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Fourth Crusade

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Final capture of Constantinople: removed reduntant and emotionally-biased paragraph
The '''Fourth Crusade''' lasted from 1201-1204. Though the Crusades were for the most part an entirely Western phenomenon{{cleanup|Standardize headers, this one affected Eastern Church history because the invading Crusaders took Constantinople on [[April 13]]summarize chronology into prose, 1204standardize formatting. After defeating the Byzantine Emperor Alexius V (who had usurped the throne from his predecessor Alexius IV, put in power by the Crusaders), they conquered the city and famously looted and desecrated numerous churches, Recommend possible replacement with [[iconography|icons]], and [[relics]].{{ref|1}} They then set up the [[wWikipedia:Latin Empire|Latin Empire]], based in Constantinople; it lasted over 57 years until the Byzantine Michael VIII Palaeologus recaptured Constantinople in 1261. This Fourth Crusade is widely regarding as having to finalized the [[Great Schism]], as much bitterness towards the West remained even after the restoration of Byzantium.{{stub}}
==Background History==The ''Factors Contributing to 'Fourth Crusade''' lasted from 1201-1204. Though the Diversion Crusades were for the most part an entirely Western phenomenon, this one affected Eastern Church history because the invading Crusaders took Constantinople on [[April 12]], 1204. After defeating the Byzantine Emperor Alexius V (who had usurped the throne from his predecessor Alexius IV, put in power by the Crusaders), they conquered the city and famously looted and desecrated numerous churches, [[iconography|icons]], and [[relics]].<ref>[http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/choniates1.html Nicetas Choniates: The Sack of Constantinople (1204)] - from the Fourth Crusade''Medieval Sourcebook.''</ref> They then set up the [[w:Latin Empire|Latin Empire]], based in Constantinople, lasting over 57 years until Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus recaptured Constantinople in 1261. This Crusade is widely regarded as having finalized the [[Great Schism]], as much bitterness towards the West remained even after the restoration of [[Byzantium]].
1. Papal ==Background==After the failure of the [[Primacy and Unity in Orthodox Ecclesiologyw:Third Crusade|primacyThird Crusade]] as developed during the Cluniac Reformation (10th-11th c.1189–1192) , there was little interest in Europe for another crusade against the [[Islam|Muslims]]. Jerusalem was now controlled by the [[w:Ayyubid dynasty|Ayyubid dynasty]], which ruled all of Syria and Egypt, except for the Gregorian Reform few cities along the coast still controlled by the crusader [[w:Kingdom of Pope Gregory VIIJerusalem|Kingdom of Jerusalem]], now centered on [[w:Acre, Israel|Acre]]. The Third Crusade had also established a [[w:Kingdom of Cyprus|Kingdom on Cyprus]].
The [[Monasteryw:Pope Innocent III|Pope Innocent III]] of Cluny succeeded to the papacy in French Burgundy taught 1198, and the high doctrine preaching of a new crusade became the power goal of his pontificate. His call was largely ignored by the Apostolic European monarchs, as the Germans were struggling against Papal power, and England and France were still engaged in warfare against each other. However, due to the preaching of [[Seew:Fulk of Neuilly|Fulk of Neuilly]]. The Church , a crusading army was to be finally organized under strict discipline, and at a [[bishopw:tournament (medieval)|tournament]]s, held at [[priestw:Écry-sur-Seine|Écry]]s, and by [[monkw:Thibaut III of Champagne|Count Thibaut]]s had no rights of their own that were not derived from the pope, the unique source of ecclesiastical authority. In 1039 Cluny's [[abbotw:Champagne, France|Champagne]] Odilo turned his in 1199. Thibaut was elected leader, but he died in 1200 and was replaced by an Italian count, [[monasteryw:Boniface I, Marquess of Montferrat|Boniface of Montferrat]] into . Boniface and the head other leaders sent envoys to Venice, Genoa, and other city-states to negotiate a contract for transport to Egypt, the object of their crusade; one of the envoys was the future historian [[w:Geoffrey of Villehardouin|Geoffrey of Villehardouin]]. Genoa was uninterested, but in March 1201 negotiations were opened with Venice, which agreed to transport 33,500 crusaders, a monastic feudal system whose influence spread all over Europevery ambitious number. In 1055 This agreement required a full year of preparation on the Monastery part of Cluny captured the papacy. Pope Innocent III (pope during Venetians to build numerous ships and train the Fourth Crusade) carried these Cluniac ideas about sailors who would man them, all the position of while curtailing the pope city's commercial activities. The crusading army was expected to comprise 4,500 knights (as the sole well as 4,500 horses), 9,000 squires, and highest authority in the Church20,000 foot-soldiers.
The majority of the crusading army that set out from Venice in October 1202 originated from areas within France. It naturally followedincluded men from Blois, thereforeChampagne, that Pope Gregory VII (1073Amiens, Saint-85) conceived of his supremacy over Pol, the temporal powers Ile-de-France and Burgundy. Several other regions of Europe sent substantial contingents as a domination over both the Eastern well, such as Flanders and Western EmpiresMontferrat. This Gregorian Reform stressedOther notable groups came from the [[w:Holy Roman Empire|Holy Roman Empire]], among other thingsincluding the men under Bishops Martin of Pairisand and Conrad of Halberstadt, together in alliance with the primacy Venetian soldiers and sailors led by the Doge of Venice [[w:Enrico Dandolo|Enrico Dandolo]]. The crusade was to make directly for the papacy over centre of the EmpireMuslim world, the infallability Cairo, ready to sail on June 24, 1202. This agreement was ratified by Pope Innocent, with a solemn ban on attacks on Christian states.<ref>Philips Hughes. [http://www.ewtn.com/library/CHISTORY/HUGHHIST.TXT "History of the Church"], and ''Innocent III & the right of popes to depose emperorsLatin East''. Sheed & Ward, 1948. pp.370.</ref>
With this background, and with the experience of the Great Schism in 1054, the papacy's position was that Byzantium was regarded as a rebel, a [[schism|schismatic]] or [[heretic]]al nation which should be brought back to order or eliminated.
