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Septuagint

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Different Translations of the Septuagint in English
{{OldTestament}}
The '''Septuagint''' (a name derived from the Latin word for "seventy", also referred to as the '''LXX''') is a 3rd century B.C. translation of the [[Old Testament|Hebrew Scriptures]] into [[Koine Greek]]. It is the canonical [[Old Testament]] of the [[Orthodox Church]].
==History==
The translation earliest extant version of the Septuagint undertaken Old Testament is the translation executed in Alexandria at in the behest of third century before the Egyptian King, Ptolemy, who wished to expand Christian era; this version became known as the celebrated library of Alexandria to include the wisdom of all the ancient religions of the world. Because Greek was the language of Alexandria'''Septuagint''' and more recently, the Scriptures therefore had to be translated into that language''Alexandrian'' version.
The ''Letter of Aristeas'', the oldest known source we have for It was commissioned at the origin behest of the SeptuagintEgyptian King, details how Ptolemy contacted the chief priest, Eleazar, in Jerusalem and asked him who wished to send translators. Six were chosen from each expand the celebrated library of Alexandria to include the twelve tribes wisdom of Israel, giving us all the commonly accepted number ancient religions of seventy-two. (Other accounts have the number at seventy or seventy-fiveworld.) Only the Torah (the first five books) Because Greek was translated initially, but eventually other translations (and even compositions) were added to the collection. By the time language of our [[Lord]]Alexandria, the Septuagint was the Bible in use by most Hellenistic JewsScriptures therefore had to be translated into that language.
The earliest writer who gives an account of the Septuagint version is Aristobulus, a Jewish author who lived at the commencement of the second century B.C. In his ''Letter of Aristeas'', he explains that the version of "the Law into Greek" was completed under the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and that Demetrius Phalerus had been employed about it. Since it is documented that Demetrius Phalerus died at the beginning of the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, it has been reasonably inferred that Aristobulus was a witness that the work of translation had been commenced under Ptolemy Soter.  Ptolemy contacted the chief priest, Eleazar, in Jerusalem and asked him to send translators. Six were chosen from each of the twelve tribes of Israel, giving us the commonly accepted number of seventy-two. (Other accounts have the number at seventy or seventy-five.) Only the Torah (the first five books) was translated initially, but eventually other translations (and even compositions) were added to the collection. By the time of our [[Lord]], the Septuagint was the Bible in use by most Hellenistic Jews.  Thus, when the [[Apostles]] quote the Jewish Scripture in their own writings, the overwhelmingly dominant source for their wording comes directly from the Septuagint (LXX). Given that the spread of the [[Gospel]] was most successful among the Gentiles and Hellenistic Jews, it made sense that the LXX would be the Bible for the early Church. Following in the footsteps of those first generations of Christians, the [[Orthodox Church]] continues to regard the LXX as its only canonical text of the [[Old Testament]]. There are a number of differences between the canon of the LXX and that of [[Roman Catholic Church]] and [[Protestantism|Protestant Christians]], based on differences in translation tradition or doctrine.
==Differences with other Christian Canons==
| Sacrifice and offering Thou hast not desired, but a body Thou hast prepared for me... || Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire, mine ears has thou opened...
|}
 
