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List of Byzantine Emperors

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This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern [[Roman Empire]], called [[Byzantine Empire|Byzantine]] by modern historians. This list does not include numerous coemperors who never attained sole or senior status as rulers.
The title of all Emperors listed preceding Heraclius was officially [[w:Augustus|Augustus]], although various other titles such as [[Dominus]] were used as well. For official purposes, their names were preceded by Imperator Caesar Flavius and followed by Augustus. Following Heraclius, the title commonly became the Greek [[w:Basileus|Basileus]] (Gr. Βασιλεύς), which had formerly meant generally "king", "[[Monarch|sovereign]]" but now was used in place of Augustus. Kings were now titled by the neologism Regas (Gr. Ρήγας, from the Lat. "Rex") or by another generic term Archon (Gr. Άρχων, "ruler"). Autokrator (Gr. Αυτοκράτωρ) was also frequently used, along with a plethora of more hyperbolic titles—with grandiloquence typically in inverse proportion to actual power—including Kosmokrator (Gr. Κοσμοκράτωρ) ("Master of the Universe") and Chronokrator (Gr. Χρονοκράτωρ) ("Lord of All Time"). The emperors of the 15th century alone were often self-styled as Basileus ton Hellinon, "Emperor of the Greeks," though they still considered themselves "Roman" Emperors.
[Note: See also ''the term [[Greek (name)#Byzantines (Βυζαντινοί)|the term "''Byzantine"'']]'' with regard to the late [[Roman Empire]]. This list begins with [[Constantine the Great|Constantine I]] the Great, the first Christian emperor reigning from [[Constantinople]], although [[Diocletian]] before him had ruled from Nicaea [[Nicea]] and replaced the pseudorepublican trappings of the office with a straightforward autocracy and Heraclius I after him replaced Latin with Greek and began the restructuring of the Empire into themata.]
==Constantinian dynasty (306-363)==
:20. [[Justin II]] (''Flavius Iustinius Iunior''; 520 - 578; ruled 565 - 578) – nephew of Justinian I
:21. [[Tiberius II Constantine]] (''Flavius Tiberius Constantinus''; 540 - 582, ruled 574, 578 - 582) – Comes Excubitris; adopted by Justin II
:22. [[Maurice (emperor)|Maurice]] (''Flavius Mauricius Tiberius''; 539 - 602, ruled 582 - 602) – son-in-law of Tiberius II
===Non-dynastic===
:27. [[Constans II]] (Herakleios, later Constantine, called Πωγώνατος, ''the Bearded'') (Κώνστας Β') (630 - 668, ruled 641 - 668) – son of Constantine III; assassinated by chamberlain
:28. [[Mezezius]] (668 - 669) – Usurper
:29. [[Constantine the New|Constantine IV]] (Κωνσταντίνος Δ') (649 - 685, ruled 668 - 685) – son of Constans II
:30. [[Justinian II]] the Slit-nosed (Ιουστινιανός Β' ο Ρινότμητος) (668 - 711, ruled 685 - 695) – son of Constantine IV; mutilated, deposed, and exiled
===Non-dynastic (711-717)===
:33. [[Philippicus|PhilippikosPhilippikus]] Bardanes (Φιλιππικός Βαρδάνης) (ruled 711 - 713) – Armenian soldier; deposed and mutilated:34. [[Anastasius II (emperor)|Anastasios Anastasius II]] (Αναστάσιος Β') ( ? - 721, ruled 713 - 715) – orig. Artemios; secretary of Philippikos; deposed & entered monastery, later revolted & was executed:35. [[Theodosius III|Theodosios III]] (Θεοδόσιος Γ' ο Αδραμμυττηνός) (ruled 715 - 717) – tax-collector; abdicated and entered monastery
==Isaurian dynasty (717-802)==
:36. [[Leo III the Isaurian|Leo III]] the Isaurian (Λέων Γ' ο Ίσαυρος) (675 680 - 741, ruled 717 - 741) – Strategos
:37. [[Constantine V]] Kopronymos (the Dung-named) (Κωνσταντίνος Ε' ο Κοπρώνυμος ή Καβαλίνος) (718 - 745, ruled 741) – son of Leo III; deposed
:38. [[Artabasdus]] the Icon-lover (Αρτάβασδος ο Εικονόφιλος) (ruled 741 - 743) – Leo III's chamberlain and son-in-law
:39. [[Leo IV the Khazar|Leo IV]] the Khazar (Λέων Δ' o Χαζάρος) (750 - 780, ruled 775 - 780) – son of Constantine V
:40. [[Constantine VI]] the Blinded (Κωνσταντίνος ΣΤ') (771 - 797, ruled 780 - 797) – son of Leo IV; deposed and mutilated by mother
:41. St. [[Irene of Athens]] (Ειρήνη η Αθηναία) (755 - 803, ruled 797 - 802) – wife of Leo IV, mother of Constantine VI; canonized by the Orthodox church; deposed and exiled to [[Metropolis of Mytiline|Lesbos Island]] island.
