canonical priest of the Orthodox Church, guiding the group as Vicar-General until his repose in 1971. After his repose, Fr Paul W.S. Schneirla became Vicar-General.
Besides the original communities associated with the Society, a number of other parishes have been received into the Western Rite Vicariate of the Antiochian Archdiocese, particularly as the theological and practical devolution of the [[Episcopal Church U.S.A.]] picked up speed in the latter half of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first. Additionally, several Western Rite missions have been founded, some growing into full parish status.
The [[Church of Russia]] also has a history of Western Rite Orthodox work in the United States. Bishop Dositheus (Ivanchenko) received a New York [[Old Catholic]] community in 1962 as Mount Royal Monastery in Woodstock, NY. The monastery later served a chapel in St. Nicholas Cathedral in New York City under the [[omophorion]] of Archbishop [[John (Wendland) of New York and the Aleutians|John (Wendland)]] of the [[Russian Exarchate of North America]], only later to be received by the [[Russian Orthodox Church Abroad]] and Archbishop Nikon (Rklitzsky) in 1975. In 1993, Abbot Augustine (Whitfield) retired to Jacksonville, Florida. The prior of Mount Royal then founded Christ the Savior Monastery or ''Christminster'' and relocated to Providence, Rhode Island, under Archbishop [[Hilarion (Kapral) of Sydney]], then of Manhattan. Its present abbot is Dom James Deschene.
'''Benedictine Monasteries in the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia'''