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The '''Typikon''' is the book of directives and [[rubrics]] that establishes in the Orthodox Christian Church the order of divine services for each day of the year. It assumes the existence of liturgical books that contain the fixed and variable parts of these services. In [[monastery]] usage, the typikon of the monastery includes both the rule of life of the community and the rule of prayer.
The liturgical books presently used by the Orthodox Church have originated either in monasteries or have been greatly influenced by monastic practices. The services of the daily cycle of worship used today in the Orthodox East reflect monastic usages and traditions, especially those of the two monastic centers that produced and developed them, the [[Holy Lavra of St. Savas (Jerusalem)|Holy Lavra of St. Savas of Jerusalem]] and the Monastery of Studion in Constantinople.
The liturgical tradition originating with ''The Typikon of St. Savas'' produced by the [[Lavra]] in its initial stages was influenced by the customs and practices of the monastic communities in the Near East, Egypt, Palestine, and Asia Minor. Under St. [[Theodore the Studite|Theodore]] the Studion Monastery in Constantinople became the center of monastic revival and reform in the imperial city. During the times of the iconoclastic controversy the Palestinian monastic typikon came to the Constantinople monasteries. In the Studion Monastery a synthesis occurred as elements of the [[Cathedral Office]] of Constantinople were added to the Palestinian typikon. In time this Studite synthesis was further modified by Palestinian monks to produce a revised Typikon of St. Savas that remained in general use until the nineteenth century.
The difficulty of using a monastic typikon at the [[parish]] level came to a head as the nineteenth century began, and abbreviations and omissions of the services became widespread. Thus, the [[Ecumenical Patriarch]] authorized the revision of the typikon for parish use. This revision became known as ''Ecclesiastical Typikon according to the Style of the Great Church of Christ'', and was published in 1838. This revision was further revised in the ''Typikon of the Great Church of Christ'', published in 1888.