2===Papal [[Primacy and Unity in Orthodox Ecclesiology|primacy]] as developed during the Cluniac Reformation (10th-11th c. Resentment ) and the West had long felt against Eastern ChristendomGregorian Reform of Pope Gregory VII.===
The average European, especially those who lived [[Monastery]] of Cluny in French Burgundy taught the northern territories and had no communication or knowledge high doctrine of the power of the Apostolic [[Byzantine EmpireSee]]. The Church was to be organized under strict discipline, were taught to believe and [[bishop]]s, [[priest]]s, and [[monk]]s had no rights of their own that the Greeks were ungodly, a nation not worthy to bear derived from the name pope, the unique source of Christiansecclesiastical authority. Two examples are: #in the 'In 1039 Cluny's [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronicle_of_Morea Chronicle of the Moreaabbot]'' (a 14th Century text naarating ] Odilo turned his [[monastery]] into the establishment head of western-style feudalism in Frankish Greece), there is a speech recorded which clearly shows the division between the Latins and the Greeks; the papal legate at Zara (1202) stated: "''It is better to brings Christians into agreement and like-mindedness, the Franks and the Greeks, than go to Syria with no hope of success''monastic feudal system whose influence spread all over Europe."(Chronicle of Morea p.82). #In 1055 the acccount Monastery of Cluny captured the Second Crusade papacy. Pope Innocent III (1147-49), ''De profectione Ludovici VII in Orientem (On Louis VII's journey to pope during the EastFourth Crusade)'', written by Odo of Deuil, a chaplain to carried these Cluniac ideas about the French King Louis VII and later abbott position of Saint-Denis, Odo explains the failure of pope as the Crusade sole and highest authority in terms of human action rather than as the will of God. He blamed the Byzantine Empire under Manuel Comnenus for the downfall of the Crusade. Odo's prejudice against Byzantium led historian Steven Runciman to describe Odo as "hysterically anti-GreekChurch."
3. Byzantium was regarded by It naturally followed, therefore, that Pope Gregory VII (1073-85) conceived of his supremacy over the average Crusader temporal powers as a traitor to Christendom in that it had consistently been hindering domination over both the Crusades, which were viewed by Crusaders as the liberation of the Holy Places from the infidel.# Emperor [[Alexios I Komnenos|Alexius I Comnenus]] helped the First Crusade but was very cautious, signing an uneasy treaty Eastern and alliance with the CrusadersWestern Empires.# Emperor [[Manuel I Komnenos|Manuel I Comnenus]] promised to help the Second Crusade and signed the same treaty with the Crusaders. HoweverThis Gregorian Reform stressed, he could not help because he was engaged in war against the Norman Prince Roger of Sicilyamong other things, who had invaded Corfu. Manuel had also signed a treaty with the Turks primacy of Iconium; the Crusaders, particularly papacy over the FranksEmpire, bitterly blamed him for their failure.# Emperor [[Isaac II Angelos|Isaac II Angelus]] foolishly imprisoned the ambassadors of Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa (Hohenstauffen), head infallability of the Third CrusadeChurch, who were sent to negotiate passage through imperial territory. Issac also had concluded a treaty with and the Sultan right of Iconium, as he was fearful of Frederick's ambitionspopes to depose emperors.
The fact is that Constantinople was always suspicious of these Western hordesWith this background, sometimes quite unruly, which were passing through its territory full of bigotry and fanaticism against with the Islamic nations neighboring the Empire. Besides, the policy experience of the Byzantine Empire Great Schism in handling 1054, the Moslems and keeping them away papacy's position was quite opposite to the Crusaders' ideals and blind religious fanaticism. Historian Quellerthat Byzantium was regarded as a rebel, quoting Runciman, says that "the concept of Christian War appears to a [[schism|schismatic]] or [[heretic]]al nation which should be alien brought back to the thought and personality of Jesus, and in fact, it was not looked upon favorably by the Greek Churchorder or eliminated."
4. Commercial Rivalries: Venice had the goal of controlling the very important parts of the Empire for the benefit of her trade.===Resentment against Eastern Christendom===
5The average European, especially those who lived in the northern territories and had no communication or knowledge of the [[Byzantine Empire]], were taught to believe that the Greeks were ungodly, a nation not worthy to bear the name of Christians. Western EnvyOne example is found in the ''[[w:Chronicle of the Morea|Chronicle of the Morea]]'' (a 14th Century text naarating the establishment of western-style feudalism in Frankish Greece), there is a speech recorded which clearly shows the division between the Latins and the Greeks; the papal legate at Zara (1202) stated: "''It is better to brings Christians into agreement and like-mindedness, the Franks and the Greeks, than go to Syria with no hope of success''."(Chronicle of Morea p.82). Also, in the acccount of the Second Crusade (1147-49), ''De profectione Ludovici VII in Orientem (On Louis VII's journey to the East)'', written by Odo of Deuil, a chaplain to the French King Louis VII and later abbott of Saint-Denis, Odo explains the failure of the Second Crusade in terms of human action rather than as the will of God. He blamed the Byzantine Empire under Manuel Comnenus for the downfall of the Crusade. Odo's prejudice against Byzantium led historian Steven Runciman to describe Odo as "hysterically anti-Greek."
