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Just war

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'''Just war''' doctrine attempts to define situations wherein is a belief that warfare can be ethically or theological justifiable. To fully understand the waging complexity of war becomes a moral necessity. It lays out criteria by which a Christian these issues, it is intended important to determine whether or take into consideration the complete teachings of the Church and not a specific war was entered into resort to exploiting inadequate references. The most crucial issues concerning warfare involve the extremely destructive capabilities of the weaponry in our times that can potentially eliminate any remnants of civilization from the face of the earth (Mantzarides 104). Many sociologists are intrigued with examining the formation and is conducted results of wars in a virtuous mannerorder to gain understanding of why war continues to reoccur throughout the world (Mantzarides 104). The Greek philosopher Heracleitus believed war to be the “father of all” (Mantzarides 104). Quite the opposite, the Church teaches that killing becomes God is the “Father Almighty” (Mantzarides 104). In St. Paul’s epistle to the Romans, God is referred to as a moral necessity“God of peace” <ref>Romans 15:33<ref>. The doctrine was developed by theologians development of great influence in much a war is a result of non-Orthodox Western Christianitya separation from God, such as [[Augustine of Hippo]] which is also a separation from peace and [[Thomas Aquinas]]love (Mantzarides 105). This principle was Since God is the underpinning source of [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] doctrinal support for the [[Crusades]]our existence, presumably including the [[Fourth Crusade]]separation from God leads to chaos and destruction (Mantzarides 105).
By contrast, Orthodox Christianity has never developed an explicit "just war" doctrine:''“If you are willing and obedient, and you shall eat the weight good of Tradition is that the taking of human life is never a morally edifying actland; but if you refuse and rebel, although circumstances may require that such an act you shall be taken, it would only be as an alternative to an even greater evil.devoured by the sword…”'' <ref>Isaiah 1:19-20<ref>
The idea of a "lesser evil" is, at best, a difficult and imprecise way to look at warfare. Fr. Samuel Harakis, after his study of :''“…for all who take the Fathers, has concluded that "no case can be made for the existence of an Orthodox just-war theory". In 2003, Patriarch [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople|Bartholomew of Constantinople]] stated that "in a few specific cases sword will perish by the Orthodox Church 'sword”'forgives'' an armed defense against oppression and violence" but that "war and violence are never means used by God in order to achieve a [just] result". In addition, the examples of countless martyr-saints can be consulted to show Orthodox Christians who refused to use force even upon threat to their lives and families, up to and including their deaths.<ref>Matthew 26:52<ref>
This might be read to mean that Orthodoxy embraces pacifism. However, :''“…for the Orthodox Church recognizes not a few militant saints, such as [authority [Alexander Nevskycivil]], and does not bear the sword in vain! It is the servant of course St. Constantine. Likewise, [[Cyril and Methodius|Saint Cyril]], Apostle God to execute wrath on the Slavs, is recorded as stating the followingwrongdoer.”'' <ref>Romans 13:4<ref>
:Christ Christianity is responsible for first introducing the belief of non-violence (Mantzarides 105). A true Christian would rather be killed than to kill. However, it is our God Who ordered us the civic duty of a Christian to pray for our offenders obey the civil authority, not only because of fearing punishment, but since it is ethically and honorably conscience (Mantzarides 105). It is inevitably understood that the will of the civil authority will conflict with God’s will overtime, and it’s important to understand that ''“we must obey God rather than any human authority”'' <ref>Acts 5:29<ref>. Both St. Ambrose and St. Augustine do good not accept the just war theory but recognize the reasons that lead to themit – the defense of those unjustly treated (Mantzarides 106). He also said that no one The Church has never presented nor accepted a theory of us can show just war, but has tolerated it to protect greater love in life than he who gives his life for his friendsstandards (Mantzarides 106). That is why we generously endure offences caused us as private people. But in company we defend War promotes its participants to murder one another and give our lives encourages all of the participants to bring victory to their side (Mantzarides 106). People in battle for our neighbors, so that you, having taken our companions as prisoners, could not imprison times even enjoy watching war programs through their souls together with their bodies by forcing them into renouncing their faith and into godless deedstelevisions at home or in the movie theatres (Mantzarides 106). Our Christ-loving soldiers protect our Holy Church It is difficult to have peace on earth when a man with arms in their handsa violent inclination has the potential to cause devastating destruction to the world (Mantzarides 106).
