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Bishop

4,509 bytes added, 00:57, October 18, 2010
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very minor edit: changed "his Holy Spirit" to "the Holy Spirit". Paired with "his people" and "his Church", "his Holy Spirit" makes the Spirit sound like an attribute or subordinate of Christ
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The '''bishop''' is the first and highest degree of the [[clergy]] in the [[Orthodox Church]] (Επίσκοπος επίσκοπος or ''episkopos'' in Greek, which means overseer). He is the successor to the Apostles in the service and government of the Church. The bishop thus serves εις τόπον και τύπον Χριστού (in place and as a type of Christ) in the Church. A '''ruling bishop''', is responsible for and the head of all the [[parish]]es located in his [[diocese]]. All authority of the lower orders of clergy is derived from the bishop. No divine services may be served in any Orthodox temple without the authorization of a bishop. Saint Ignatius the God-bearer of Antioch went so far as to state that "he who acts without the bishop's knowledge is in the devil's service".
<!--- == Episcopal Ministry ministry== --->A bishop is the [[Apostolic succession|successor]] to the [[Apostles]] in the service and government of the Church. The bishop thus serves εις τόπον και τύπον Χριστού (in place and as a type of Christ) in the Church. No bishop in Orthodoxy is considered infallible. None has any authority over or apart from his priests, deacons, and people or the other bishops. They have the responsibility of maintaining the unity of the Church throughout the world by insuring the truth and unity of the faith and practice of their diocese. The bishop represent his particular diocese to the other churches or dioceses, and represents the Universal Church to his own particular [[priest]]s, [[deacon]]s, and people.
== Rankings According to [[Canon law|Church Law]], bishops of Bishops ==an area must meet in [[council]]s. When doing so, the metropolitan or patriarchate presides administratively.
Sacramentally==Male monastics only==In the Orthodox Church, all from about the sixth century, it has been the rule that bishops are equalsingle men or widowers. Bishops are also usually in at least the first degree of [[monastic]] orders. ==Holy orders==It is the belief of Orthodoxy that [[Christ]] is the only priest, pastor, and teacher of the Christian Church. He alone forgives sins and offers communion with [[God]], his [[God the Father|Father]]. Christ alone guides and rules his people. Christ remains with his Church as its living and unique head. Christ remains present and active in the Church through the [[Holy Spirit]]. Through the [[sacrament]] of [[Ordination|holy orders]] bishops give order to the Church. NeverthelessBishops guarantee the continuity and unity of the Church from age to age and from place to place, there that is, from the time of Christ and the apostles until the establishment of God's Kingdom in eternity. Bishops receive the gift of the Holy Spirit to manifest Christ in the Spirit to men. Bishops are distinctions neither vicars, substitutes, nor representatives of Christ. It is Christ, through his chosen ministers, who acts as teacher, good shepherd, forgiver, and healer. It is Christ remitting sins, and curing the physical, mental, and spiritual ills of administrative rank among bishopsmankind. This is a mystery of the Church.
==Ruling bishop= =A '''ruling bishop''' or '''diocesan bishop''Diocesan Bishops'is responsible for and the head of all the [[parish]]es located in his a particular geographical territory, called a [[diocese]] or [[archdiocese]]. All authority of the lower orders of clergy is derived from the bishop. No divine services may be served in any Orthodox temple without the authorization of a bishop. Saint [[Ignatius of Antioch|Ignatius the God-bearer of Antioch]] went so far as to state that "he who acts without the bishop' ===s knowledge is in the devil's service."
A bishop who governs his own [[diocese]] or [[archdiocese]] is a diocesan bishop. He may be called ''Bishop'' or ''Archbishop'' or ''Metropolitan'' or ''Metropolitan Archbishop'' or ''Patriarch''.
=== Patriarchs =Rankings of bishops==Sacramentally, all bishops are equal. Nevertheless, there are distinctions of administrative rank among bishops.
The title [[patriarch]] is reserved for the [[primate]] of certain of the [[autocephalous]] Orthodox churches. ===Patriarchs===''Main Article: The first [[hierarchPatriarch]] of the other autocephalous churches are styled metropolitan or archbishop or metropolitan archbishop.''
The title patriarch was is reserved for the [[primate]] of certain of the [[autocephalous]] Orthodox churches. The first applied to the original three major [[seehierarch]]s of Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch, and shortly after extended to include Constantinople and Jerusalemthe other autocephalous churches are styled metropolitan or archbishop or archbishop.