Envy for the apparent wealth of the Greeks and perhaps the desire to share ===Anti-Byzantine Sentiment in some of the precious holy relics connection with Previous Crusades and treasure in the churches of the imperial capital was another motivation. The primary sources of the First Crusade speak of the awe the Crusaders felt when they first glanced at the Imperial City and the domes of [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]]; the feeling of inferiority is openly discerned as being at work in the Crusaders as a result. Byzantine Relations with Muslim Empires===
More Emperor [[w:Alexios I Komnenos|Alexius I Comnenus]] helped the First Crusade but was very cautious, signing an uneasy treaty and alliance with the Crusaders. Emperor [[w:Manuel I Komnenos|Manuel I Comnenus]] promised to help the pointSecond Crusade and signed the same treaty with the Crusaders, however he could not help because he was engaged in both war against the Norman Prince Roger of Sicily, who had invaded Corfu. Manuel had also signed a treaty with the accounts of Villehardouin and that Turks of Iconium; the Crusader knight Robert Crusaders, particularly the Franks, bitterly blamed him for their failure. Emperor [[w:Isaac II Angelos|Isaac II Angelus]] foolishly imprisoned the ambassadors of Clari Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa (4th CrusadeHohenstauffen), the impression head of the Crusaders is recorded. They Third Crusade, who were stunned by sent to negotiate passage through imperial territory. Issac also had concluded a treaty with the unbelievable wealth and the treasure Sultan of the holy relics Iconium, as he was fearful of ConstantinopleFrederick's ambitions.
6. Bitter Memories# There were bitter memories Constantinople was always suspicious of recent Byzantine attacks on Westerners (in Sicily, West Greece(1098), and in Antioch during the First Crusade). # 1149: The King of France Louis VII supported the suggestion that a European League should launch a new crusade against the emperor who was "Christian Only in Name.Western hordes" The capture of Constantinople should be the crusaders first objective. The Norman Roger of Sicily was in support of the idea, but his ally Pope Eugenius III was hesitant only because he feared the possible increase sometimes quite unruly, which were passing through its territory full of Roger's power.# 1171: Emperor Manuel, having concluded alliances with Pisa bigotry and Genoa, decided to strike at Venice by arresting all Venetians in fanaticism against the Islamic nations neighboring the Empire and confiscating all their ships and goods. Besides, symbolizing the degeneration policy of the Byzantine Empire's relationship with the West and between Latins and Greeks in Constantinople.# 1183-85: during handling the reign of Emperor Andronicus I Comnenus, there was a great massacre of Italians in Constantinople, and all commerical concessions were withdrawn. Andronicus made many enemies Moslems and keeping them away was eventually overthrown by riots in Constantinople.# 1185: Normans took Thessaloniki and subjected inhabitants quite opposite to merciless treatment, partly for revenge of the massacre of Latins in 1183.# 1188: Emperor Isaac II agreed in 1188 to Sultan SaladinCrusaders's request to build a new mosque (ideals and not just use an existing one) in Constantinopleblind religious fanaticism. Its construction is mentioned by Pope Innocent III in a letter of 1210 to the Latin Patriarch of ConstantinopleHistorian Queller, Tommaso Morosini. (Patrologia Latinaquoting Runciman, CCXVI, col. 354.)# 1189: The Third Crusade (1189), headed by German King Frederick Barbarossa, an enemy says that "the concept of Byzantium, was almost turned against Constantinople. The folly of Isaac I in imprisoning Frederick's ambassadors enraged the Crusaders. They occupied Philippopolis in Thrace, and Frederick wrote Christian War appears to his son Henry be alien to send a fleet and attack the capital. He also wrote to the pope for his blessing, stating that it was necessary to eliminate the Empire if they were going to have any success in their enterprise against the Moslems. Negotiations by Isaac thought and a treaty averted the danger at that time. # 1191: Cyprus taken from Byzantines by English King Richard I "Lion Heart," who sold it in 1198 to Frankish Crusaders from previous Crusades ousted from Jerusalem in 1187 when the Arabs retook Jerusalem after 88 years.# 1197: Henry VI, son personality of Frederick BarbarossaJesus, made no secret of his hatred of Byzantium and his ambitions to build a Mediterranean dominion. In 1197 a German expedition landed at Acre in Palestine; fact, it was to be the forerunner of a greater army led not looked upon favorably by Henry himself. Pope Celestine III made no attempt to dissuade him, but he advised him not to attack Constantinople because he was negotiating with the emperor the ''Union of the Churches''. Henry's sudden death at 32 put an end to this German expeditionGreek Church."
=='''Chronology of the Fourth Crusade (Diversion of the Fourth Crusade)'''=Commercial Rivalries with Constantinople and Subsequent Avarice===
NovEnvy for the apparent wealth of the Greeks and perhaps the desire to share in some of the precious holy relics and treasure in the churches of the imperial capital was another motivation. 1198 - The popular preacher Fulk primary sources of Neuilly the First Crusade speak of the awe the Crusaders felt when they first glanced at the Imperial City and the domes of [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]]; the feeling of inferiority is commissioned openly discerned as being at work in the Crusaders as a result. In both of the primary source accounts of Villehardouin and that of the Crusader knight Robert of Clari (4th Crusade), the impression of the Crusaders is recorded, that they were stunned by Pope Innocent III to preach the crusadeunbelievable wealth and the treasure of the holy relics of Constantinople.
