→1935-1946: Reintegration: Updated two links to oca.org.
==Prologue: Contrasts and Stereotypes==
Numerous stereotypes exist regarding the ROCOR and the OCA. The ROCOR is monarchist ("white"), while the OCA is associated with Russian Communism ("red"). The OCA is modernist, but the ROCOR is traditionalist. The ROCOR is "Great Russian," while the OCA is "Little Russian." These stereotypes have their origins in the history of Russian Orthodoxy in the West, a history which
is, like much of the history of the Russians, complex and often sad.
The beginnings of the OCA and the ROCOR as distinct from the Church of Russia are in the early 20th century Soviet takeover of the Russian state. When the monarchy in Russia fell and the Church of Russia began being persecuted, a group of Russian [[bishop]]s fled from northern Russia, joining with some in the southern portion of the country and organizing themselves via meetings in Constantinople and Serbia. These came to be known as the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia.
However, on the OCA website in the section regarding the [[All-American Sobor#Sixth All-American Sobor|6th All-American Sobor]] of 1937 in New York, the claim is made that the ROCOR actually was made part of the Metropolia, confirming a 1935 agreement made in Serbia between the Metropolia's primate and the ROCOR synod:
:Moreover, Metropolitan THEOPHILUS had traveled to Serbia where, under the leadership of the Serbian Patriarch, an agreement was signed by the leading hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia (ROCOR) along with other exiled Russian hierarchs throughout the world forging a peaceful coexistence. Under this agreement, the American Church was to retain her administrative autonomy while maintaining close relations with the ROCOR Synod and being accountable to it only in matters of faith. The parallel jurisdictions of the Metropolia and ROCOR were thus eliminated and the four ROCOR hierarchs in North America along with their clergy and parishes were integrated into the Metropolia. The vote of the Sixth Sobor on this loose affiliation with the ROCOR was as follows: 105 for, 9 against, 122 abstentions. The large number of abstentions reveals that there was much apprehension on this issue at the council. However, in approving the matter, the council delegates showed respect and obedience to Metropolitan THEOPHILUS' primatial leadership.[http://
www.oca.org/ doc- aas- 06- synopsis.asp?SID=8]
The website then goes on to describe this "integration" as merely a "loose affiliation," which seems to contradict the notion that the two bodies were truly integrated, eliminating "parallel jurisdictions" and making the Metropolia accountable to the ROCOR in matters of faith. On another portion of the website, regarding the [[All-American Sobor#Seventh All-American Sobor|7th All-American Sobor]] in 1946, the relationship then being severed with the ROCOR is described as having been a "temporary arrangement"[http://
www.oca.org/ doc- aas- 07- synopsis.asp?SID=8].
The nature of the association between the Metropolia and the ROCOR is characterized quite differently by ROCOR writers:
At the same time that the [[Church of Russia]] was about to declare the autocephaly of the Metropolia, it announced that it was going to begin communing [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholics]]. Vladimir Moss, a former ROCOR layman, writes in his ''[http://uk.geocities.com/guildfordian2002/History/OrthodoxChurch20thCenturyP1.htm The Orthodox Church in the Twentieth Century]'':
:...in October, 1969, Metropolitan Nicodemus gave communion to Catholic students in the Russicum in Rome. This was followed, on December 16, by a decision of the Russian Holy Synod to give permission to Orthodox clergy to administer the sacraments to Old Believers and Catholics... The decision of the Moscow Patriarchate to give communion to Catholics put the other Russian jurisdiction in North America, the Metropolia, into a difficult position; for in the early 1960s the Metropolia (a body in schism from the ROCA since 1946) had been, through Fathers John Meyendorff and Alexander Schmemann, among the most conservative participants in the ecumenical movement.[http://uk.geocities.com/guildfordian2002/History/OrthodoxChurch20thCenturyP3.htm]
He further writes that the autocephaly about to be received from Moscow was part of a secret deal between the Metropolia and Moscow, and that the price of the Metropolia's autocephaly was to be the newly revitalized [[Church of Japan]]:
As the ROCOR protested the action of the Moscow Patriarchate, the OCA began distributing reports regarding the ROCOR denying that the Metropolia had ever been a part of it, that the ROCOR was "uncanonical," and that it should be avoided by OCA faithful. The OCA was joined in this effort by Abp. [[Iakovos (Coucouzis) of America|Iakovos (Coucouzis)]] of the [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek Archdiocese]], whose [[ecumenism|ecumenical]] activities in the 1960s and 1970s had seen the departure of some of his scandalized clergy to the Church Abroad, including the whole of [[Holy Transfiguration Monastery (Brookline, Massachusetts)|Holy Transfiguration Monastery]] in Brookline, Massachusetts. Up to that point, the Greek Archdiocese had been in [[full communion]] with the ROCOR.
[[Image:St Basil Simpson.jpg|right|thumb|200px|St. Basil the Great Russian Orthodox Church (Simpson, PA), which has been in the [[Church of Russia|MP]], the [[OCA]], and the [[ROCOR]].]]
