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Chrismation

1,525 bytes added, 21:20, June 13, 2013
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[[Image:Chrismation.jpg|right|thumb|A priest administering the sacred Chrism on a newly chrismated womanchrism]]
{{spirituality}}
'''Chrismation''' (sometimes called '''confirmation''') is the [[sacramentHoly Mysteries|holy mystery]] by which a [[baptism|baptized]] person is granted the gift of the [[Holy Spirit]] through anointing with oil. As Baptism baptism is a personal participation in the death and [[Pascha|Resurrection]] of [[Jesus Christ|Christ]], so Chrismation chrismation is a personal participation in the coming of the Holy Spirit at [[Pentecost]].
==Theology and Practice practice ==Unlike in the Western churches (e.g., [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] and [[Anglican Communion|Anglican]]), where confirmation is typically reserved to those of "the age of reason," Chrismation chrismation in the Orthodox Church (as well as the [[Eastern_Catholic|Eastern Rite Catholic Churches]]) is normally administered to infants immediately after [[baptism]] and immediately (or at least shortly) before one's first reception of Holy Communion.
Chrismation is practiced by anointing the new Christian with '''[[chrism''' ]], which is holy oil (Gk. '''''myron'''''). The myron is a "mixture of forty sweet-smelling substances and pure olive oil" (Gialopsos, 35). The Christian is anointed with this oil in the sign of the Cross on his forehead, eyes, nostrils, mouth, ears, breastchest, hands and feet. Each time, the priest administering the sacrament says, "The Seal and Gift of the Holy Spirit."
The Sacrament sacrament of chrismation is an extension of the Day day of [[Pentecost]], on which the Holy Spirit was poured out on the Apostles. It is by Chrismation that a person becomes a layperson —a member of the ''laos'', the people of God. Bishop [[Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia]] explains:
:Through Chrismation every member of the Church becomes a prophet, and receives a share in the royal priesthood of Christ; all Christians alike, because they are chrismated, are called to act as conscious witnesses to the Truth. 'You have an anointing (''chrisma'') from the Holy One, and know all things' ([[I John]] 2:20) (Ware, 279).
Although normally administered in conjunction with Baptismbaptism, in some cases chrismation alone may be used to receive [[convert]]s to Orthodoxy through the exercise of ''[[economia]]''. Although practice in this regard varies, in general (especially in North America) if a convert comes to Orthodoxy from another Christian confession and has previously undergone a rite of baptism by immersion in the Trinitarian Formula ("in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit"), he or she may be received into the Orthodox Church through the sacrament of chrismation, after which receiving the Holy Eucharist. If, however, a convert comes from a Christian confession that baptizes in the Name of "Jesus only" (such as some Pentecostal churches) or from one that does not practice baptism at all (such as Quakers and the Salvation Army), baptism is a prerequisite for chrismation. The use of ''economia'' is at the discretion of, and subject to the guidelines imposed by, the local [[bishop]].
==Apostolic Foundationsfoundations==Although some non-Orthodox Christians level the charge that the sacraments other than [[baptism]] and [[Eucharist]] are not Biblically based, but rather human traditions, this is not so. The sacrament of chrismation can be observed in the New Testament.
Although some non-Orthodox Christians level the charge that the Sacraments other than The [[BaptismActs of the Apostles]] and [[Eucharist]] are not Biblically based, but rather human traditions, this is not soshow us that a sort of confirmation was going on even in the early Church. The Sacrament As the Christian community expanded both numerically and geographically into many locations both within and outside of Chrismation can be observed in the New TestamentJewish world, the Apostles were soon not the only ones preaching the Gospel and Baptizing people into Christ.
The St. [[ActsApostle Paul|Acts of the ApostlesPaul]] show us that a sort of Confirmation was going on even 's work in the early ChurchEphesus is recounted in Acts 19.1-12. As Here we see that some who had been baptized with the Christian community expanded both numerically and geographically into many locations both within and outside "baptism of [[John the Jewish world, Baptist|John (the Apostles Baptist)]]" were soon not the only ones preaching the Gospel and Baptizing people into eager to accept Christ. :When they had heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. (Verse 5, NAB)After this, we see that Paul "laid [his] hands on them" and the "Holy Spirit came upon them" (verse 6)
St. [[Apostle Paul|Paul]]'s work Another instance of confirmation in Ephesus the early Church is recounted seen in Acts 19.1-12. Here we see 8: :Now when the apostles in Jerusalem heard that some Samaria had accepted the word of God, they sent them Peter and John, who went down and prayed for them, that they might receive the Holy Spirit, for it had not yet fallen upon any of them; they had only been baptized with in the “Baptism name of [[John the Baptist|John Lord Jesus. Then they laid hands on them and they received the Holy Spirit. (Acts 8.14-18, NAB) Fr. Philip Gialopsos explains the Baptistfurther development of the Sacrament: :Later on, as Christianity began to grow, it was impossible for the Apostles to be everywhere to perform the Sacrament by laying on their hands, so they gave the authority to their successors to administer the Sacrament by anointing the baptized with Myrrh (Myron Oil). (Gialopsos, 35) ==Works cited==*Gialopsos, Philip G. ''The Seven Sacraments of the Greek Orthodox Church.'' 1997*Ware, Timothy (Kallistos). ''The Orthodox Church.'' New York: Penguin, 1997.==External Links== *[http://www.saintjonah.org/services/chrismation.doc The Service for receiving converts by Chrismation] [[Category:Featured Articles]][[Category:Sacraments]] [[el:Χρίσμα]][[es:Crismación]][[fr:Confirmation]][[it:Crismazione]][[ro:Mirungere]]
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