28 Nov===Chronology of Aggressive Actions Between the West and Byzantium===:* There were bitter memories of recent Byzantine attacks on Westerners (in Sicily; in West Greece in 1098; and in Antioch during the First Crusade). 1199 :* 1149 The King of France Louis VII supported the suggestion that a European League should launch a new crusade against the emperor who was "Christian Only in Name." The capture of Constantinople should be the crusaders first objective. The Norman Roger of Sicily was in support of the idea, but his ally Pope Eugenius III was hesitant only because he feared the possible increase of Roger's power.:* 1171 Emperor Manuel, having concluded alliances with Pisa and Genoa, decided to strike at Venice by arresting all Venetians in the Empire and confiscating all their ships and goods, symbolizing the degeneration of the Empire's relationship with the West and between Latins and Greeks in Constantinople.:* 1183- At 85 During the tournament reign of Emperor Andronicus I Comnenus, there was a great massacre of Italians in EcryConstantinople, and all commerical concessions were withdrawn. Andronicus made many young counts enemies and was eventually overthrown by riots in Constantinople.:* 1185 Normans took Thessaloniki and subjected inhabitants to merciless treatment, partly for revenge of the massacre of Latins in 1183.:* 1188 Emperor Isaac II agreed in 1188 to Sultan Saladin''take s request to build a new mosque (and not just use an existing one) in Constantinople. Its construction is mentioned by Pope Innocent III in a letter of 1210 to the crossLatin Patriarch of Constantinople, Tommaso Morosini. (''Patrologia Latina'', CCXVI, col. 354.): Thibald * 1189: The Third Crusade headed by German King Frederick Barbarossa, an enemy of Champagne (leader)Byzantium, Louis was almost turned against Constantinople. The folly of BloisIsaac I in imprisoning Frederick's ambassadors enraged the Crusaders. They occupied Philippopolis in Thrace, Simon de Montfortand Frederick wrote to his son Henry to send a fleet and attack the capital. He also wrote to the pope for his blessing, Reynald stating that it was necessary to eliminate the Empire if they were going to have any success in their enterprise against the Moslems. Negotiations by Isaac and a treaty averted the danger at that time. :* 1191 Cyprus taken from Byzantines by English King Richard I "Lion Heart," who sold it in 1198 to Frankish Crusaders from previous Crusades that had been ousted from Jerusalem in 1187 when the Arabs retook it after 88 years.:* 1197 Henry VI, son of MontmirailFrederick Barbarossa, etcmade no secret of his hatred of Byzantium and his ambitions to build a Mediterranean dominion. In 1197 a German expedition landed at Acre in Palestine; it was to be the forerunner of a greater army led by Henry himself. Pope Celestine III made no attempt to dissuade him, but he advised him not to attack Constantinople because he was negotiating with the emperor the ''Union of the Churches''. Henry's sudden death at 32 put an end to this German expedition.
23 Feb. 1200 ==Diversion to Constantinople==<!-- Baldwin [[Sack of Flanders takes the cross.Constantinople]] redirects here - shortly thereafter - at a meeting in Soissons, it was decided to delay the Crusade due to lack of support (manpower).>- 2 months later - at Compiegne - it was decided to take the sea route to the East[[Image:Eugène Ferdinand Victor Delacroix 012. A group of 6 envoys were sent to Venice to negotiate this. Geoffroy de Villehardouin (author of "jpg|thumb|300px|''Chronicles The Entry of the CrusadesCrusaders into Constantinople''"([[Eugène Delacroix]], 1840) . The most infamous action of the Fourth Crusade was one the sack of these.the Orthodox Christian capital city of [[Constantinople]]]]
Feb. 1201 - Ducal Council [[w:Boniface I, Marquess of Doge Enrico Dandolo Montferrat|Boniface of Montferrat]] had left the fleet before it sailed from Venice, to visit his cousin [[w:Philip of Swabia|Philip of Swabia]]. It was decided that The reasons for his visit are a matter of debate. He may have realized the fleet was Venetians' plans and left to be ready by 29 June 1202avoid [[excommunication]], or he may have wanted to meet with the Byzantine prince [[w:Alexius IV Angelos|Alexius IV Angelus]], Philip's brother-in-law and the son of the recently deposed Byzantine emperor [[w:Isaac II Angelos|Isaac II Angelus]]. Young Alexius had fled to Philip when his father was overthrown in 1195, but it is unknown whether or not Boniface knew he was at Philip's court.
June 1201 - at SoissonsThere, Boniface Alexius IV offered 200,000 silver marks, 10,000 men to help the Crusaders, the maintenance of Montferrat takes 500 knights in the cross Holy Land, the service of the Byzantine navy to transport the Crusader Army to Egypt and is made leader the placement of the Crusade[[w:Greek Orthodox Church|Greek Orthodox Church]] under the [[Roman Catholic Church]] if they would sail to Byzantium and topple the reigning emperor Alexius III Angelus. It was a tempting offer for an enterprise that was short on funds. Greco-Latin relationships had been complicated ever since the [[Great Schism]] of 1054.
cThe Latins of the [[w:First Crusade|First]], [[w:Second Crusade|Second]], and [[w:Third Crusade|Third Crusades]] had been hostile to Constantinople on their way to the Holy Land, whereas the Greeks had been accused of betraying the Crusaders to the Turks.Sept. 1201 A large number of Venetian merchants were also attacked and deported during anti- Latin riots in Constantinople in 1182. However, the Byzantine prince's proposal involved his restoration to the throne, not the sack of his capital city, which Count Boniface agreed to. Alexius IV (son returned with the Marquess to rejoin the fleet at Corfu after it had sailed from Zara. The rest of deposed Emperor Isaacthe Crusade's leaders eventually accepted the plan as well. There were many leaders, however, of the rank and file who wanted nothing to do with the proposal, and many deserted. The fleet of 60 war galleys, 100 horse transports, and 50 large transports (the entire fleet was manned by 10,000 Venetian oarsmen and marines) escapes arrived at Constantinople in late June 1203.<ref name="Phillips269">J. Phillips, ''The Fourth Crusade and reaches the West - specifically, Phillip Sack of SwabiaConstantinople's Christmas court in Hagenau Germany', 269</ref> In addition, 300 siege engines were brought along on board the fleet.<ref name="siege">J. Phillips, ''The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople'', 113</ref>
Late SummerWhen the Fourth Crusade arrived at Constantinople, the city had a population of 150,000 people, a garrison of 30,000 men, including 5,000 [[w:Varangians|Varangians]], and a fleet of 20 galleys.<ref name="byzantines">J. Phillips, ''The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople'', 159</Autumn 1201 - Boniface ref> The Crusaders' initial motive was to restore Isaac II to the Byzantine throne so that they could receive the support that they were promised. [[w:Conon de Béthune|Conon of Montferrat arrives at HagenauBethune]] delivered this message to the Lombard envoy who was sent by the reigning emperor [[w:Alexios III Angelos|Alexius III Angelus]], who had deposed his brother Isaac. The citizens of Constantinople were not concerned with the deposed emperor and his exiled son. Usurpations were frequent in Byzantine affairs, and this time the throne had even remained in the same family.
