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Meletius IV (Metaxakis) of Constantinople

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[[Image:350px-Meletius-metaxakisMeletios Metaxakis.jpg|thumb|Meletius during a visit to New York in 1921 as the exiled Archbishop of Athens]] His All-Holiness '''Patriarch MeletiusIV''' (Greek: Μελέτιος Δ'), born '''Emmanuel Metaxakis''' (Greek: Εμμανουήλ Μεταξάκης), was the 261st successor to the [[Apostle Andrew]] and [[Patriarch of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople]] from 1921 to 1923. Afterward, as Meletius II, he also served as [[Patriarch of Alexandria|Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria and all Africa]] from 1926 to 1935. Before he became Ecumenical Patriarch, he was Archbishop of Athens from 1918 to 1920 as Meletius III.
His All-Holiness '''Patriarch Meletius IV''' (Greek: Μελέτιος Δ')==Early life==He was born on [[September 21]], born '''Emmanuel Metaxakis''' (Greek: Εμμανουήλ Μεταξάκης)1871, was in the village of Parsas on the island of Crete. He entered the 261st Successor to [[Seminary of the Holy Cross]] in [[Apostle AndrewJerusalem]] in 1889. He was [[tonsure]]d with the name ''Meletius'' and [[Patriarch of Constantinopleordination|Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinopleordained]] a [[hierodeacon]] from 1921-1923in 1892. Afterward, He completed the theological courses at Holy Cross and was assigned as Meletius II, he also served as XXXth Successor secretary to the [[Apostle MarkHoly Synod]] and in Jerusalem by Patriarch [[Patriarch Damianus of AlexandriaJerusalem|Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria and all AfricaDamianus]] from 1926-1935in 1900.
Meletius was evicted from the Holy Land by Patriarch Damianus, along with the then-administrator [[Chrysostomos II (Hadjistavrou) of Athens|Chrysostomos]], later [[Archbishop of Athens]], in 1908 for "activity against the Holy Sepulchre." Meletius Metaxakis was then elected [[Metropolitan]] of Kition in Cyprus in 1910. In the years before the war, Metr. Meletius began successful talks in New York with representatives of the [[Episcopal Church of America]], with the intention of "expanding relations between the two Churches."
== Early Life ==After the death of Patriarch [[Joachim III of Constantinople|Joachim III]] on [[June 13]], 1912, Meletius was nominated as a candidate for the Patriarchal Throne in [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]]. However, the Holy Synod decided that Meletius could not [[canon law|canonically]] be registered as a candidate. Instead, he would continue in his [[metropolis]] until 1918 when, with the support of his political allies, he was elevated to the position of [[Archbishop]] of Athens in 1918. This would be a temporary measure, for after a series of political changes in Greece, he was later deprived of his [[see]].
He was born on September 21==Archbishop of Athens==A staunch supporter of Greek Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos, 1871 in his fortunes were linked with those of the village Venizelists. The expulsion of Parsas on the island King Constantine in 1917 allowed Meletius' installation as Archbishop of Crete. He entered Athens, but the [[Seminary 1920 electoral defeat of Venizelos allowed the Holy Cross]] in [[Jerusalem]] in 1889. He was tonsured with the name king's return and Meletius and [[ordination|ordained]] a ' [[hierodeacondeposition]] in 1892. He completed the theological courses at Holy Cross and His replacement as Archbishop was assigned as secretary to the Royalist Archbishop [[Holy Synod]] in Jerusalem by [[Damianos Theoklitos I of JerusalemAthens|Patriarch DamianosTheocletos]] in 1900, the man whom he had displaced two years previously.
Meletius was evicted from the Holy Land by Patriarch DamianosDuring his tenure as Archbishop, along with he tried to apply order to the then administrator [[Chrysostomos]], later patchwork of independent "trustee" Greek [[Archbishop of Athensparish]] es in America by applying a 1908 for "activity against Patriarchal decree that gave episcopal oversight of the Americas to the Holy Sepulcher." Meletius Metaxakis was then elected [[Metropolitan Church of Kition]] in [[CyprusGreece]] , and even visited America in 1910. In the years before summer of 1918 to survey the warsituation. Upon his return to Greece three months later, Metropolitan Meletius began successful talks in New York with representatives of the he appointed Bishop [[Episcopal Church Alexander (Demoglou) of Rodostolou|Alexander of AmericaRodostolou]], with as his resident American legate. Alexander was delegated the intention unenviable task of "expanding relations between initiating canonical order among the two Churchesindependent Greek parishes throughout North America."