This statement apparently contradicts The Church during the words of Patriarch Bartholomew and first centuries was very negative towards the witness participation of the martyr-saintsChristians in war (Mantzarides 107). HoweverOrigen was completely against the idea of Christians participating in any form of military duty, while Cyril provides an Orthodox justification Tertullian believed that Christians should participate in military duty. Many of the Saints were involved in military duty and many Christians were members of a ''specific St. Constantine’s army. The Church has always upheld her fundamental resistance towards war'', he and does not extend it as a allow clergy to be involved in any military activity. St. Athanasius wrote in his letter to Amun that ''doctrine'' of "just war" in general. That “to kill isnot permissible, Cyril explains that circumstances may exist wherein but to destroy your enemies in war it is desirable both lawful and worthy of praise. Thus the same thing is sometimes not allowed and forgiven for an Orthodox Christian to take up armsanother reason”'' (Mantzarides 108). St. However, his statements Athanasius’s words here do not extend to represent the opinion of the Church, but the opinion of the claim that they do so as an innately virtuous act. The Orthodox combatantants would be driven by necessity State and love for each otherits citizens, not which is the reason he uses the belief that what they do is a positive good, in word lawful and of itselfnot Christian (Mantzarides 108).
The apparent contradiction between Bartholomew:''s statement and that “Our Fathers did not consider the killings committed in the course of Cyril can wars to be further resolved when examining classifiable as murders at all, on the words score, it seems to me, of allowing a pardon to men fighting in defense of [[John Chrysostom|Saint John Chrysostom]]sobriety and piety. Perhaps, though, whenit might be advisable to refuse them communion for three years, in his ''On on the Priesthoodground that they are not clean-handed.”'', he stated:(Canon 13 of Basil) <ref>The Rudder<ref>
:Christians above all men are St. Basil references the beginning of this canon to St. Athanasius in order to clarify and accurately interpret what was meant in his letter to Amun (Rudder 1468). St. Basil the Great did not permitted forcibly count murders committed during wars as murder, but he does require them to correct abstain from partaking of the failings Eucharist for three years (Mantzarides 108). In the Byzantine Empire, the enemies of the State were also the enemies of the Church (Mantzarides 108). So the defense of the State also became the defense of the Church (Mantzarides 108). The State was considered to be protected by God since it was connected to the Church. The Church has upheld its position on war has never deserted its stance (Mantzarides 109). Emperor Nicephoros of Byzantium (963-969) requested the Church to recognize the people dying at war to be classified as martyrs. The response was “How could they be regarded as martyrs or equal to the martyrs those who sin. Secular judges indeedkill others or die themselves at war, when they have captured malefactors under the lawdivine canons impose a penalty on them, show their authority preventing them from coming to be greatDivine Communion for three years." The Church has always condemned war, and prevent them even against their will from following their own devices: but has always been tolerant of the Christian soldiers that served in our case a military unit (Mantzarides 109). War may be necessary under certain circumstances to protect the wrong-doer must be made better, not by force, but by persuasioninnocent and to limit even greater evils.
ThusThrough spiritual vigilance and focusing on safeguarding the world from destruction, according to John Chrysostomwar and the causes of war must be addressed and eliminated (Mantzarides 110). Peace can only be upheld if the causes of war and hostility in our times are being addressed (Mantzarides 110). Some of the causes of war relate with discrimination, subjugation, hostility, and depressing social conditions. As the Christian response to wrongdoing is not causes of war intensify, our chances of upholding peace in the world fade away (Mantzarides 110-111). For these reasons, we must use all of force, even if it may be our resources on a necessary act on global scale to eliminate these causes (Mantzarides 111). The uncontrollable issues that are the strongest contributors to war deal with nations overemphasizing preparations for war and increasing the part manufacturing initiatives of secular authoritymilitary ammunition (Mantzarides 111). Thus, while it may Christians have to be permissible by circumstance, it is focused on peace and must work towards preserving a loving attitude that does not thereby transformed into virtueseparate us from God.
Jesus said to Pilate, “My kingdom is not from this world. If my kingdom were from this world, my followers would be fighting to keep me from being handed over to the Jews. But as it is, my kingdom is not from here" <ref>John 18:34<ref>.
Jesus said to His apostles, “I give you a new commandment, that you love one another. Just as I have loved you, you also should love one another” <ref>John 13:34<ref>.
:'''“Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called children of God.”''' <ref>Matthew 5:9<ref>
== References ==
== For Further Reading ==
Bartholomew I. 2003. "War and Suffering." ''Cosmic Grace - Humble Prayer: The Ecological Vision of the Green Patriarch Bartholomew I''. Ed. John Chryssavgis. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

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