''(Possibility of Phillip of Swabia, The Crusaders sailed alongside Constantinople with 10 galleys to display Alexius IV, and Boniface but from the walls of Montferrat discussing a change in direction for the Crusade city the Byzantines taunted the puzzled crusaders, who had been promised that Prince Alexius would be welcomed.<ref name= diversion "taunt">J. Phillips, ''The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople'', 164</ref> First the crusaders captured and sacked the cities of Chalcedon and Chrysopolis, then they defeated 500 Byzantine cavalrymen in battle with just 80 Frankish knights.<ref name="battle">J. Phillips, ''The Fourth Crusade).and the Sack of Constantinople'', 162</ref>
''Feb===Siege of July 1203===To take the city by force, the crusaders first needed to cross the Bosphorus. 1202 - Alexius speaks About 200 ships, horse transports and galleys would undertake to Pope Innocent deliver the crusading army across the narrow strait, where Alexius IIIhad lined up the Byzantine army in battle formation along the shore, north of the suburb of Galata.The Crusader''s knights charged straight out of the horse transports, and the Byzantine army fled south. [[Image:Constantinople Mural Fourth Crusade.jpg|thumb|left|300px|A mural depicting the Venetian Fleet entering the [[Golden Horn]] after breaking the chains that protected the city]]The Crusaders followed south, and attacked the Tower of Galata, which held one end of the chain that blocked access to the Golden Horn. As they laid siege to the Tower, the Greeks counterattacked with some initial success. However, when the Crusaders rallied and the Greeks retreated to the Tower, the Crusaders were able to follow the soldiers through the Gate, and the Tower surrendered. The Golden Horn now lay open to the Crusaders, and the Venetian fleet entered.
''March 1202 - Boniface speaks On July 11, the Crusaders took positions opposite the Blachernae palace on the northwest corner of the city, and began the siege in earnest on July 17, with Pope Innocent IIIfour divisions attacking the land walls, while the Venetian fleet attacked the sea walls from the Golden Horn. The Venetians took a section of the wall of about 25 towers, while the Varangian guard held off the Crusaders on the land wall. The Varangians shifted to meet the new threat, and the Venetians retreated under the screen of fire. The fire destroyed about 120 acres of the City.''
15 AugAlexius III finally took offensive action, and led 17 divisions from the St. 1202 - Boniface joins Romanus Gate, vastly outnumbering the crusaders. Alexius III's army in Veniceof about 8,500 men faced the Crusader's 7 divisions (about 3,500 men), but his courage failed, and the Byzantine army returned to the city without a fight.<ref name="battle2">J. Phillips, ''The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople'', 177</ref> The retreat and the effects of the fire greatly damaged morale, causing the citizens of Constantinople to turn against Alexius III, who then fled. The destructive fire left 20,000 people homeless.<ref name="fire">J. Phillips, ''The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople'', 176</ref> Prince Alexius was elevated to the throne as Alexius IV along with his blind father Isaac.
Early Autumn 1202 - too few Crusaders show up; great debt owed ===Further attacks on Constantinople===Alexius IV realised that his promises were hard to Venicekeep. Alexius III had managed to flee with 1,000 pounds of gold and some priceless jewels, leaving the imperial treasury short on funds. At that point the young emperor ordered the destruction and melting of valuable Byzantine and Roman icons in order to extract their gold and silver, but even then he could only raise 100,000 silver marks. In the eyes of all Greeks who knew of this decision, it was a shocking sign of desperation and weak leadership, which deserved to be punished by God. The Byzantine historian Nicetas Choniates characterized it as "''the turning point towards the decline of the Roman state''".
1 OctThus Alexius IV had to deal with the growing hatred by the citizens of Constantinople for the "Latins" and vice versa. 1202 In fear of his life, the co- Army sets out for emperor asked the Dalmatian coastCrusaders to renew their contract for another six months, to end by April 1204. There was, nevertheless, still fighting in the city of Zara.In August 1203 the crusaders attacked a mosque, which was defended by a combined Muslim and Greek opposition. Meanwhile, Alexius IV had led 6,000 men from the Crusader army against his rival Alexius V in Adrianople.<ref name = "exp"/>
After 10 Nov. 1202 - On the second attempt of the Venetians to set up a letter wall of Pope Innocent III forbids fire to aid their escape, they instigated the Crusaders "Great Fire", in which a large part of Constantinople was burned down. Opposition to attack any Christian cityAlexius IV grew, and he names Zara by nameone of his courtiers, since the king Alexius Ducas (nicknamed 'Murtzuphlos' because of that city his thick eyebrows), soon overthrew him and had also taken him strangled to death. Alexius Ducas took the crossthrone himself as [[w:Alexios V Doukas|Alexius V]]; Isaac died soon afterward, probably of natural causes.
11-24 Nov. 1202 - Siege The crusaders and Venetians, incensed at the murder of Zaratheir supposed patron, demanded that Murtzuphlos honor the contract which Alexius IV had promised. The When the Byzantine emperor refused the Crusaders assaulted the city is sackedonce again. On April 8, Alexius V's army put up a strong resistance which did much to discourage the crusaders.