After While Archbishop he also journeyed to England where he conducted talks concerning the union between the death of [[Joachim III of ConstantinopleAnglican Communion|Patriarch Joachim IIIAnglicans]] on June 13, 1912, Meletius was nominated as a candidate for and the Patriarchal Throne in [[Constantinople]]. However, the Holy Synod decided that Meletius could not canonically be registered as a candidate. Instead, he would continue in his [[metropolis]] until 1918 when, with the support of his political allies, he was elevated to the position of Archbishop of Athens in 1918. This would be a temporary measure, for after a series of political changes in Greece, he was later deprived of his seeOrthodox Church.
== Archbishop Following his deposition, Meletius, like so many other political refugees, fled to the United States in February 1921. Still recognized as the legitimate head of Athens ==the Church of Greece by his American legate, Bishop Alexander, Meletius presided over the organization of some Greek parishes in North America into a formal [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|"Greek Archdiocese"]] on [[September 15]], 1921. In effect, this was the first step towards the establishment of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of North and South America, which was incorporated in 1921, and officially recognized by the State of New York in 1922.
A staunch supporter ==Patriarchate==In another twist of Greek Prime Minister fate, the exiled Meletius was elected Ecumenical Patriarch two months later on [[Eleftherios VenizelosNovember 27]], 1921. He was not about to give up his fortunes were linked with those American creation, however, and in one of his first acts as [[patriarch]], he repealed the 1908 Tomos on [[VenizelistsMarch 1]], 1922. The expulsion This effectively transferred jurisdiction of King Constantine in 1917 allowed Meletius' installation the new Greek Archdiocese from himself, as Archbishop of Athens, but to himself, as Ecumenical Patriarch. His justification for this move was a reference to Canon 28 of the 1920 electoral defeat 451 [[Council of Venizelos allowed Chalcedon]], which he claimed granted the King's return and Meletius' depositionEcumenical Patriarchate jurisdiction over Orthodox Christians in all "barbarian lands. His replacement " This was formalized on [[May 11]], 1922, when Meletios declared the Church of America as Archbishop was an Archdiocese and appointing the Royalist Rt. Rev. Alexander Titular [[Archbishop Theocletos Bishop]] of Athens|TheocletosRodostolon, as his Patriarchal [[Exarch]], the man whom he had displaced two years previously.
During his tenure as ArchbishopUnfortunately, he tried to apply order to the patchwork hopes of the immigrant Greek community that their long canonical disorder in America would be settled was not realized. The royalists in Greece rejected both the creation and subsequent separation of independent a "trusteeVenizelist" Greek parishes Archdiocese in America by applying a 1908 Patriarchal decree that gave episcopal oversight of the Americas to the . Metropolitan [[Church Germanos (Troianos) of GreeceMonemvasia and Lacedaemonos|Germanos (Troianos)]], a royalist partisan, was sent from Greece to challenge Alexander for control of the new archdiocese. Spurred on by the two New York Greek language dailies, the Royalist ''Atlantis'', and even visited America in the summer Venizelist ''National Herald'', the fledgling Greek Archdiocese rapidly disintegrated into violently opposed factions. It would remain bitterly divided for almost a decade (1922-1931) until the moderating influence of 1918 to survey the situation. Upon his return to Greece three months later, he appointed future Patriarch [[Bishop Alexander Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of RodostolouConstantinople|Athenagoras]] as his resident American legate. Alexander was delegated the unenviable task of initiating canonical order among the independent Greek parishes throughout North America.