==Nikephoros' dynasty (802-813)==
:42. [[Nicephorus I|Nikephoros Nikephorus I]] (Νικηφόρος Α') ( ? - 811, ruled 802 - 811) – Megas Logothetes; died in battle, skull used as wine cup:43. [[Stauracius|StaurakiosStaurakius]] (Σταυράκιος Φωκάς) ( ? - 812, ruled 811) – son of Nikephoros I; paralyzed
:44. [[Michael I Rhangabes|Michael I Rangabe]] (Μιχαήλ Α' Ραγκαβής) (ruled 811 - 813) – son-in-law of Nikephoros I and master of the palace; deposed and entered monastery
==Phrygian dynasty (820-867)==
:46. [[Michael II]] the Stammerer or the Amorian (Μιχαήλ Β' ο Τραυλός ή Ψελλός) (770 - 829, ruled 820 - 829) – Strategos, son-in-law of Constantine VI
:47. [[Theophilus the Iconclast|TheophilosTheophilus]] (Θεόφιλος) (813 - 842, ruled 829 - 842) – son of Michael II
:48. [[Theodora (9th century empress)|Theodora]] (Θεοδώρα) (ruled 842 - 855) – wife of Theophilus; empress and regent for Michael III; canonized by the Orthodox church; deposed and entered monastery
:49. [[Michael III the Amorian|Michael III]] the Drunkard (Μιχαήλ Γ' ο Μέθυσος) (840 - 867, ruled 842 - 867) – son of TheophilosTheophilus; assassinated
==Macedonian dynasty (867-1056)==
:54. [[Romanus I|Romanos I]] Lekapenos (Ρωμανός Α' ο Λεκαπηνός) (870 - 948, ruled 919 - 944) – father-in-law of Constantine VII; coemperor, deposed by his sons and entered monastery
:55. [[Romanus II|Romanos II]] the Purple-born (Ρωμανός Β' ο Πορφυρογέννητος) (939 - 963, ruled 959 - 963) – son of Constantine VII
:56. [[Nicephorus IIPhocas|Nikephoros II]] Phokas (Νικηφόρος Β' Φωκάς) (912 - 969, ruled 963 - 969) – Strategos; married Romanos II's widow, regent for Basil II; assassinated
:57. [[John I Tzimisces|John I Tzimiskes]] (Ιωάννης Α' Κουρκούας ο Τσιμισκής) (925 - 976, ruled 969 - 976) – brother-in-law of Romanus II, lover of Nicephorus's wife but banned from marriage, regent for Basil
:58. [[Basil II]] the Bulgar-slayer (Βασίλειος Β' ο Βουλγαροκτόνο) (958 - 1025, ruled 976 - 1025) – son of Romanos II
:81. [[Alexios V]] Doukas the Bushy-eyebrowed (Αλέξιος Ε' Δούκας ο Μούρτζουφλος) (1140 - 1204, ruled 1204) – son-in-law of Alexios III
==Laskarid dynasty (in exile, Empire of NicaeaNicea, 1204-1261)==
:82. [[Constantine Laskaris]] (ruled 1204) – not officially crowned
:83. [[Theodore I Laskaris]] (Θεόδωρος Α' Λάσκαρης) (1174 - 1222, ruled 1204 - 1222) – son-in-law of Alexios III
:*[[John VII Palaiologos]] (Ιωάννης Ζ' Παλαιολόγος) (ruled 1399 - 1402) – restored as regent
:95. [[John VIII Palaiologos]] (Ιωάννης Η' Παλαιολόγος) (1392 - 1448, ruled 1425 - 1448) – son of Manuel II
:96. [[Constantine XI Palaiologos|Constantine XI]] Palaiologos Dragases (Κωνσταντίνος ΙΑ' Παλαιολόγος Δραγάσης) (1405 - 1453, ruled 1449 - 1453) – son of Manuel II, not crowned in Constantinople, died on the walls
===Ottomans===
[[Category:Roman Emperors]]
[[ar:قائمة بالأباطرة البيزنطيين]]
[[ro:Listă a Împăraţilor Romani de Răsărit]]
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