After 24 Nov.1202 - The pope excomminicates Greeks pushed enormous projectiles onto the Crusadersenemy siege engines, but shortly thereafter absolves shattering many of them all (except . A serious hindrance to the Venetians), in order crusaders was bad weather conditions. Wind blew from the shore and prevented most of the ships from drawing close enough to prevent the breakup walls to launch an assault. Only five of the CrusadeGreek towers were actually engaged and none of these could be secured; by mid-afternoon it was evident that the attack had failed.
DecThe clergy discussed the situation amongst themselves and settled upon the message they wished to spread through the demoralized army. 1202 - Boniface arrives at ZaraThey had to convince the men that the events of [[April 9]] were not God's judgment on a sinful enterprise: the campaign, they argued, was righteous and with proper belief it would succeed. The concept of God testing the determination of the crusaders through temporary setbacks was a familiar means for the clergy to explain failure in the course of a campaign.
The clergy'''Dec. 1202 - Envoys of Phillip of Swabia arrive in Zara s message was designed to reassure and present encourage the proposal of Alexius IV to crusaders. Their argument that the Crusade leaders -- for them to restore Alexius to attack on Constantinople was spiritual revolved around two themes. First, the throne in exchange for a list of hefty concessionsGreeks were traitors and murderers since they had killed their rightful lord, Alexius IV.The churchmen used inflammatory language and claimed that "''the Greeks were worse than the Jews''", and they invoked the authority of God and the pope to take action.
24 May 1203 - The Crusaders depart Although Innocent III had again demanded that they not attack, the papal letter was suppressed by the clergy, and the crusaders prepared for their own attack, while the Venetians attacked from Corfu after having ratified the proposal of Alexius IV, in sea. AlexiusV' presences army stayed in the city to fight, by oath. along with the imperial bodyguard, the [[w:Varangians|Varangians]], but Alexius accompanies V himself fled during the Crusaders from here onnight.
24 June 1203 - Arrival before ===Final capture of Constantinople===On [[April 12]] 1204 the weather conditions finally favoured the Crusaders. A strong northern wind aided the Venetian ships to come close to the wall. After a short battle, approximately seventy crusaders managed to enter the city. Some Crusaders were eventually able to knock holes in the walls , small enough for a few knights at a time to crawl through; the Venetians were also successful at scaling the walls from the sea, though there was extremely bloody fighting with the [[w:Varangians#The Varangian Guard|Varangians]]. The crusaders captured the [[w:Blachernae|Blachernae]] section of Constantinoplethe city in the northwest and used it as a base to attack the rest of the city, but while attempting to defend themselves with a wall of fire, they ended up burning down even more of the city.This second fire left 15,000 people homeless.<ref name="exp">J. Phillips, ''The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople'', 209</ref>
18 June 1203 - FIRST SEIGE of The Crusaders took the city on [[April 12]]. The crusaders inflicted a horrible and savage sacking on Constantinoplefor three days, during which many ancient and medieval Roman and Greek works were either stolen or destroyed. The city fallsmagnificent [[w:Library of Constantinople|Library of Constantinople]] was destroyed. First fire in Despite their oaths and the threat of excommunication, the Crusaders ruthlessly and systematically violated the city's holy sanctuaries, destroying, defiling, or stealing all they could lay hands on; nothing was spared. Alexius III fleesIt was said that the total amount looted from Constantinople was about 900, 000 silver marks. The Venetians received 150,000 silver marks that was their due, while the Crusaders received 50,000 silver marks. A further 100,000 silver marks were divided evenly up between the Crusaders and then Alexius IV and Isaac are crowned co-emperorsVenetians. The remaining 500,000 silver marks were secretly kept back by many Crusader knights.
August 1203 - Delays Speros Vryonis in payment by Alexius IV to ''Byzantium and Europe'' gives a vivid account of the Crusaders detain them in sack of Constantinople. They end up wintering in by the city instead Frankish and Venetian Crusaders of leaving for Egypt.the Fourth Crusade:
Dec<blockquote>The Latin soldiery subjected the greatest city in Europe to an indescribable sack. 1203 - JanFor three days they murdered, raped, looted and destroyed on a scale which even the ancient Vandals and Goths would have found unbelievable.1204 Constantinople had become a veritable museum of ancient and Byzantine art, an emporium of such incredible wealth that the Latins were astounded at the riches they found. Though the Venetians had an appreciation for the art which they discovered (they were themselves semi- Riots Byzantines) and saved much of it, the French and others destroyed indiscriminately, halting to refresh themselves with wine, violation of nuns, and murder of Orthodox clerics. The Crusaders vented their hatred for the Greeks most spectacularly in the citydesecration of the greatest Church in Christendom. Second fire They smashed the silver iconostasis, the icons and the holy books of [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]], and seated upon the patriarchal throne a whore who sang coarse songs as they drank wine from the Church's holy vessels. The estrangement of East and West, which had proceeded over the centuries, culminated in the horrible massacre that accompanied the conquest of Constantinople. The Greeks were convinced that even the Turks, had they taken the city, would not have been as cruel as the Latin Christians. The defeat of Byzantium, already in a state of decline, accelerated political degeneration so that the Byzantines eventually became an easy prey to the Turks. The Crusading movement thus resulted, ultimately, in the victory of Islam, a result which was of course the exact opposite of its original intention.<ref>Vryonis, Speros. ''Byzantium and Europe''. Harcourt, Brace & World, New York, 1967. pp.152</ref><ref>Philip Hughes. [http://www.ewtn.com/library/CHISTORY/HUGHHIST.TXT "History of the Church Vol II"], ''Innocent III & the Latin East''. Sheed & Ward, 1948. pp.372.</ref> </blockquote>.
28 JanAccording to Choniates, a prostitute was even set up on the Patriarchal throne. <ref>[http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/choniates1.html "The Sack of Constantinople"], Nicetas Choniates, 1204 - A coup d'etat by Murtzuphlus.</ref> When Innocent III heard of the conduct of his pilgrims, who crowns himself Alexius Vhe was filled with shame and strongly rebuked them.
