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Avvakum

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'''Avvakum Petrov''' was a [[priest]] in the [[Church of Russia]] during the seventeenth century. He was a leader in the opposition to the reforms instituted into the Russian Church by Patriarch [[Nikon of Moscow|Nikon]]. For him, his opposition resulted in imprisonment, exile to Siberia, and numerous other hardships that continued even after Patr. Nikon was deposed as patriarch and culminated in Fr. Avvakum being burn at the stake. His life of opposition in recorded in his autobiography. The opposition groups that he led become known as the '''Raskolniki'Old Believers'' or '''Old Believers'Raskolniki''("schismatics," a term used by some critics).
==Life==Avvakum was born on November 20, 1621 in the village of Grigorovo, near Nizhni Novgorod, into a priestly family. His father Peter was a priest and his mother, Marija, after being widowed became a [[nun]] under the name Marfa. His mother was very pious and and impressed this piety upon Avvakum. He married a blacksmith’s daughter, Anastasia. After his mother died he moved to another village. He was [[ordain]]ed a [[deacon]] at the age of twenty one. Two years later was ordained a priest and then eight years later raised to [[archpriest]].
Fr. Avvakum was a man born on [[November 20]], 1621 in the village of spiritual intensity and Grigorovo, near Nizhni Novgorod, into a priestly family. His father Peter was very active as a priest, with many spiritual children and traveled extensivelyhis mother, even to Siberia preaching and teaching Marija, after being widowed became a [[nun]] under the Word of Godname Marfa. In the 1640s he joined the Russian revival movementHis mother was very pious and and impressed this piety upon Avvakum. He married a blacksmith's daughter, Zealots of Piety, but on the ascension of Nikon as Patriarch of Russia in 1652, Avvakum and Anastasia. After his followers turned against the revival movement as they felt Patrmother died he moved to another village. Nikon’s policies and actions were undermining the authority of the Church He was [[hierarchordination|ordained]]ya [[deacon]] at the age of twenty one. Then, in 1653, Fr. Avvakum with Ivan Nernov Two years later was ordained a priest and others, including his wife and family, were deported then eight years later raised to exile in Siberia by the patriarch for their opposition to his policies and in particular the changes in the ancient rites and practices[[archpriest]].
Fr. Avvakum was a man of spiritual intensity and was very active as a priest, with many spiritual children and traveled extensively, even to Siberia preaching and teaching the Word of God. In 1658the 1640s he joined the Russian revival movement, Zealots of Piety, but on the ascension of Nikon as Patriarch of Russia in 1652, Avvakum and his followers turned against the revival movement as they felt Patr. Nikon left 's policies and actions were undermining the office authority of patriarch and entered the Ascension Church [[monasteryhierarch]] as he was pressured about his assumption of sovereign stylesy. He was finally deposed by a council that included representatives of the other patriarchates Then, in February 16661653, Fr. While ‘out of office’ Avvakum with Ivan Nernov and deposed others, including his reforms remainedwife and family, being enforced vigorously were deported to exile in Siberia by the Statepatriarch for their opposition to his policies and in particular the changes in the ancient rites and practices.
Fr. Avvakum was allowed to return to Moscow in 1662In 1658, but his continued opposition to the Nikon reforms and his vigorous defense of his principles resulted in deportation again, the time to northern RussiaPatr. In 1666, the same council that deposed Nikon affirmed left the reforms Nikon instituted and condemned Fr. Avvakum’s opposition. Then the council anathematized and deported Fr. Avvakum and his followers to Pustozersk in the extreme northeastern part office of European Russia. Over the next fifteen years with the presence of Fr. Avvakum patriarch and his followers Pustozersk became the spiritual center for what became entered the Ascension [[Old Believermonastery]] movement. At Pustozersk, Fr. Avvakum remained relatively free for the first three years, but in the following years as he and was pressured about his followers came under increasingly harsh treatment and imprisonment including torture and mutilationassumption of sovereign styles. It He was also during this time finally deposed by a council that Fr. Avvakum wrote his autobiography and many [[epistle]]s and treatises as included representatives of the movement continued to growother patriarchates in February 1666. His autobiography, ''The Life While ‘out of Archpriest Avvakum by Himself'office'and deposed his reforms remained, remains a masterpiece of 17th century Russian literaturebeing enforced vigorously by the State.
Then Fr. Avvakum was allowed to return to Moscow in 16821662, but his continued opposition to the governmentNikon reforms and his vigorous defense of his principles resulted in deportation again, unable the time to control northern Russia. In 1666, the growth same council that deposed Nikon affirmed the reforms Nikon instituted and condemned Fr. Avvakum's opposition. Then the council anathematized and deported Fr. Avvakum and his followers to Pustozersk in the extreme northeastern part of European Russia. Over the Old Believer movement, sentenced next fifteen years with the presence of Fr. Avvakum and his three followers, Deacon Fedor, Pustozersk became the spiritual center for what became the [[monkOld Believers]] Epiphanymovement. At Pustozersk, and Fr. LazarAvvakum remained relatively free for the first three years, to be burned at but in the stakefollowing years he and his followers came under increasingly harsh treatment and imprisonment including torture and mutilation. It was also during this time that Fr. Avvakum died on wrote his autobiography and many [[April 14epistle]]s and treatises as the movement continued to grow. His autobiography, 1682''The Life of Archpriest Avvakum by Himself'', remains a masterpiece of 17th century Russian literature.
Then in 1682, the government, unable to control the growth of the Old Believer movement, sentenced Fr. Avvakum and his three followers, Deacon Fedor, [[monk]] Epiphany, and Fr. Lazar, to be burned at the stake. Fr. Avvakum died on [[April 14]], 1682.
==External links==*Avvakum: Wikipedia [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avvakum]* Life of Archpriest Avvakum by Himself- Selections [http://www.uoregon.edu/~sshoemak/325/texts/avvakum.htm ]
* [[Wikipedia:Avvakum]]* [http://www.uoregon.edu/~sshoemak/325/texts/avvakum.htm Life of Archpriest Avvakum by Himself - Selections] [[Category: PriestPriests]]
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