Much later the term The title patriarch was granted first applied to the heads original three major [[see]]s of [[Church of Rome|Rome]], [[Church of other most significant ChurchesAlexandria|Alexandria]], and [[Church of Antioch|Antioch]], and shortly after extended to include [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]] and [[Church of Jerusalem|Jerusalem]] (cf. Significance for some Churches now, may be more historical than actual[[Pentarchy]]).
=== Archbishops and Metropolitans ===Much later the term was granted to the heads of other most significant churches. Significance for some churches now may be more historical than actual.
===Archbishops and Metropolitans===The title of archbishop or metropolitan may be granted to a senior bishop, usually one who is in charge of a large ecclesiastical [[jurisdiction]]. He may or may not have provincial oversight of suffragan bishops. He may or may not have [[auxiliary bishop]]s assisting him.
In the Slavonic and Antiochian traditions, a [[metropolitan]] outranks an archbishop. The reverse is the situation in the Greek tradition. The Antiochian tradition also uses the style metropolitan archbishop to differentiate from metropolitan bishops in the Greek tradition.
The change in the Greek tradition came about in later Greek history, because the diocesan bishops of ancient sees (which in the Greek [[diaspora are pretty much all of them]] include most) came to be styled metropolitans. The Slavonic and Antiochian Churches continue to follow the older tradition, where an archbishop is a senior bishop in charge of a major see, and a short for "metropolitan is a bishop in charge of a province which may include a number of minor and/or major seesbishops."
In The Slavonic and Antiochian churches continue to follow the Greek older tradition, all diocesan bishops of Autocephalous churches such as the Church of Greece (the where an archbishop is a senior bishop in charge of Patras being Metropolitan) are now metropolitansa major see, and an archbishop holds his title as an indication of greater importance for whatever reason. The [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America]] a metropolitan is the notable exception a bishop in the Greek practice where diocesan bishops carry the title charge of Metropolitan. In other churches under the Jurisdiction a province which may include a number of the [[Ecumenical Patriarchate]] such as the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia the ruling bishop is the Archbishop while the other bishops are auxiliary bishops with titles of the ancient minor and/or major sees.
=== Non Ruling Bishops ===In the Greek tradition, all diocesan bishops of autocephalous churches such as the Church of Greece (the bishop of Patras being Metropolitan) are now metropolitans, and an archbishop holds his title as an indication of greater importance for whatever reason. The [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America]] is the notable exception in the Greek practice where diocesan bishops carry the title of metropolitan. In other churches under the jurisdiction of the [[Ecumenical Patriarchate]] such as the [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia]] the ruling bishop is the archbishop while the other bishops are auxiliary bishops with titles of the ancient sees.
===Non-ruling bishops===
A bishop who does not rule his own diocese is either a Patriarchal Vicar or an Auxiliary Bishop.
=== Patriarchal Vicars vicars===''Main Article: [[Vicar]]''
In the [[Church of Antioch]], a bishop who is in charge of a newly-created diocese on behalf of, and under the supervision of, the Patriarch of Antioch is called a Patriarchal Vicar. The diocese is usually kept under the direct control of the patriarch until it becomes self-supporting. Patriarchal Vicars are not members of the [[Holy Synod]], and do not answer to the Holy Synod.
The equivalent title in some Orthodox jurisdictions is [[Exarch]].
The equivalent title in the Roman Catholic Church is "Vicar Apostolic." ===Auxiliary bishops===''Main Article: [[Auxiliary bishop]]''
=== Auxiliary Bishops ===Most Orthodox Churches allow themselves the capacity to appoint auxiliary bishops to assist ruling bishops within their own dioceses or archdioceses.
Most Orthodox Churches allow themselves the capacity to appoint Auxiliary Bishops to assist ruling bishops within do not govern in their own dioceses or archdiocesesright but only act as directed by their diocesan bishop.
Auxiliary Bishops do not govern in their own right but only act as directed by their diocesan ===Titular bishops===''Main Article: [[Titular bishop.]]''
===Titular Bishops===Bishops who are assigned a title of ancient dioceses that no longer function are called Titular Bishopstitular bishops. The [[Diocese of Sourozh]], the diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church, (Moscow Patriarchate, ) in Great Britain and Ireland, is an example. However, generally, titular bishops are auxiliary bishops.
=== Special Forms forms===The primate of the [[Church of Constantinople]] assumed the title Ecumenical Patriarch. The [[primate]] of the [[Church of Alexandria]] was granted the title Pope and Patriarch. The primate of the [[Church of Georgia]] recently amended his title from [[Catholicos]] to Catholicos-Patriarch.
The primate of the ==Hierarchical vestments==''Main Article: [[Church of ConstantinopleVestments]] assumed the title Ecumenical Patriarch. The [[primate]] of the [[Church of Alexandria]] was granted the title Pope and Patriarch. The primate of the [[Church of Georgia]] recently amended his title from Catholicos to Catholicos-Patriarch.''
