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Cyril Lucaris

8,283 bytes added, 19:54, October 19, 2013
add info re glorification and feast day; historical assessment section;
Hieromartyr '''Cyrillos Lukaris''' or , also '''Cyril I Lucaris''', '''Cyril Loukaris''' or '''Cyril Lucar''' (1572 &ndash; June 1637) , was a Greek prelate and [[theologian]] and a native of Crete. He later became the was [[Patriarch of Alexandria]] as '''Cyril III''' from 1601 to 1620 and [[Patriarch of Constantinople]] as '''Cyril I'''for five different periods from 1620 until 1638. He was the first great name in the Orthodox Church since after the [[fall of Constantinople ]] in 1453, and dominated its history in the 17th seventeenth century. Although the Calvinist confession attributed to him caused great controversy in the Orthodox Church, Hieromartyr Cyril Lucaris (†1638) was honoured as a Saint and Martyr shortly after his martyric death, and the Venerable Saint Eugenios of [[Metropolis of Aitolia and Akarnania|Aitolia]] (†1682, [[August 5]]) compiled an [[Akolouthia]] (Service) to celebrate his memory. The official [[glorification]] of Hieromartyr Cyril Loukaris took place by decision of the Holy Synod of the [[Church of Alexandria|Patriarchate of Alexandria]] on October 6, 2009, and his memory is commemorated on [[June 27]].<ref name=GRKSYNAX>{{el icon}} ''[http://www.saint.gr/4188/saint.aspx Άγιος Κύριλλος Λούκαρις Πατριάρχης Κωνσταντινουπόλεως].'' Ορθόδοξος Συναξαριστής. 27/06/2013.</ref><ref>''[http://www.patriarchateofalexandria.com/index.php?module=news&action=details&id=373 FIRST DAY OF THE DELIBERATIONS OF THE HOLY SYNOD OF THE ALEXANDRIAN PATRIARCHATE].'' '''Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and All Africa'''. 06/10/2009.</ref>
==Life==
Cyril Lucaris was born in Candia (Heraklion), Crete on [[November 13]], 1572 during the time Crete was occupied by the Venetian Republic. In his early youth he studied under a number of eminent scholars including Maximus Marguius, Bishop of Kythira. For his later education he traveled through Europe, studying studied at Venice and , Padua, and at Geneva where . In Geneva, he came under the influence of the reformed faith as represented by [[John Calvin]]. He developed a great antipathy toward [[Roman Catholic]]ism after he had pursued theological studies in Venice, Padua, Wittenberg, and Geneva. In addition to being fluent in Greek, he learned Latin thoroughly during his student days.  He was [[ordination|ordained]] a [[deacon]] in 1593, when he was 21 years old and, later, was ordained a [[priest]] by Patriarch [[Meletius I Pegas of Alexandria|Meletius Pegas]], Patriarch of Alexandria. Patr. Meletius Pegas sent Cyril to Poland in 1596 to lead the opposition by the Orthodox to the [[Union of Brest]] that proposed a union of Kiev with Rome. During this time, he was a professor at the Orthodox academy in Vilnus, now the capital of Lithuania. In 1602 1601, he was elected Patriarch of Alexandria, succeeding Patr. Meletius Pegas, a position he filled with dedication for nineteen years. During this time he re-organized the finances of the patriarchate and repaired churches in 1621 addition to preaching and maintaining constant correspondence with the Patriarch of ConstantinopleJerusalem and Cyprus.
Due to Turkish oppression combined with In 1612, he was [[Locum tenens|locum tenens]] of the prosyletization Church of the Orthodox faithful by Jesuit Constantinople for a short time. On [[missionary|missionariesNovember 4]], there was a shortage of schools which taught 1620, the Orthodox faith and Greek language. [[Roman Catholic|CatholicHoly Synod]] schools were set up and Catholic churches were built next of Constantinople elected Cyril Patriarch of Constantinople. His patriarchate was broken into five different periods: 1620 to 1623, 1623 to 1633, 1633 to Orthodox ones; since Orthodox priests were in short supply something had 1634, 1634 to be done. Due 1635, and 1637 to good relations with the Anglicans1638, in 1677 Bishop Henry Compton of London built a church for by intrigues involving the Greek Orthodox in London but in 1682 the Greek Orthodox Church in London closed. But in 1694 renewed sympathy for the Greeks drew up plans for Worcester Collegepapacy, reformists, Oxford (then Gloucester Hall)Jesuits, and the Ottoman sultan that included schemes against Cyril to become discredit him by spreading rumors he was a college for Calvinist. After each [[deposition]], Patr. Cyril was re-elected by the [[clergy]] supported by the Greeks, but these plans never came to fruitionOrthodox population.
