Leo III's son, [[Constantine V]] (reigned 741–775), was once challenged by a general who used iconophilic ("icon-favoring") propaganda, but his military success against this threat cemented his own position.
The first iconoclastic period came to an end when [[Leo IV the Khazar|Leo IV]] (Constantine V's son) died and his widow, Empress [[Irene of Athens|Irene]], came into power. An [[Iconodule|iconophile]], she initiated the [[Second Council of
Nicaea]] in 787, at which the veneration of icons was affirmed, although the worship of icons was expressly forbidden. Among the reasons were the doctrine of the [[Incarnation]]: because God the Son (Jesus Christ) took on flesh, having a physical appearance, it is now possible to use physical matter to depict God the Son and to depict the saints. Icon veneration lasted through the reign of Empress Irene's successor, Nicephorus I (reigned 802-811), and the two brief reigns after his.
== The second iconoclastic period: 813-843 ==
*[[Wikipedia:Iconoclasm|''Iconoclasm'' at Wikipedia]]