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Sergius (Stragorodsky) of Moscow

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[[File:Serge de Moscou.jpg|thumb|250px]]'''Serguis I Sergius (Stragorodsky) of Moscow''' was the seventeenth [[Patriarch ]] of Moscow and All Russia. He previously served as a bishop in three dioceses, and as deputy and patriarchal ''[[locum tenens]]'' from 1927 to 1943, having ascended to this position following the death of Patr. Tikhon and imprisonment of Metr. [[Peter (Polyansky) of Krutitsy|Peter of Krutitsy]], the previous locum tenens. He was particularly known and criticized for his allegedly willing submission to the Soviet government in Russia, often referred to as ''Sergianism''.
==Life==Ivan Nikolayevich Stragorodsky was born in the town of Arzamas near Nizhny Novgorod on [[January 11]], 1867. His father, Nicholas, was an arch[[priest]]. After receiving the name Sergius when he was tonsured a [[monk]] , he studied in the Nizhny Novgorod [[seminary]] , followed by studies at the [[St. Petersburg Theological Academy]]. Sergius became proficient in Greek, Latin, and Hebrew. He was then [[ordination|ordained]] to the [[deacon|diaconate]] and then to the priesthood. He was soon raised to the rank of [[archimandrite]]. In September 1890, he arrived in Japan to assist Bp. [[Nicholas (Kasatkin) of Japan|Nicholas of Japan]]. Here, while he taught at the [[Tokyo Orthodox Seminary (Tokyo, Japan)|Tokyo Orthodox Seminary]], he became fluent in Japanese before his return to Russia in 1898. Upon his return to the St. Petersburg Academy in 1899 , he was appointed [[rector]].
In 1901, Sergius was appointed [[Archbishop]] of Finland and Vyborg. In 1911, he was became a member of the [[Holy Synod]] of the [[Church of Russia]]. He was transferred to the diocese of Vladimir and Shuya on [[August 10]],1917. Subsequently, he was raised to the dignity office of metropolitan on [[November 28]],1917 by Patr. [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon]]. With the Bolsheviks now ruling Russia, Sergius was arrested in January 1921 and spent several months in jail before being exiled to to Nizhny Novgorod. Between [[June 16]], 1922 and [[August 27]], 1923, Sergius became involved in the Renovationist schism, the so-called [[Living Church]], but repented his actions publicly and was forgiven by Patr. Tikhon. The Patriarch appointed him Metropolitan of Nizhny Novgorod on [[March 18]],1924.[[Image:Mitr_sergius.jpg|thumb|180px|Sergius as Metropolitan of Nizhny Novgorod.|left]]In the uncertain atmosphere in which the Russian Church found itself in the early 1920s, Patr. Tikhon recognized that proper election of his successor may not be possible. Therefore, he presented in his will a list of three candidates, of which one would be elected to assume leadership of the Church after his death. After Patr. Tikhon's death on [[April 7]], 1925, Metr. Peter of Krutitsy and Kolomna was elected Patriarchal ''Locum Tenens'' and, following Tikhon's example, he produced a succession candidate list of three. These candidates, at the time, were not in prison or in exile. Eight months later Metr. Peter was arrested, and of those on Peter's list only Metr. Sergius was not imprisoned. Thus, he assumed leadership of the Church under the title ''Deputy Patriarchal Locum Tenens'' on the assumption that Metr. Peter was the ''de jure'' locum tenens and would resume leadership when he was released from prison. (Metr. Peter was never released.)
In the uncertain atmosphere that the Russian Church found itself Metr. Sergius himself was in the early 1920s in which Patr. Tikhon recognized proper election of his successor may not be possibleprison from [[November 30]], he presented in his will a list of three candidates of which one would be elected 1926 to assume leadership of the Church after his death. After Patr. Tikhon's death on [[April 7March 27]], 1925, Metr1927. Peter After his release Sergius strived for some way of Krutitsy obtaining a peaceful reconciliation with the Bolsheviks so as to stop the terror and Kolomna was elected Patriarchal persecution against the Church. In his most (in)famous attempt, Sergius issued a ''Locum TenensDeclaration'' andon [[July 20]], following Tikhon's example, he produced a succession candidate list of three. These candidates, at the time, were not 1927 in prison or in exile. Eight months later Metr. Peter was arrested, and of those on Peter's list only Metr. Sergius was not imprisoned. Thus, which he assumed leadership pledged absolute loyalty of the [[Church using of Russia]] to the title ''Deputy Patriarchal Locum Tenens'' on the assumption that MetrBolshevik regime. Peter was This declaration caused an immediate controversy among the ''de jure'' locum tenens Russian [[clergy]] and would resume leadership was he was released from prison[[laity]], many of whom broke communion with him, both internally in Russia as well as abroad. (MetrThis controversy has continued even after the fall of the Bolshevik government. Peter's was never released.)