It is alleged that the great aim of his life was to reform the Church on [[Calvinism|Calvinistic]] lines, and to this end he sent many young Greek theologians to the universities of Switzerland, the northern Netherlands and England. In 1753 1629, his famous ''Confessio'' (Calvinistic in doctrine) was published in Latin, but as far as possible accommodated to the Patriarch Cyril Lukaris opened a school language and creeds of thought called the Orthodox Church. From 1629 to 1633, it appeared in two Latin editions, four French, one German and one English. The "AthoniadaConfession" at started a controversy in the Eastern Church which culminated in 1672 in the convocation by [[Mount AthosDositheus II Notarius of Jerusalem|Dositheus]], but [[Patriarch of Jerusalem]], of a [[synod]] by which the Orthodox Calvinistic doctrines were condemned. Since then, eminent historians, theologians, and Catholics insisted researchers have attempted to clarify whether Cyril Lucaris was the actual author of the "Confession" attributed by the Turkish authorities that this should be closedCalvinists to him. In 1759 While Cyril denied it verbally a number of times and proclaimed his Orthodox faith in his letters as well by his attitude, he did not disavow the Athos School was closed"Confession" in writing. The next option was orthodoxy of Cyril Lucaris himself has continued to send students abroad to studybe a matter of debate in the Eastern Church. Even Dositheus, in view of the reputation of the great patriarch, as long as thought it was not Catholic thought. The Calvinists were appealing because their beliefs were very similar expedient to Orthodox onesgloss over his [[heterodoxy]] in the interests of the Church.
It is alleged that Cyril was also particularly well disposed towards the great aim of Anglican Church, and his life was to reform correspondence with the Church on [[CalvinismArchbishop of Canterbury|CalvinisticArchbishops of Canterbury]] linesis extremely interesting. Through his contacts with the Church of England, and to this end he sent many also set up a program of sending young Greek theologians Greeks to England to study. Among these students was the universities of Switzerlandyouth from Macedonia, the northern Netherlands and England. In 1629 he published his famous ''Confessio'' [[Metrophanes (Calvinistic in doctrineKritopoulos), but as far as possible accommodated to the language of Alexandria|Metrophanes Kritopoulos]] who later would become Patriarch of Alexandria. Both Cyril and creeds Metrophanes were lovers of the Orthodox Church. It appeared the same year in two Latin editions, four French, one German books and one Englishmanuscripts, and in acquired manuscripts that today adorn the Eastern Church started Patriarchal Library. Cyril also presented King James I of England with a controversy which culminated in 1691 in fine manuscript of the convocation by Holy Bible, known as [[Dositheos II of Jerusalem|DositheosCodex Alexandrinus]], . He also sent a manuscript of the [[Patriarch of JerusalemPentateuch]], with Arabic translation, to Laud, Archbishop of a [[synod]] by which the Calvinistic doctrines were condemnedCanterbury.