== Etiquette ==The bishop wears a monastic garment called a [[mantiya]] when he arrives at a divine service. Unlike the typical monastic mantiya, which is black, that of the bishop is some other color, purple for bishops and Greek metropolitans, blue for archbishops and non-Greek metropolitans, and green for a patriarch, and upon it are sewn the Tables of the Law, square patches at the neck and feet, characterizing the Old and New Covenants. In addition, strips of cloth, called fountains, are sewn horizontally around the mantiya, representing the streams of teachings which flow from the bishop's mouth.
*[http://wwwIn the slavonic traditions, a ruling bishop is usually liturgically vested in the center of his church.orthodoxinfo In the Greek traditions, bishops are often vested at the altar.com/praxis/clergy_etiquetteIn the Antiochian tradition, the bishop usually vests in the sanctuary.aspx Clergy Etiquette]
===Correspondence===Liturgically, except for the [[phelonion]] and the [[nabedrennik]], a bishop wears all the vestments of a priest. The phelonion was at first part of the bishop's vestments but was replaced by a garment, similar to the deacon's [[sticharion]], called a [[sakkos]] (also ''saccos''), a garment of humility. As Christ's robe was without seam, the bishop, as an icon of Christ, wears the saccos either sewn or buttoned at the sides.
In generalOver the saccos, when referring to the bishop wears a wide shoulder covering called the [[hierarchomophorion]], His is often used (e.g. His All Holiness, Bartholomew It hangs down in front and back, Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarchsymbolizes the wandering sheep which Christ took upon his shoulders as the Good Shepherd. In ancient times, visited Tarpon Springs, Florida in January was made of 2006)sheepskin. An English speaking hierarch can be addressed "Your.."At other times at services, such as "Your Eminence, I'm so glad to see you!".the bishop may wear a shorter omophorion that has both ends hanging down the front called the small omophorion
Throughout The bishop wears a richly embroidered crown, called a [[miter|mitre]]. This is to represent the Slavonic Churches, all bishops power conferred upon a minister of whatever rank are usually addressed as Vladyka, when face to face, or when spoken aboutthe Church.
Throughout Together with his [[pectoral cross]], the Greek Churchesbishop also wears a small, all bishops circular icon of the Savior or of whatever rank are usually addressed as Despotathe Mother of God, when face called the [[Panagia (vestment)|Panagia]] (All-Holy), or [[Engolpion]], over his heart. This is to faceremind him that he must always bear in his heart our Lord and his Holy Mother, or when spoken aboutand thus his own heart must be pure.
Throughout An episcopal staff called a [[crosier|crozier]] is carried by the Antiochian Churchesbishop, except for most parts of North America, all bishops of whatever rank are usually addressed as Sayidnaa shepherd's crook, when face to facebe reminiscent that he is a shepherd of Christ's flock. It has a cross at the top, or when spoken aboutjust above a double crook. This double crook is sometimes in the shape of serpents' heads, for instance "But Sayidna told mesymbolizing the serpent lifted up by [[Moses]] in the wilderness.(Now Christ lifted up on the Cross..".)
Within ==Liturgical items==At services in the Romanian jurisdictionsSlavic traditions, all bishops the bishop stands on a small round or oval rug, called [[orlets]], upon which is represented an eagle hovering over a city. This symbolizes his rule over a city and the eagle reminds the bishop that by his teaching and life he must rise above his flock and be an example of whatever rank are usually addressed one hopeful to their face as "Domnus"the things of heaven.
Bishop [[Tikhon (Fitzgerald) In the Greek traditions, the bishop of San Francisco and Los Angeles|Tikhon (Fitzgerald) of San Francisco and sits or stands at the West]] ([[OCAcathedra|bishop's throne]]), who retired in 2007on the south side of the church, wrote a short memo on the [http://www[solea]].holy-trinity.org/general/conventions.html ''Conventions The back of the chair of writing to a hierarch'']this throne has an icon depicting Christ the King, and the bishop will first venerate this icon before occupying the throne.
<!--- == Bishop's Vestments == --->At times during the services, the bishop blesses the faithful with two candlesticks, one with two candles called [[dikiri]] and the other with three called [[trikiri]], the first symbolizing the two natures of Christ, the other symbolizing the three persons of the [[Holy Trinity]].
==See also==
*[[:Category:Images of Hierarchs]]
 
 
[[Category:Clergy]]
[[Category:Bishops|*]]
[[el:Επίσκοπος]]
[[fr:Évêque]]
[[mk:Епископ]]
[[ro:Episcop]]
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