The '''Septuagint''' (a name derived from the Latin word for "seventy", also referred to as the '''LXX''') is a 3rd century B.C. translation of the [[Old Testament|Hebrew Scriptures]] into Koine Greek. It is the canonical [[Old Testament]] of the [[Orthodox Church]].
translation of the Septuagint undertaken in Alexandria at the behest of the Egyptian King, Ptolemy, who wished to expand the celebrated library of Alexandria to include the wisdom of all the ancient religions of the world. Because Greek was the language of Alexandria, the Scriptures therefore had to be translated into that language.
The ''Letter of Aristeas'', the oldest known source we have for the origin of the Septuagint, details how Ptolemy contacted the chief priest, Eleazar, in Jerusalem and asked him to send translators. Six were chosen from each of the twelve tribes of Israel, giving us the commonly accepted number of seventy-two. (Other accounts have the number at seventy or seventy-five. ) Only the Torah (the first five books) was translated initially, but eventually other translations (and even compositions) were added to the collection. By the time of our [[Lord]], the Septuagint was the Bible in use by most Hellenistic Jews.
Thus, when the [[Apostles]] quote the Jewish Scripture in their own writings, the overwhelmingly dominant source for their wording comes directly from the Septuagint (LXX). Given that the spread of the [[Gospel]] was most successful among the Gentiles and Hellenistic Jews, it made sense that the LXX would be the Bible for the early Church. Following in the footsteps of those first generations of Christians, the [[Orthodox Church]] continues to regard the LXX as its only canonical text of the [[Old Testament]]. There are a number of differences between the canon of the LXX and that of [[Roman Catholic Church]] and [[Protestantism|Protestant Christians]], based on differences in translation tradition or doctrine.
==Differences with other Christian Canons==
| Sacrifice and offering Thou hast not desired, but a body Thou hast prepared for me... || Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire, mine ears has thou opened...
==Dead Sea Scrolls==
* [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/ New English Translation of the Septuagint]. It has been released at San Diego, November 19, 2007 by Oxford University Press. [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/edition/ Provisional edition] online. This project is being carried out under the aegis of The International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS). An international team of more than thirty scholars is working on the entire corpus of the Greek Jewish Scriptures. It is the first such English version in 160 years. Called the New English Translation of the Septuagint (NETS), the text reflects both the wealth of manuscript evidence that has been brought to light since the 19th century and, of course, current English idiom. (Note however, that this project is using the NRSV(1989) version as its English base of referral).
* "[http://www.orthodox-church.info/eob/ The Eastern Orthodox Bible]" - a new translation rather than a revision of another work, dedicated to the recently reposed Archbishop Vsevolod of the (canonical) Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the USA.
* [http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/pdf/kjvsept.pdf The KJV Septuagint] -
a revision of the KJV text according to the Septuagint from an Orthodox source in the UK. The psalter is linked here.
* [http://www.peterpapoutsis.com/ Peter Papoutsis]'s translation of the Septuagint
*[[Simeon the God-receiver]]
[[el:Μετάφραση των Εβδομήκοντα]]