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Cyril Lucaris

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{{cleanup}}'''Cyrillos Lukaris''', also '''Cyril I Lucaris''' or '''Cyril Lucar''', was a Greek prelate and [[theologian]]. He was [[Patriarch of Alexandria]] as '''Cyril III''' from 1601 to 1620 and [[Patriarch of Constantinople]] as '''Cyril I''' for five different periods from 1620 until 1638. He was the first great name in the Orthodox Church after the [[fall of Constantinople]] in 1453, and dominated its history in the seventeenth century. His Calvinist confession caused great controversy in the Orthodox Church.
'''Cyrillos Lukaris''' or '''==Life==Cyril Lucaris''' or '''Cyril Lucar''' was born in Candia (1572-June 1637Heraklion) was a Greek prelate and , Crete on [[theologianNovember 13]] and , 1572 during the time Crete was occupied by the Venetian Republic. In his early youth he studied under a native number of Creteeminent scholars including Maximus Marguius, Bishop of Kythira. He For his later became education he traveled through Europe, studied at Venice, Padua, and Geneva. In Geneva, he came under the [[Patriarch influence of Alexandria]] the reformed faith as '''Cyril III''' and represented by [[Patriarch of ConstantinopleJohn Calvin]] as '''Cyril I'''. He was the first developed a great name antipathy toward [[Roman Catholic]]ism after he had pursued theological studies in the Orthodox Church since the fall of Constantinople in 1453Venice, Padua, Wittenberg, and dominated its history Geneva. In addition to being fluent in the 17th centuryGreek, he learned Latin thoroughly during his student days.
In his youth He was [[ordination|ordained]] a [[deacon]] in 1593, when he travelled through Europewas 21 years old and, studying at Venice and Padualater, and at Geneva where he came under the influence of the reformed faith as represented by was ordained a [[John Calvinpriest]]. In 1602 he was elected by Patriarch [[Meletius I Pegas of Alexandria|Meletius Pegas]], and in 1621 Patriarch of ConstantinopleAlexandria.
Due Patr. Meletius Pegas sent Cyril to Poland in 1596 to Turkish oppression combined with lead the proselitisation of opposition by the Orthodox faithful by Jesuit to the [[missionary|missionariesUnion of Brest]]that proposed a union of Kiev with Rome. During this time, there he was a shortage of schools which taught professor at the Orthodox faith and Greek language. Catholic schools were set up and Catholic churches were built next to Orthodox ones; since Orthodox priests were academy in short demand something had to be doneVilnus, now the capital of Lithuania. Due to good relations with the AnglicansIn 1601, in 1677 Bishop Henry Compton he was elected Patriarch of London built Alexandria, succeeding Patr. Meletius Pegas, a church position he filled with dedication for nineteen years. During this time he re-organized the Greek Orthodox in London but in 1682 finances of the Greek Orthodox Church patriarchate and repaired churches in London closed. But in 1694 renewed sympathy for the Greeks drew up plans for Worcester College, Oxford (then Gloucester Hall), addition to become a college for preaching and maintaining constant correspondence with the Greeks, but these plans never came to fruitionPatriarch of Jerusalem and Cyprus.
In 1753 1612, he was [[Locum tenens|locum tenens]] of the Patriarch Cyril Lukaris opened Church of Constantinople for a school of thought called short time. On [[AthoniadaNovember 4]] at , 1620, the [[Mount AthosHoly Synod]]of Constantinople elected Cyril Patriarch of Constantinople. His patriarchate was broken into five different periods: 1620 to 1623, but 1623 to 1633, 1633 to 1634, 1634 to 1635, and 1637 to 1638, by intrigues involving the the Orthodox papacy, reformists, Jesuits, and Catholics insisted to the Turkish authorities Ottoman sultan that this should be closed. In 1759 the Athos School included schemes against Cyril to discredit him by spreading rumors he was closeda Calvinist. The next option was to send students abroad to studyAfter each [[deposition]], as long as it Patr. Cyril was not Catholic thought. The Calvinists were appealing because their beliefs were very similar to re-elected by the [[clergy]] supported by the Orthodox onespopulation.
It is alleged that the great aim of his life was to reform the Church on [[Calvinism|Calvinistic]] lines, and to this end he sent many young Greek theologians to the universities of Switzerland, the northern Netherlands and England. In 1629 he published , his famous ''Confessio'' (Calvinistic in doctrine)was published in Latin, but as far as possible accommodated to the language and creeds of the Orthodox Church. It From 1629 to 1633, it appeared the same year in two Latin editions, four French, one German and one English, and . The "Confession" started a controversy in the Eastern Church started a controversy which culminated in 1691 1672 in the convocation by [[Dositheos Dositheus II Notarius of Jerusalem|DositheosDositheus]], [[Patriarch of Jerusalem]], of a [[synod]] by which the Calvinistic doctrines were condemned. Since then, eminent historians, theologians, and researchers have attempted to clarify whether Cyril Lucaris was the actual author of the "Confession" attributed by the Calvinists to him. While Cyril denied it verbally a number of times and proclaimed his Orthodox faith in his letters as well by his attitude, he did not disavow the "Confession" in writing. The orthodoxy of Cyril Lucaris himself has continued to be a matter of debate in the Eastern Church. Even Dositheus, in view of the reputation of the great patriarch, thought it expedient to gloss over his [[heterodoxy]] in the interests of the Church.