8 AprilAccording to a prearranged treaty, 1204 - SECOND SIEGE the empire was apportioned between Venice and the crusade's leaders, and the Latin Empire of Constantinople beginswas established. Boniface was not elected as the new emperor, although the citizens seemed to consider him as such. The Venetians thought he had too many connections with the former empire because of his brother, [[w:Renier of Montferrat|Renier of Montferrat]], who had been married to [[w:Maria Komnene (Porphyrogenita)|Maria Comnena (Porphyrogenita)]], empress in the 1170s and 80s. Instead they placed [[w:Baldwin I of Constantinople|Baldwin of Flanders]] on the throne. Boniface went on to found the [[w:Kingdom of Thessalonica|Kingdom of Thessalonica]], a vassal state of the new Latin Empire. The Venetians also founded the [[w:Duchy of the Archipelago|Duchy of the Archipelago]] in the Aegean Sea.
'''12 AprilMeanwhile, 1204 - The city falls. A great sack follows. Byzantine refugees founded their own successor states, the most notable of these being the [[w:Empire of Nicaea|Empire of Nicaea]] under [[w:Theodore I Laskaris|Theodore Lascaris]] (a relative of Alexius V flees secretly. Third great fire in III), the [[w:Empire of Trebizond|Empire of Trebizond]], and the city[[w:Despotate of Epiros|Despotate of Epirus]].'''
16 MaySir [[w:Edward Gibbon|Edward Gibbon]] stated that the spoils taken during one week in Constantinople equalled seven times the whole revenue of England at that time<ref>Treece, 1204 - Baldwin Henry. ''The Crusades''. London, 1962</ref>. The four magnificent bronze horses over the portals of Flanders is crowned San Marco's Basilica in Venice were snatched from the first Latin emperor Byzantine hippodrome, standing monuments of one of the new "Latin Empire greatest acts of Constantinople (Romania)brigandage in history."
''((These dates were largely taken The treasures of the city, the books and works of art preserved from Jonathan Riley-Smith distant centuries, were all dispersed and Niketas Choniates))most destroyed. The Empire, the great Eastern bulwark of Christendom, was broken as a power. The conquests of the Ottomans were made possible by the Crusaders' crime<ref>Runciman, Steven. ''Byzantine Civilization''. Cleveland World Publ. Co. 1965. pp.46</ref>.
==A Roman Catholic patriarch was established and attempted to introduce Roman Catholicism by force. The Sack==new Venetian Patriarch in Constantinople, Tommaso Morosini, was appointed by the Doge of Venice, Enrico Dandolo (the main person who engineered the diversion of the Fourth Crusade); and according to Gibbon, the Venetians employed every art to perpetuate in their own nation the honors and benefices of the Greek church. Morosini appealed to the Pope for aid, and being unable to serve so many derisive masters, he died a madman. The new papal legate, Pelagius, rode into Constantinople dressed in scarlet from head to foot, like a Greek Emperor himself, and soon asserted that the easy days were over: Thenceforth the Greek clergy must adapt themselves in all religious rites and beliefs to those of the Church of Rome. He was prepared to wade through blood, he quickly showed, should the Orthodox Greeks deny any part of his assertion<ref>Treece, Henry. ''The Crusades''. London, 1962. pp.230-231</ref>.
Speros Vryonis [[Image:Greece_in_1214.JPG|right|thumb|Greece in 1214]]After the ''Byzantium and Europe[[w:Battle of the Olive Grove of Koundouros|Battle of the Olive Grove of Koundouros]],'' gives a vivid account of which took place in the sack spring of Constantinople by 1205, in Messinia, Peloponnese, between the Frankish Franks and Venetian Crusaders the Greeks, all the castles and cities of the Fourth Crusade:Peloponnese fell to the Franks. Meanwhile, the Venetians took possession of Crete in 1211, and retained it until ousted by the Ottoman Turks in 1669, a full 458 years later.
===Recovery===In 1261 Emperor [[w:"The Latin soldiery subjected Michael VIII Palaiologos|Michael Palaeologus]] reconquered Constantinople for the greatest city in Europe to an indescribable sack. For three days they murdered, rapedByzantines, looted and destroyed on a scale which even the ancient Vandals and Goths would have found unbelievable. Constantinople had become a veritable museum of ancient and Byzantine art, an emporium control of such incredible wealth that the Latins were astounded city at the riches they found. Though last passed from the Venetians had an appreciation for to the art which they discovered (they were themselves semi-Byzantines) and saved much of it, the French and others destroyed indiscriminately, halting to refresh themselves with wine, violation of nuns, and murder of Orthodox clerics[[w:Palaiologos|Paleologus Dynasty]]. The Crusaders vented their hatred for Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus made the Greeks most spectacularly in the desecration city of the greatest Church in Christendom. They smashed the silver [[iconostasisw:Mystras|Mystras]], in the icons and Peloponnese the holy books seat of Hagia Sophia, and seated upon the patriarchal throne a whore who sang coarse songs as they drank wine from the Church's holy vessels. The estrangement new [[w:Despotate of East and West, which had proceeded over the centuries, culminated in the horrible massacre that accompanied the conquest Morea|Despotate of Constantinople. The Greeks were convinced that even the TurksMorea]], had they taken the citywhere a Byzantine Renaissance occured, would not have been as cruel as the Latin Christianswhich was to last until 1460. The defeat of Byzantium, already [[Image:Greece_in_1278.JPG|right|thumb|Greece in a state 1278]]In September of decline1259, accelerated political degeneration so that the Byzantines eventually became an easy prey to defeated the Turks. The Crusading movement thus resulted, ultimately, in the victory Latin Principality of Islam, a result which was of course Achaea at the exact opposite of its original intention." (Vryonis, ''Byzantium and Europe[[w:Battle of Pelagonia|Battle of Pelagonia]]'', p.152)marking the beginning of the Byzantine recovery of Greece.
