In the Romanian language it is most often known as '''Ortodoxie''', but is also sometimes known as '''Dreapta credinţă''' ("right/correct belief"—compare to Greek ''ορθοδοξια'', "straight/correct belief"). Orthodox believers are also known as '''ortodocşi''', '''dreptcredincioşi''' or '''dreptmăritori creştini'''.
The [[primate]] is His Beatitude [[Daniel (Ciobotea) of Romania|Daniel (Ciobotea)]], Archbishop of Bucharest, Metropolitan of Ungro-Vlachia, and Patriarch of All Romania, ''[[Locum Tenens]]'' of Caesarea in Cappadocia.
Most historians, however, hold that Christianity was brought to Romania by the occupying Romans. The Roman province had traces of all imperial religions, including Mithraism, but Christianity, a ''religio illicita'', existed among some of the Romans.
The Roman Empire soon found it was too costly to maintain a permanent garrison north of the lower Danube. As a whole, from 106 AD a permanent military and administrative Roman presence was registered only until 276 AD. (In comparison, Britain was militarily occupied by Romans for more than six centuries—and English is certainly not a Romance language, while the Church of England had no Archbishop before the times of Pope St. [[Gregory the Dialogist|Gregory the Great]].) Clearly, Dacians must have been favored linguistically and religiously by some unique ethnological features, so that after only 169 years of an anemic military occupation they emerged as a major Romance people, strongly represented religiously at the first [[Ecumenical Councils]], as the Ante-Nicene Fathers duly recorded.
When the Romanians formed as a people, it is quite clear that they already had the Christian faith, as proved by tradition, as well as by some interesting archeological and linguistic evidence. Basic terms of Christianity are of Latin origin: such as ''church'' (''biserică'' from ''basilica''), ''God'' (''Dumnezeu'' from ''Domine Deus''), ''Pascha'' (''Paşti'' from ''Paschae''), ''Pagan'' (''Păgân'' from ''Paganus''), ''Angel'' (''Înger'' from ''Angelus''). Some of them (especially ''Biserică'') are unique to Orthodoxy as it is found in Romania.
However, important Romanian language translations certainly circulated, including the ''Codicele Voroneţean'' (the Codex of Voroneţ). The Bucharest Bible (''Biblia de la Bucureşti'') was the first complete Romanian translation of the [[Holy Scripture|Bible]] in the late 17th century. It was published in 1688 during the reign of Şerban Cantacuzino in Wallachia and is considered a mature and highly developed work.
Its cultural import is not unlike that of the [[
Authorized Version|King James Version]] for the English language. This could not have been achieved without much previous (and perhaps as yet unknown) anonymous translation work. For this, a wealth of Byzantine manuscripts, brought north of the Danube in the "Byzance after Byzance" movement described by famous historian Nicolae Iorga is an outstanding proof.
After this time, the importance of Church Slavonic and Greek in the Church of Romania began to fade. 1736 was the year when the last Slavonic liturgy was published in Wallachia, but only in 1863 did Romanian become officially the only language of the Romanian church.
*[http://www.geocities.com/pr_razvan_ionescu/index_i.htm On Science and Faith: Romanian Orthodox Reflections] (in Romanian, French, and English)
*[http://www.ortho-logia.com/ OrthoLogia]: Jurnal de apologetica Ortodoxa
* [http://www.cnewa.org/ecc-bodypg.aspx?eccpageID=19&IndexView=toc Eastern Christian Churches: The Orthodox Church of Romania] by Ronald Roberson, a Roman Catholic priest and scholar
*[[:Wikipedia:Romanian Orthodox Church|"Romanian Orthodox Church" at Wikipedia]]
[[es:Iglesia Ortodoxa de Rumania]]
[[ro:Biserica Ortodoxă Română]]