whoops! got my council numbers confused!!
The [[First Ecumenical Council|first]] and [[
Second Ecumenical Council| second]] ecumenical councils established that Arianism and Nestorianism were heresies and excommunicated the principals, Arian and Nestorius. The excommunication and exile of Nestorius was greatly influence by the Empress [[Pulcheria the Empress|Pulcheria]], the older sister of Emperor Theodosius II, In 441, Theodosius, under the influence of the eunuch Chrysaphius, was convinced to dismiss his sister. Theodosius then began to support the Monophysite error that was promoted by the [[archimandrite]] Eutyches and Dioscorus, an error that Christ not only had one personality but also only one nature.
Domnus, Patriarch of Antioch, was the first to note this error by Eutyches. In November 448, Flavian, the Patriarch of Constantinople, convened a council in Constantinople during which a formal accusation of Eutyches’ error was made against him by Eusebius, [[Bishop]] of Dorylaeum (Phrygia). After hearing Eutyches, the council deposed and excommunicated Eutyches for refusing to admit two natures in Christ after the incarnation.
The '''Second Council of Ephesus''', as this council is also called, was convened by Emperor Theodosius II under the presidency of Dioscorus. Extant records of sessions read and recorded at the [[
Third Ecumenical Council|Council of Chalcedon]] in 451 and in a Syriac translation by a Monophysite monk provide a record of the council proceedings. The council was dominated by Theodosius, Dioscorus, and monophysitic supporters. Flavian and six bishops, who were present at the 448 council, were not allowed to sit as judges in the council. Dioscorus ignored the Roman legates and did not read the letter from Pope Leo, but he read a letter from Theodosius that directed the presence of a anti-Nestorian monk, Barsumas. Eutyches declared, after have been given the floor, that he held the faith of Nicene and Ephesus and that he was condemned by Flavian for a slip of the tongue, but he still stated the one nature of Christ. Attempts to present a case by the accuser of Eutyches, Bishop Eusebius of Dorylaeum, were refused, as well as by Flavian. Eutyches objected to attempts to read Leo’s letter, while a petition from Eutyches’ monastery, in his favor, was read. In the end Eutyches was declared orthodox and reinstated to his [[priest]]ly office.
Flavian was deposed and exiled, soon to die of ill-treatment, and was succeeded by Anatolius, a [[deacon]] loyal to Dioscurus. Eusebius was also deposed. The council under Dioscurus then continued on to depose many bishops who had opposed him.