Sir Edward Gibbon stated that the spoils taken during one week in Constantinople equalled seven times the whole revenue of England at that time (Treece). The four magnificent bronze horses over the portals of San Marco's Basilica in Venice were snatched from the Byzantine hippodrome, standing monuments of one of the greatest acts of brigandage in history.
Its hard ==Papal Apology to exaggerate the harm done to European civilization by the sack Orthodox Church==In May of Constantinople. The treasures of the city2001, the books and works of art preserved from distant centuriesPope [[John Paul II]] visited Athens, were all dispersed and most destroyed. The EmpireGreece, the great Eastern bulwark first visit of Christendom, was broken as a powerpope in nearly 1300 years. The conquests Pope John Paul II and Archbishop [[Christodoulos (Paraskevaides) of Athens|Christodoulos]] met at the Ottomans were made possible by Aereopagus, where the Crusaders' crime(Runciman, p.46)[[Apostle Paul]] preached to Athenians 2000 years ago.
A Roman Catholic patriarch was established Pope John Paul II stated: "''For occasions past and attempted to introduce Roman Catholicism by force. The new Venetian Patriarch in Constantinople, Tommaso Morosini, was appointed by present when the Doge sons and daughters of Venice, Enrico Dandolo (the main person who engineered the diversion of the Fourth Crusade); Catholic Church have sinned by actions and omission against their Orthodox brothers and according to Gibbonsisters, may the Venetians employed every art to perpetuate in their own nation Lord grant us the honors and benefices forgiveness we beg of the Greek churchHim. Morosini appealed to ''" Many Orthodox regard this as a "political" apology for the Pope for aid, and being unable to serve so many derisive masters, he died a madman. The new papal legate, Pelagius, rode into sacking of Constantinople dressed in scarlet from head to foot1204, like a Greek Emperor himselfas well as for other issues, and soon asserted that the easy days were over: Thenceforth the Greek clergy must adapt themselves but it was clearly not in all any way or form a religious rites and beliefs to those or doctrinal apology on the part of the Roman Catholic Church of Rome. He was prepared to wade through blood, he quickly showed, should the Orthodox Greeks deny any part of his assertion (Treece, pp.230-231).
After In April 2004, in a speech on the 800th anniversary of the city''Battle s capture, Ecumenical Patriarch [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople|Bartholomew I]] formally accepted the Olive Grove apology. "''The spirit of Koundourosreconciliation is stronger than hatred,'' which took place in the spring " he said during a liturgy attended by Roman Catholic Archbishop Philippe Barbarin of 1205Lyon, in Messinia, Peloponnese, between the Franks France. "''We receive with gratitude and respect your cordial gesture for the Greeks, all the castles and cities tragic events of the Peloponnese fell to the FranksFourth Crusade. Meanwhile, It is a fact that a crime was committed here in the Venetians took possession of Crete, and retained it until ousted by the Ottoman Turks in 1669, a full 465 city 800 years laterago.  '''Recovery''' In September of 1259, " Bartholomew said his acceptance came in the Byzantines defeated the Latin Principality spirit of Achaea at the Pascha. "''Battle The spirit of Pelagonia'', marking the beginning reconciliation of the Byzantine recovery of Greeceresurrection.In 1261 Emperor Michael Palaeologus reconquered Constantinople for the Byzantines, and control of the city at last passed from the Venetians to the Paleologus Dynasty. Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus made the city incites us toward reconciliation of Mystras in the Peloponnese the seat of the new Despotate of Morea, which was to last until 1460our churches. ''"<ref>[http://www.incommunion.org/articles/issue-33/news-issue-33 'Papal 'Patriarch accepts Pope’s Apology to Orthodox Church.''] ''''May 4, 2001 -- Pope [[John Paul II]] apologizes to Orthodox Church The papal visit to Athens, Greece was the first in nearly 1300 Years. Pope John Paul II and Archbishop Christodoulos met at the Aereopagus Hill, where the [[Apostle Paul]] preached to Athenians 2000 years ago. Pope John Paul II stated'In Communion: "For occassions past and present when the sons and daughters Website of the Catholic Church have sinned by actions and omission against their Orthodox brothers and sisters, may the Lord grant us the forgiveness we beg of Him." Many Orthodox regard this as a Peace Fellowship'political' apology for the sacking of Constantinople in 1204, as well as for other issues, but it was clearly not in any way or form a 'religious/doctrinal' apology on the part of the Roman Catholic Church', News - Issue 33.</ref>
==Further reading==
*[[Wikipedia:Fourth Crusade]]
* [http://aggreen.net/church_history/1204_sack.html The Sack of Constantinople] - by Nicholas A. Cooke
* {{note|1}} [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/choniates1.html Nicetas Choniates: The Sack of Constantinople (1204)] - from the ''Medieval Sourcebook''
* ''The Cambridge Medieval History: Vol. IV-The Byzantine Empire: Part 1-Byzantium and Its Neighbours''.
 
==References==
<div class="small"><references/></div>
==Sources==
* Morris, Colin. ''Geoffrey De Villehardouin and the Conquest of Constantinople''. (article).
* Folda, J. "''The Fourth Crusade 1201-1203: Some Reconsiderations''." in Byzantino-Slavica 26(1965),pp.227-290.
* Hughes, Philip. [http://www.ewtn.com/library/CHISTORY/HUGHHIST.TXT "A History of the Church Vol II"]. Sheed & Ward, 1948.
* [http://www.incommunion.org/articles/issue-33/news-issue-33 ''Patriarch accepts Pope’s Apology.''] '' '''In Communion: Website of Orthodox Peace Fellowship''' '', News - Issue 33.
===Primary Sources===

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