In 1928, the Metropolitan of Transylvania sent Fr. Trandafir Scorobet to survey and report the status of the Romanian Orthodox parishes in America. At a meeting on [[January 30]], 1928, with the Romanian [[clergy]] in Cleveland, Ohio, he recommended reorganizing the church in America with the establishment of an episcopate. Then, on [[April 25]], 1929, at a general congress of clergy and laity in Detroit, Michigan, an Autonomous Missionary Episcopate was formed under the canonical jurisdiction of [[Holy Synod]] the [[Church of Romania]]. The resolution of the congress was accepted by the Romanian Patriarchate with Decree No. 10210 in November 1930 and the Romanian Holy Synod proclaimed the establishment of the Romanian Orthodox Episcopate of America.
On [[January 26]], 1935, the Holy Synod of Romania elected [[Archimandrite]] Polycarp (Morsca) as the first bishop of the new episcopate. After his consecration in Europe on [[March 24]], 1935, Bp. Polycarp arrived in the United States and was enthroned in Detroit during the Church Congress on [[July 4]], 1935. A statute for the episcopate was also enacted at the congress. Bp. Polycarp was able to heal the factional disputes by accepting what he found, but expected order and discipline thenceforth. He established the foundations for many church organizations and, in 1937, was instrumental in the acquisition of property in Michigan, called Vatra, that became the headquarters for the episcopate. After formally inaugurating the headquarters, Bp. Polycarp returned to Romania in 1939 for a session of the Holy Synod, but was prevented by the
start of World War II from returning to the United States.
During the time of World War II the administration of the episcopate operated in a subdued manner awaiting the return of Bp. Polycarp. After the war, his return was again stopped, this time by the new Communist government. While prevented from returning he advised his community by a letter on [[July 30]], 1947, that he still considered himself the bishop of the Episcopate. But, later in the year, by a letter on [[December 8]], 1947, he advised that by a law (No. 166 of 1947) funding for the episcopate had been eliminated and the Episcopate was dissolved in the view of the government, and that he, Bp. Polycarp, was placed in retirement.