Metr. Sergius himself was in prison from [[November 30]]However, 1926 to [[March 27]], 1927. After through his release Sergius strived for some ways of obtaining a peaceful reconciliation with the Bolsheviks so as declaration he was able to stop the terror and persecution against the Church. In the most (im)famous attempt, Sergius issued establish a ''DeclarationTemporary Patriarchal Council''that received government recognition. In 1934, he assumed the title of His Beatitude, Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomna. In 1936, on [[July 20]], 1927the basis of reports of Metr. Peter's death, although in which reality he pledged absolute loyalty wasn't executed until 1937, Metr. Sergius assumed the title of Patriarchal Locum Tenens. But arrests and executions of the Orthodox clergy and destruction of [[Church of Russiacathedral]] to the Bolshevik regime. This declaration caused an immediate controversy among the Russian s, [[clergychurch]] es and other Church property continued. By mid-1941, only four [[laitybishop]] many of whom broke communion with him, both internally s remained free in Russia as well as abroad. This controversy has continued even after the fall territory of the Bolshevik governmentUSSR.
However, through his declaration he was able to establish a ''Temporary Patriarchal Council'' that received government recognition. In 1934, he assumed With the title of His Beatitude, Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomna. In 1936, serious strain on the basis of reports of Metr. Peter's death, although he did not died until his execution USSR caused by the Nazi invasion in 19371941, Metr. Sergius assumed Joseph Stalin began scaling down on the title campaign of Patriarchal Locum Tenens. But arrests militant [[atheism]] advocated by the Bolsheviks and executions of sought the Orthodox clergy moral and destruction financial support of the Church of Russia in the war. Stalin, on [[cathedralSeptember 4]]s, 1943, met with the hierarchy of the Church and, in exchange for their loyalty and assistance, gave concessions to religion. Among these concessions were permission to open the [[churchMoscow Theological Academy and Seminary]]es , release of imprisoned clergy, and other Church return of church property continued. By mid 1941, only four including the [[bishopHoly Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra]]s remained free in . This was at the territory cost of the USSRincreased control by government secret services.
With the serious strain on the USSR caused by the Nazi invasion in 1941, Joseph Stalin began scaling down on the campaign of militant [[atheism]] advocated by the Bolsheviks and sought the moral and financial support of the Church of Russia in the war. Stalin, on [[September 4]], 1943, met with the hierarchy of the Church and, in exchange for their loyalty and assistance, gave concessions to religion. Among these concessions were permission to open the Moscow Theological Seminary and Academy, release of imprisoned clergy, and return of church property including the [[Holy Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra]]. This was at the cost of increased control by government secret services.  Among the concessions was an important one, that was : permission to convene a council to elect a new Patriarchpatriarch. At a formal meeting of bishops, on [[September 8]], 1943, Metr. Sergius was elected to the [[see]] of the Patriarch of Moscow. Although of advanced age, (he was 76, ) and ailing in health, he was enthroned on [[September 12]], 1943. He died eight months later on [[May 15]],1944 in Moscow.   ==External link==* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patriarch_Sergius_I_of_Moscow Wikipedia: Sergius_I_of_Moscow]
{{start box}}
{{succession|
before=?[[Nicholas (Nailimov) of Vladimir and Suzdal|Nicholas (Nailimov)]]|
title=Archbishop of Finland and Vyborg |
years=1901-1917|
after=?}}
{{succession|
before=?Aleksy (Dorodnitsyn)|title=Metropolitan of Vladimir and Shuya|
years=1917-1924|
after=?Kornelius (Sobolev)}}
{{succession|
before=?[[Evdokim (Meschersky) of the Aleutians|Evdokim (Meschersky)]]|title=[[Eparchy of Nizhny Novgorod and Arzamas|Metropolitan of Nizhny Novgorod]]|
years=1924-1934|
after=?}}{{succession|before=?|title=Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomna|years=1934-1943|after=?[[Eugene (Zernov)]]}}
{{succession|
before=[[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon I (BelavinBellavin)]]|
title=[[Church of Russia|Patriarch of Moscow]]|
years=1943-1944|
{{end box}}
== External link ==
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patriarch_Sergius_I_of_Moscow Wikipedia: Sergius I of Moscow]
* [http://regels.org/TRCcont.htm Tragedy of Russian Church. 1917-1953. Lev Regelson. Afterword by John Meyendorff.]
[[Category:Bishops]]
[[Category:Bishops of Vyborg]]
[[Category:Bishops of Vladimir]]
[[Category:Bishops of Nizhny Novgorod]]
[[Category:Bishops of Moscow]]
[[Category:Patriarchs of Moscow]]
[[Category:20th-century bishops]]
[[Category:St. Petersburg Academy Graduates]]

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