===Martyrdom===While Cyril was also particularly well disposed towards several times [[deposition|deposed]] temporarily and banished at the instigation of his orthodox opponents and of the Anglican [[w:Society of Jesus|Jesuit]]s, who were his bitterest enemies, his death came suddenly. According to Professor Christos Patrinellis:<blockquote>"The Catholic Churchused all its religious and political influence to destroy this "son of darkness": the [[w:Society of Jesus|Jesuits]] and [[w:Order of Friars Minor Capuchin|Capuchins]] of Constantinople, the French and his correspondence with Austrian ambassadors, the newly constituted [[Archbishop w:Congregation for the Evangelization of CanterburyPeoples|Propaganda Fidei]], Pope [[w:Pope Urban VIII|Archbishops Urban VIII]] himself and even [[w:Louis XIII of CanterburyFrance|Louis XIII]] and the powerful [[w:Cardinal Richelieu|Cardinal Richelieu]] is extremely interesting. It Almost any means of attacking Loukaris were regarded as legitimate because the motive was "sacred": these included threats and violence, bribing Turkish officials and pro-Catholic clerics in the circle of his time successor Cyril Kontares, forging texts incriminating Loukaris, and claiming that Mitrophanis Kritopoulos—later the patriarch was inciting foreign powers against the Ottoman Empire. The Austrian Embassy planned Loukaris' assasination or his abduction to become Patriarch of Alexandria Italy and delivered to the [[w:Holy Inquisition|Holy Inquisition]]. Eventually the Austrian ambassador and Kontares persuaded the [[w:Sublime Porte|Sublime Porte]] to eliminate the patriarch and he was strangled on [[June 27]], 1638."<ref>Patrinelis, Christos (1636-16391975a)—was sent to England to study. Both Lucaris and Kritopoulos were lovers ''"Antagonismos ton ideon Metarrythmiseos kai Antimetarrythmiseos" [Conflict between the Ideas of books Reform and manuscriptsCounterreform].'' In: '''Istoria tou Ellinikou Ethnous.''' 1, 130. Athens: Ekdotiki Athinon.<br>:* In: [[Christos Yannaras]]. ''Orthodoxy and acquired manuscripts that today adorn the Patriarchal LibraryWest: Hellenic Self-Identity in the Modern Age. '' Transl. Peter Chamberas and Norman Russell. Brookline: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 2006. p. 79.</ref><ref group="note">{{el icon}} "Στις 27 Ιουνίου του 1638 Λατίνοι και εβραίοι εξαγόρασαν με 4.000 τάλληρα τον Μέγα Βεζύρη Βαϊράμ Πασά και με διαταγή του συνελήφθη και εξετελέσθη ο Κύριλλος Λούκαρις με την κατηγορία ότι προπαρασκεύαζε εθνική επανάσταση των Ελλήνων με την βοήθεια των Ορθοδόξων Κοζάκων."<br>:(<small>''[http://alithislogos.blogspot.ca/2009/07/blog-post.html Κύριλλος Λούκαρις].'' '''ΑΛΗΘΗΣ ΛΟΓΟΣ'''. JULY 5, 2009.)</small></ref></blockquote>
Lucaris was several times temporarily deposed and banished at the instigation of his orthodox opponents and of the [[Jesuit]]s, who were his bitterest enemies. FinallyThus, when the Ottoman Sultan Murad III IV was about to set out for the Persian War, the [[patriarch ]] was accused of a design to stir up the Cossacks, . and to avoid trouble during his absence the sultan Sultan had him killed Cyril strangled by the Janissaries on [[JanissariesJune 27]] in June 1637, 1638. His body was thrown into the sea, Bosporus and was later recovered and after being washed ashore on Halki Island. His body was buried at a distance from the capital Monastery of Panagia Kamariotissa on Halki by his friends, and only brought back to Constantinople after many yearsPatr. Parthenius I.
The orthodoxy ==Historical Assessment==According to Archbishop Chrysostomos of Lucaris himself continued Etna:<blockquote>"Despite Western references to be a matter of debate Patriarch Kyrillos’ wide contacts with the Reformers, he is in fact most famous in the Orthodox world for his anti-Papist stand against the Uniate menace and for his opposition to Jesuit missions in Eastern Europe. His contacts in Eastern ChurchEurope, where he studied, served, and traveled, were extensive. His opposition to Uniate Catholicism after the Brzeesc-Litewski Treaty of 1596 was so strong and widespread, that his so-called "Confession," whatever its true source, even Dositheosis a mere footnote to his struggle against Papism. It was THIS anti-Latin Loukaris who supported Protestant opposition to Papism, who perhaps allowed his views to be restated and published by his Calvinist contacts in view of Geneva, and who earned the reputation enduring hatred of the great patriarchPapacy, which has played an essential role — if one reads the intellectual history surrounding this issue — in perpetuating the idea that the "Confessio" was the direct work of Kyrillos and that he was a Protestant in his thinking it expedient to gloss over his ."<ref>Archbishop Chrysostomos of Etna. ''[[heterodoxy]] in the interests http://orthodoxinfo.com/inquirers/ca4_loukaris.aspx The Myth of the Church"Calvinist Patriarch"].'' '''Orthodox Christian Information Center'''. Retrieved 19 October 2013.</ref></blockquote>