==Early 1980s: The OCA Calendar Schism==
In 1982, Bishop [[Herman (Swaiko) of Washington and New York|Herman (Swaiko) of Philadelphia]], the OCA's bishop for Eastern Pennsylvania, decreed that all of his parishes would begin using the [[Revised Julian Calendar]]. Some were already using it, but others had been using the [[Julian Calendar]] steadily up to that point.
Since the election of Metropolitan [[Laurus (Skurla) of New York]] as First Hierarch of the ROCOR and that body's subsequent ongoing rapprochement with Moscow, signs have appeared of better relations between the OCA and ROCOR. Seminarians studying at OCA seminaries have attended retreats at the ROCOR's [[Holy Trinity Orthodox Seminary (Jordanville, New York)]], and ROCOR seminarians have also participated in [[OISM]] events at OCA seminaries. The first member of the OCA to study at Holy Trinity Seminary, Vitaly Efimenkov, graduated in 2002. It is also worth noting that several graduates of Holy Trinity Seminary, upon receiving their Bachelor of Theology, went on to receive Masters Degrees from [[St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary (Crestwood, New York)|St. Vladimir's Seminary]]. The most recent graduate of both Holy Trinity and St. Vladimir's is Andrei Psarev, instructor of Russian Church History at Holy Trinity.
Warmly worded letters from the OCA hierarchy have also been sent to the ROCOR hierarchy.[http://www.oca.org/Docs.asp?ID=49&SID=12] Further, pilgrims from the ROCOR have visited the OCA [[metochion]] in Moscow [http://www.st-catherine.ru/en/news/0118.htm] and Metropolitan Laurus has received representatives of the OCA for informal discussions.[http://www.st-catherine.ru/en/news/0113.htm] Additionally, the OCA's chancellor and one of its senior priests have attended a banquet at a ROCOR clergy conference.[http://www.orthodoxnews.netfirms.com/53/OCA%20Chancellor.htm]
==Timeline of Parish and Monastery Transfers==
| St. Stephen (Old Forge, PA)
*FitzGerald, Thomas E. ''The Orthodox Church''. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1998.
*Lebedeff, Fr. Alexander. [http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/general/amer_jur.aspx Orthodox Jurisdictions in America]
*Liberovsky, Alexis. [http://
www.oca.org/ doc- aas- 04- synopsis.asp?SID=8 Synopsis of the 4th All-American Sobor] (1924)*Liberovsky, Alexis. [http:// www.oca.org/ doc- aas- 05- synopsis.asp?SID=8 Synopsis of the 5th All-American Sobor] (1934)*Liberovsky, Alexis. [http:// www.oca.org/ doc- aas- 06- synopsis.asp?SID=8 Synopsis of the 6th All-American Sobor] (1937)*Liberovsky, Alexis. [http:// www.oca.org/ doc- aas- 07- synopsis.asp?SID=8 Synopsis of the 7th All-American Sobor] (1946)*Liberovsky, Alexis. [http:// www.oca.org/ DOC- AAC- 05- synopsis.asp?SID=12 Synopsis of the 5th All-American Council] (1977)*Matusiak, Fr. John. [http:// www.oca.org/ QA.asp?ID=49&SID=3 Q&A: OCA and ROCOR] *Matusiak, Fr. John. [http:// www.oca.org/ QA.asp?ID=50&SID=3 Q&A: Russian Orthodox Church in America]
*Maximovitch, St. John. [http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ecumenism/roca_history.aspx History of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad] (from ''The Orthodox Word'', 1971)
*Moss, Vladimir. [http://uk.geocities.com/guildfordian2002/History/OrthodoxChurch20thCenturyP1.htm ''The Orthodox Church in the Twentieth Century'']
*[[Andrew Phillips|Phillips, Fr. Andrew]]. [http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/ruedaru.htm The Last Days of Rue Daru?], 2005
*Rodzianko, M. [http://www.monasterypress.com/anonftp/pub/Rocatruth.pdf ''The Truth About the Russian Church Abroad''], 1954 (tr. 1975)
*Stokoe, Mark and Kishkovsky, Fr. Leonid. [http://
www.oca.org/ MVorthchristiansnamericaTOC.asp?SID=1 ''Orthodox Christians in North America 1794 - 1994'']
*Surrency, Archim. Serafim. ''The Quest for Orthodox Church Unity in America'', 1973
*Woerl, Michael. [http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ecumenism/bookrev_woerl.aspx Book Review: A History of the Orthodox Church in America (1917-1934)]
*[http://www.ssppoc.org/news_071210_1.html ROCOR hierarch served Divine Liturgy in an OCA parish] first since the time of the Cleveland Sobor of 1946.
www.oca.org/ QA.asp?ID=49&SID=3 Q&A: OCA and ROCOR] *[http:// www.oca.org/QA.asp?ID=50&SID=3 Q&A: Russian Orthodox Church in America]*[http:// www.oca.org/ Docs.asp?ID=170&SID=12 ROCOR/MP Reconciliation], Fr. Leonid Kishkovsky
*[http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/general/amer_jur.aspx Orthodox Jurisdictions in America], by Fr. Alexander Lebedeff
*[http://www.russianorthodoxchurch.ws/english/pages/history/briefhistory.html A Brief History of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia, 1922-1972], by Protopriest Sergii Shchukin