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Evagrius Ponticus

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'''Evagrius Ponticus''' (c. 346-399) was an Egyptian monastic, and one of the earliest spiritual writers on [[asceticism]] in the Christian eremitic tradition. He is also called '''Evagrius of Pontus''' or '''Evagrius the Solitary'''. Some of his works are included Although condemned in proceedings associated with the ''[[PhilokaliaFifth Ecumenical Council]]''his writings, many passed under pseudonyms, exercised a very strong influence over Orthodox spirituality.
==Life==
Evagrius was born in Pontus around the year 345 and studied under the [[Cappadocians|Cappadocian Fathers]]. St. [[Basil the Great]] tonsured Evagrius a [[reader]], and St. [[Gregory the Theologian]] elevated him to the [[deacon|diaconate]]. As a deacon, Evagrius Ponticus would attend the [[Second Ecumenical Council]] (First Constantinople) in 381, which formulated the last portion of the [[Nicene Creed]] (the article dealing with the [[Holy Spirit]]). After visiting Jerusalem, where Evagrius became a [[monk]] in , he went to the Egyptian desert in 383. There his life would touch those of two other [[saint]]s: such as St. [[Makarios Macarius of Alexandria]], his mentor; and St. [[John Cassian]] ("Cassian the Roman"), his disciple. (Many believe he also met knew St. [[Makarios Macarius the EgyptianGreat]].) He died in Kellia, Egypt, in 399.
Evagrius passed on his firsthand knowledge of the [[Desert Fathers]] to many visitors and disciples, becoming particularly well known for his teaching on [[prayer]]. He exhorted his followers to practice the virtues, engage in regular Psalmody, and refrain from making any physical/mental images during prayer. However, like so many others, he became influenced by the teachings of [[Origen]], believing in the doctrines of [[apokatastasis]], the "restitution of all things" (including the reconciliation of [[Satan]]), and in the Platonic notion of the pre-existence of the soul. The [[Fifth Ecumenical Council]] (Second Constantinople) in 553 deemed both these doctrines (and Origen himself) [[heresy|heretical]]. Although never [[Glorification|glorified]] as a saint, Evagrius' teachings on [[asceticism]], prayer, and the spiritual life had a profound impact upon both Christian East and West.
The [[Fifth Ecumenical Council]] (Second Constantinople) in 553 deemed both these doctrines (and Origen himself) [[heresy|heretical]]. Although never [[Glorification|glorified]] as a saint, Evagrius' teachings on [[asceticism]], prayer, and the spiritual life had a profound impact upon both Christian East and West. Two of his works are included in the ''[[Philokalia]]'', one (''Praktikos'') under his name, the other (''Chapters on Prayer'') under Nilus of Ancyra's. ==Select Works==Certainly authentic works: *On Asceticism and Stillness The Praktikos*The Gnostikos*Kephalaia Gnostica (Problemata Gnostica)*The Chapters on Prayer, preserved in the Solitary LifeGreek under the name of St [[Nilus of Sinai]].*On Discrimination Antirrheticos*Sentences for Monks*Exhortation to a Virgin*Hypotyposis*Treatise to the Monk Eulogius<ref>This is printed in respect PG 79:1093-1140, among the works of Passions and St Nilus.</ref>*Treatise on Various Evil Thoughts(Capita Cognoscitiva)*On WatchfulnessProtrepticus and Paraeneticus*On PrayerLetters*Scriptural Commentaries*Various Ascetic Treatises {{stub}}Works of doubtful authenticity: 153 Texts*De Malignis Cogitationibus*Collections of Sentences
==Quotations==
*Whether you pray with brethren or alone, try to pray not simply as a routine, but with conscious awareness of your prayer. Conscious awareness of prayer is concentration accompanied by reverence, compunction and distress of soul as it confesses its sin with inward sorrow. -unknown work
*If you are a [[theologian]], you will pray truly. And if you pray truly, you are a theologian. - ''Treatise on Prayer'', 61.
*Bread is food for the body and holiness is food for the soul: prayer is food for the intellect. - Ibid., 101.
*Spiritual reading, vigils, and prayer bring the straying intellect to stability. Hunger, exertion, and withdrawal from the world wither burning lust. - ''Extracts from the Texts on Watchfulness'', 5.
 
==References==
<references/>
==See also==
==External links==
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evagrius_Ponticus Original Wikipedia article]
*[http://www.hermitary.com/solitude/evagrius.html Evagrius Ponticus: On Asceticism and Stillness in the Solitary Life]
*[http://studentswww.cuakalvesmaki.edu/16kalvesmakicom/EvagPont / Evagrius Ponticus: Monastic Theologian]
*[http://www.ccel.org/w/wace/biodict/htm/iii.v.lix.htm Evagrius Ponticus] from the Christian Classics Ethereal Library
*[http://home.versatel.nl/chotki/a_life_of_evagrius_of_pontus.htm A Life of Evagrius of Pontus]
*[http://www.evagrius.net Evagrian Scholarship Center]*[http://www.ldysinger.com/Evagrius/00a_start.htm St. Evagrius Ponticus]: a collection of many Evagrian works in a Greek/English parallel format
[[Category:Asceticism]]
[[Category:Church Fathers]]
[[Category:Desert Fathers]]
[[Category:Hesychasm]]
[[Category:Monastics]]
 
[[ro:Evagrie Ponticul]]
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