In addition, according to professor [[w:Dionysios Zakythinos|Dionysios Zakythinós]]:
<blockquote>"in the bold policy of this Patriarch...we find mixed and mingled many of the conflicting trends which distracted the Greek community of the seventeenth century with a multitude of warring influences — conservatism against reform; Orthodox mysticism against the materialistic rationalism of the West; traditional Byzantinism against the emerging spirit of the new Greece. Buffeted between the Ottoman authorities on the one side and the Western powers on the other, battling against the infiltration of Roman Catholicism, Cyril Loukaris gave his own original reply to the problem of relations between Orthodoxy and Western Christianity. In doing so he 'crystallized and translated into action the confused aspirations of a Greece which was just beginning to collect its thoughts with a view to making contact with Western civilization.' His attempted reform of the clergy, his introduction of a calendar dated from the Nativity of Christ in place of the old Byzantine chronology dated from the Creation, the establishment by Nicodemus Metaxas, at Constantinople, of the first Greek press in the East (1627), the translation of the New Testament into popular Greek (Geneva, 1638) 'are works of mark, witnessing to the breadth of view and the bold initiative of this great reformer'."<ref>[[w:Dionysios Zakythinos|D.A. Zakythinós]] (Professor). ''The Making of Modern Greece: From Byzantium to Independence.'' Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1976. pp. 145-146. ISBN 9780631153603</ref></blockquote>
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{{succession|
before=[[Meletios Meletius I Pegas of Alexandria|Meletios Meletius I]]|
title=[[List of Patriarchs of Alexandria|Patriarch of Alexandria]]|
years=1601-1620|
after=[[Gerassimos Gerasimus I of Alexandria|Gerassimos Gerassimus I]]|}}{{succession|before=[[Neophytus II of Constantinople|Neophytus II]]|title=[[List of Patriarchs of Constantinople|Patriarch of Constantinople]]<br>locus tenens|years= 1612-1612|after=[[Timothy II of Constantinople|Timothy II]]}}
{{succession|
before=[[Neophytus I Timothy II|title=Patriarch of Constantinople|Neophytus I]]<br>years=1620-1623|after=[[Timothy II Gregory IV of Constantinople|TimotheusGregory IV]]<br>}}{{succession|before=[[Anthimus II of Constantinople|Anthimus II]]<br>|title=Patriarch of Constantinople|years=1623-1633|after=[[Cyril II of Constantinople|Cyril II Kontares]]<br>}}{{succession|before=Cyril II Kontares|title=Patriarch of Constantinople|years=1633-1634|after=[[Athanasius III of Constantinople|Athanasius III Patelaros]]<br>[[Neophytus III of Constantinople}}{{succession|Neophytus before=Athanasius III]]Patelaros|title=[[List of Patriarchs of Constantinople|Patriarch of Constantinople]]|years=1612<br>1620-1623<br>1623-1633<br>1633-1634<br>1634-1635<br>1637-1638|after=[[Timothy II of Constantinople|Timotheus]]<br>[[Gregory IV of Constantinople|Gregory IV]]<br>[[Cyril II of ConstantinopleKontares}}{{succession|Cyril II Kontares]]<br>before=[[Athanasius Neophytus III of Constantinople|Athanasius Neophytus III Patelaros]]<br>[[Cyril II |title=Patriarch of Constantinople|Cyril II Kontares]]<br>[[Cyril II of Constantinopleyears=1637-1638|after=Cyril II Kontares]]|}}
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==See also==
*[[Anglican Communion]]*[[Western Rite]] ==Notes==<references group="note" /> ==References== <div><references/></div>
==Sources==
*[http://www.ec-patr.org/list/index.php?lang=en&id=202 Ec-patr: Cyril Lucarius] - [[Church of Constantinople]] website
*[[w:Cyril_Lucaris|''Cyril Lucaris'' at Wikipedia]]
*This article incorporates text from the 1911 ''Encyclopædia Britannica'', which is in the public domain (see also [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9049229/Cyril-Lucaris entry] in the latest online edition of ''Encyclopædia Britannica'').
*[http://anglicanhistory.org/orthodoxy/germanos1929.html Progress Towards the Re-Union of the Orthodox and Anglican Churches] by the Most Rev. Archbishop Germanos, Metropolitan of Thyatira
*[http://anglicanhistory.org/orthodoxy/jad_germanos1929.html Archbishop Germanos on Anglicanism] by Canon J. A. Douglas, Ph.D. (a response to the above "Progress Towards the Re-Union of the Orthodox and Anglican Churches"
*[http://www.ec-patr.org/list/index.php?lang=en&id=202 Cyril I Lucaris] - [[Church of Constantinople]] website
===Writings===
[[Category:Bishops]]
[[Category:17th-century bishops]]
[[Category:Patriarchs of Alexandria]]
[[Category:Patriarchs of Constantinople]]
 
[[ro:Chiril Lucaris]]
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