While Archbishop he also journeyed == Ecumenism and Anglican outreach ==His entreaties to England where he conducted talks concerning the union between the [[Anglican Communion|Anglican Church|Anglicans]] courted controversy within Orthodoxy. On [[December 17]], 1921, the Greek Ambassador in Washington sent a message to the prefect at Thessaloniki stating that Meletius "vested, took part in an Anglican service, knelt in prayer with Anglicans, venerated their Holy Table, gave a sermon, and the Orthodox Churchlater blessed those present."
Following his deposition, Under pressure from Meletius, like so many other political refugees, fled to the United States in February 1921. Still recognized as the legitimate head Patriarchate of Constantinople accepted the Church validity of Greece by his American legateAnglican orders in 1922—an act against which even Rome protested. Then, Bishop Alexanderin 1923, Meletius presided over initiated the organization of some Greek parishes in North America into a formal "Pan-Orthodox" Congress ([[May 10]]–[[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|"Greek Archdiocese"June 8]] on September 15, 1921). In effectOn [[June 1]], this was [[clergy]] and [[lay]]men who were dissatisfied with the first step towards innovating Patriarch held a meeting which ended in an attack on the establishment of [[Phanar]] with the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese goal of North and South America, which was incorporated in 1921, deposing Meletius and officially recognized by the State of New York in 1922expelling him from Constantinople.
== Patriarchate Retirement==On [[Image:Meletios-IVJuly 1]], 1923, on the pretext of illness and the need for medical treatment, Meletius left Constantinople.jpg|thumb|Patriarch Meletius IVOn [[September 20]], 1923, under pressure from the Greek government and through the intervention of [[Chrysostomos I (Papadopoulos) of Athens]], Meletius retired as patriarch. This coincided with the failure of the Greek expedition in Asia Minor, and may have also played a role.
In another twist of fate==Later life==After his retirement from the Constantinople Patriarchate, the exiled Meletius he was elected Ecumenical Pope and Patriarch two months later of Alexandria and All Africa and was [[enthronement|enthroned]] as Meletius II of Alexandria on November 27[[May 20]], 19211926. He was not about to give up his American creation, however, and in one of served until his first acts as patriarch, he repealed the 1908 Tomos death on March 1, 1922. This effectively transferred jurisdiction of the new Greek Archdiocese from himself, as Archbishop of Athens, to himself, as Ecumenical Patriarch. His justification for this move was a reference to Canon 28 of the 451 [[Council of ChalcedonJuly 28]], which he claimed granted the Ecumenical Patriarchate jurisdiction over Orthodox Christians in all "barbarian lands." This was formalized on May 111935, 1922 when Meletios declared the Church of America as an Archdiocese and appointing the Rt. Rev. Alexander Titular Bishop of Rodostolonwas buried in Cairo, as his Patriarchal ExarchEgypt.
Unfortunately, According to a listing of famous Greek Freemasons on the hopes official website of the immigrant Greek community that their long canonical disorder in America would be settled were not realized. The royalists in Grand Lodge of Greece rejected both the creation and subsequent separation of a "Venizelist" Archdiocese in America. [[Metropolitan Germanos {{ref|1}} (Troianos''Megali Stoas Tis Ellados'')]], Meletius Metaxakis is listed as a royalist partisan, was sent from Greece to challenge Alexander for control of Freemason in the new archdiocese. Spurred on by the two New York Greek language dailies, the Royalist Atlantis, and the Venizelist National Herald, the fledgling Greek Archdiocese rapidly disintegrated into violently opposed factions. It would remain bitterly divided for almost a decade Lodge: "ΑΡΜΟΝΙΑ" (1922-1931HARMONY) until the moderating influence of the future [[Athenagoras I|Patriarch Athenagoras]].:
== Ecumenism *"Μελέτιος Β' (Εμμ. Μεταξάκης) - Αλεξανδρείας και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης - ΑΡΜΟΝΙΑ"::(transl. ''Meletios II (E. Metaxakis) - Alexandria and Anglican Outreach ==Ecumenical Patriarch - HARMONY'')
His entreaties to the [[Anglican Communion|Anglican Church]] courted controversy within Orthodoxy. On December 17, 1921, the Greek Ambassador in Washington sent a message to the prefect at Thessaloniki stating that Meletius "vested, took part in an Anglican service, knelt in prayer with Anglicans, venerated their Holy Table, gave a sermon, and later blessed those present." Under pressure from Meletius, the Patriarchate of Constantinople accepted the validity of Anglican orders in 1922 — an act which even Rome protested against. Then, in 1923, Meletius initiated the "Pan-Orthodox" Congress (May 10–June 8). On June 1st, clergy and laymen dissatisfied with the innovating Patriarch held a meeting which ended in an attack on the Phanar with the goal of deposing Meletius and expelling him from Constantinople.  == Retirement == On July 1, 1923, on the pretext of illness and the need for medical treatment, Meletius left Constantinople. On September 20, 1923, under pressure from the Greek government and through the intervention of [[Archbishop Chrysostomos]] of Athens, Meletius retired as Patriarch. This also coincided with the failure of the Greek expedition in Asia Minor, and may have also played a role. == Later Life == After his retirement from the Constantinople Patriarchate, he was elected Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria and All Africa in 1926. He served until his death on July 28, 1935, and was buried in Cairo, Egypt.  According to a listing of famous Greek Freemasons on the official website of the [http://www.grandlodge.gr/Famous_gr_home.html Grand Lodge of Greece] (''Megali Stoas Tis Ellados''), Meletius Metaxakis is listed as a Freemason in the Lodge: "ΑΡΜΟΝΙΑ" (HARMONY): ''"Μελέτιος Β' (Εμμ. Μεταξάκης) - Αλεξανδρείας και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης - ΑΡΜΟΝΙΑ" ''  Metaxakis was one of the most fascinating characters in Orthodox church history. He was the only man successively to lead four three [[autocephaly|autocephalous ]] (independent) Orthodox Churches: those of [[Church of CyprusGreece|CyprusGreece]], [[Church of GreeceConstantinople|GreeceConstantinople]], and [[Church of ConstantinopleAlexandria|ConstantinopleAlexandria]]; and to rule a [[diocese]]in another, and that of [[Church of AlexandriaCyprus|AlexandriaCyprus]].
==Sources==
*[http[w://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patriarch_Meletius_IV_of_Constantinople Patriarch Meletius IV of Constantinople|''Patriarch Meletius IV of Constantinople'' at Wikipedia]*[[httpw://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%9C%CE%B5%CE%BB%CE%AD%CF%84%CE%B9%CE%BF%CF%82_%CE%9C%CE%B5%CF%84%CE%B1%CE%BE%CE%AC%CE%BA%CE%B7%CF%82 :Μελέτιος Μεταξάκης|''Μελέτιος Μεταξάκης'' at Wikipedia (Greek Language Wikipedia)]*[http://wiki.phantis.com/index.php/Meletios_Metaxakis Meletius_Metaxakis ''Meletius Metaxakis'' at PhantisWiki]*[http://rulers.org/relig.html Religious leaders]
==Reference==
*{{note|1}} [http://www.grandlodge.gr/Famous_gr_home.html Επιφανείς Έλληνες Ελευθεροτέκτονες] (Greek)
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{{succession|
before=?|title=Metropolitan of Kition|years=1910-1918|after=?}}{{succession|before=[[TheocletusI (Minopoulos) of Athens|Theocletus I]]|title=[[Church List of GreeceArchbishops of Athens|Archbishop Metropolitan of Athensand All Greece]]|
years=1918-1920|
after=[[Theocletus]]}}{{succession|before=creation of see|title=[[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America#Archbishops of America|Greek Orthodox Primate of America]]|years=1921-1921|after=[[Alexander (Demoglou)]]I}}
{{succession|
before=[[Germanus V (Kavakopoulos) of ConstantinopleConstntinople|Germanus V]]|
title=[[List of Patriarchs of Constantinople|Patriarch of Constantinople]]|
years=1921-1923|
[[Category:Bishops]]
[[Category:20th-century bishops]]
[[Category:Archbishops of Athens]]
[[Category:Patriarchs of Constantinople]]
[[Category:Patriarchs of Alexandria]]
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