==Different Translations of the Septuagint in English==
The Septuagint has been translated a few times into English, the first one (though excluding the Apocrypha) being that of Charles Thomson in 1808; his translation was later revised and enlarged by C. A. Muses in 1954. The Thomson's Translation of the Old Covenant is a direct translation of the Greek Septuagint version of the Old Testament into English, rare for its time. The work took 19 years to complete and was originally published in 1808.
The Brenton's English Translation of the Septuagint was published in 1851 and for most of the time since its publication it has been the only one readily available, and has continually been in print. There is a translation of the Septuagint based on Brenton's English Translation of the Septuagint, called LXX2012: Septuagint in English 2012 that is being developed by the creator of the World English Bible, Michael Paul Johnson.
The Orthodox Study Bible was released in early 2008 with a new translation of the Septuagint based on the Alfred Rahlfs edition of the Greek text. To this base they brought two additional major sources. First the Brenton translation of the Septuagint from 1851. Second, Thomas Nelson Publishers granted use of the New King James Version text in the places where the translation of the LXX would match that of the Hebrew Masoretic text. This edition includes the New Testament as well, which also uses the New King James Version. It also includes extensive commentary from an Eastern Orthodox perspective.<ref> http://orthodoxstudybible.com/index.html</ref>
The Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bible (EOB) is an extensive revision and correction of Brenton’s translation which was primarily based on Codex Vaticanus. Its language and syntax have been modernized and simplified. It also includes extensive introductory material and footnotes featuring significant inter-LXX and LXX/MT variants.
==Dead Sea Scrolls==
* [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/ New English Translation of the Septuagint]. It has been released at San Diego, November 19, 2007 by Oxford University Press. [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/edition/ Provisional edition] online. This project is being carried out under the aegis of The International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS). An international team of more than thirty scholars is working on the entire corpus of the Greek Jewish Scriptures. It is the first such English version in 160 years. Called the New English Translation of the Septuagint (NETS), the text reflects both the wealth of manuscript evidence that has been brought to light since the 19th century and, of course, current English idiom. (Note however, that this project is using the NRSV(1989) version as its English base of referral).
* "[http://www.orthodox-church.info/eob/ The Eastern Orthodox Bible]" - a new translation rather than a revision of another work, dedicated to the recently reposed Archbishop Vsevolod of the (canonical) Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the USA.
* [http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/pdf/kjvsept.pdf The KJV Septuagint] - a revision translated from the Septuagint edition published by the Orthodox Church of Greece's ''Apostoliki Diakonia'', using the KJV text according King James Version as a template. Scheduled to be published by St. Innocent Press in 2013, this will be the Septuagint from only English translation to date using an Orthodox source in approved ecclesiastical text of the UK. The psalter is linked hereSeptuagint.
* [http://www.peterpapoutsis.com/ Peter Papoutsis]'s translation of the Septuagint
* R. Grant Jones. [http://www.geocities.com/heartland/pines/7224/Rick/Septuagint/spindex.htm Notes on The Septuagint].'''Church Fathers'''<br>* [[Clement of Alexandria]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf02.vi.iv.i.xxii.html Chapter XXII.—On the Greek Translation of the Old Testament].'' In: THE STROMATA (MISCELLANIES), BOOK I.* [[Justin Martyr]]. ''[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.viii.vi.xiii.html Chapter XIII.—History of the Septuagint].'' In: Hortatory Address to the Greeks.
===Institutes===
==See also==
*[[Aristobulus of Paneas]], the earliest write to give an account of the Septuagint version.
*[[Deuterocanon]] (Apocrypha)
*[[Hermeneutics]]
*[[Holy Scripture]]
*[[Simeon the God-receiver]]
*[[Byzantine Creation Era]]
[[Category:Church History]]
[[Category:Scripture]]
[[Category:Texts]]
 
==Further reading==
* H. Orlinsky. ''"The Septuagint and its Hebrew Text."'' In: '''The Cambridge History of Judaism: Vol. II, The Hellenistic Age'''. Eds. W. Davies and L. Finkelstein. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
* Dr. Natalio Fernández Marcos. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=8MbvEZ4bgdwC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint in Context: Introduction to the Greek Versions of the Bible].'' Transl. 2nd revised and expanded Spanish edition, by W. G. E. Watson. Leiden: BRILL, 2000. 394 pp. ISBN 9789004115743
* Prof. Dr. Carsten Peter Thiede. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=q18JiQSnBksC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Jewish Origins of Christianity].'' Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. 256 pp. ISBN 9781403961433 (''See discussion of Septuagint'')
* Prof. Dr. Jennifer Mary Dines. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=Qv8Riv3QIbQC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Septuagint].'' Ed. Michael Anthony Knibb. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004. 196 pp. ISBN 9780567084644
* Prof. Dr. Karen Jobes and Dr. Moises Silva. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=NSt_AAAAMAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s Invitation to the Septuagint].'' 2nd ed. Baker Academic, 2000. 351 pp. ISBN 9780801022357
* Prof. Dr. Tim McLay. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=41rx-TDIF9gC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Use of the Septuagint in New Testament Research].'' Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003. 207 pp. ISBN 9780802860910
* Prof Dr. Wolfgang Kraus, R. Glenn Wooden. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=M-oXuG_2wLIC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s Septuagint Research: Issues and Challenges in the Study of the Greek Jewish Scriptures].'' Society of Biblical Literature, 2006. 414 pp. ISBN 9781589832046
'''Articles'''
* [http://www.israelshamir.net/Biography.htm Israel Adam Shamir]. ''[http://www.israelshamir.net/English/Bible_to_Hebrew.htm Translating the Bible into Hebrew].'' A Talk at Rhodes Conference, 8-12 October 2009.
:(Russian Israeli writer Israel Shamir is a Jewish convert to the Greek Orthodox [[Church of Jerusalem]]. Arguing for the veracity of the Septuagint over the Masoretic text, he states that there is an urgent need for a distinctly Christian [[Old Testament]] in Hebrew; he recommends reconstruction of the Hebrew source of the Septuagint, as a means of witnessing to the Jews today from a truly Christian Hebrew Bible)
* ''[http://www.presstv.ir/detail/158212.html Greek bibles, much older than thought].'' Press TV (Israel). Sat Jan 1, 2011 7:17PM.
: (Cambridge University researchers suggest that early Jewry used a Greek version of the Bible in synagogues much longer than previously thought: ''"Studying a fragment of manuscript kept in Cairo Genizah, a special vaulted room in Cairo's Ben-Ezra Synagogue, the team found that in some places the Jewish community continued to use Greek bibles almost until living memory."'')
[[el:Μετάφραση των Εβδομήκοντα]]
[[ro:Septuaginta]]
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