Cyril was also particularly well disposed towards the Anglican Church, and his correspondence with the [[Archbishop of Canterbury|Archbishops of Canterbury]] is extremely interesting. It was in Through his time that Mitrophanis Kritopoulos—later contacts with the Church of England, he also set up a program of sending young Greeks to England to study. Among these students was the youth from Macedonia, [[Metrophanes (Kritopoulos) of Alexandria|Metrophanes Kritopoulos]] who later would become Patriarch of Alexandria (1636-1639)—was sent to England to study. Both Lucaris Cyril and Kritopoulos Metrophanes were lovers of books and manuscripts, and acquired manuscripts that today adorn the Patriarchal Library. Cyril also presented King James I of England with a fine manuscript of the Holy Bible, known as [[Codex Alexandrinus]]. He also sent a manuscript of the [[Pentateuch]], with Arabic translation, to Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury.
Lucaris While Cyril was several times [[deposition|deposed]] temporarily deposed and banished at the instigation of his orthodox opponents and of the [[Jesuit]]s, who were his bitterest enemies, his death came suddenly. Finally, when When the Ottoman Sultan Murad III IV was about to set out for the Persian War, the [[patriarch ]] was accused of a design to stir up the Cossacks. Thus, and to avoid trouble during his absence , the sultan had him killed Cyril strangled by the [[Janissaries]] in [[June 163727]], 1638. His body was thrown into the sea, Bosporus and was later recovered and after being washed ashore on Halki Island. His body was buried at a distance from the capital Monastery of Panagia Kamariotissa on Halki by his friends, and only brought back to Constantinople after many yearsPatr. Parthenius I.
The orthodoxy of Lucaris himself continued to be a matter of debate in the Eastern Church, even Dositheos, in view of the reputation of the great patriarch, thinking it expedient to gloss over his [[heterodoxy]] in the interests of the Church.
This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain (see also entry in the latest online edition of Encyclopædia Britannica [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9049229]).
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{{succession|
before=[[Meletius I Pegas of Alexandria|Meletius I]]|title=[[List of Orthodox Patriarchs of Alexandria|Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria]]|years=1601 – -1620|after=[[Gerasimius Gerassimus I of Alexandria|Gerasimius Gerassimus I]]|}}
{{succession|
before=[[Timothy Neophytus II of Constantinople|TimotheusNeophytus II]]<br>|title=[[Timothy II List of Patriarchs of Constantinople|TimotheusPatriarch of Constantinople]]<br>locus tenens|years= 1612-1612|after=[[Anthimus Timothy II of Constantinople|Anthimus Timothy II]]<br>[[Cyril }}{{succession|before=Timothy II |title=Patriarch of Constantinople|Cyril II Kontares]]<br>years=1620-1623|after=[[Athanasius III Gregory IV of Constantinople|Athanasius III PatelarosGregory IV]]<br>}}{{succession|before=[[Neophytus III Anthimus II of Constantinople|Neophytus IIIAnthimus II]]|title=[[List of Patriarchs of Constantinople|Patriarch of Constantinople]]|years=1612, 1620 &ndash; 1623, 1623 &ndash; 1630, 1630 &ndash; -1633, 1633 &ndash; 1634, 1634 &ndash; 1635, 1637 &ndash;1638|after=[[Timothy Cyril II of Constantinople|TimotheusCyril II Kontares]]<br>[[Gregory IV of Constantinople}}{{succession|Gregory IV]]<br>[[before=Cyril II Kontares|title=Patriarch of Constantinople|Cyril II Kontares]]<br>years=1633-1634|after=[[Athanasius III of Constantinople|Athanasius III Patelaros]]<br>[[Cyril II }}{{succession|before=Athanasius III Patelaros|title=Patriarch of Constantinople|years=1634-1635|after=Cyril II Kontares}}{{succession|before=[[Neophytus III of Constantinople|Neophytus III]]<br>[[Cyril II |title=Patriarch of Constantinople|years=1637-1638|after=Cyril II Kontares]]|}}
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==See also==
* [[CalvinismAnglican Communion]]*[[Western Rite]]
==SourceSources==* [http://enwww.wikipediaec-patr.org/wikilist/index.php?lang=en&id=202 Ec-patr: Cyril Lucarius] - [[Church of Constantinople]] website*[[w:Cyril_Lucaris |''Cyril Lucaris'' at Wikipedia]]*This article incorporates text from the 1911 ''Encyclopædia Britannica'', which is in the public domain (see also [http: //www.britannica.com/eb/article-9049229/Cyril -Lucarisentry]in the latest online edition of ''Encyclopædia Britannica'').
==External links==
*[http://www.ccel.org/s/schaff/encyc/encyc03/htm/ii.11.xvii.htm#ii.11.xvii.p1.15 Cyril Lucar] from ''The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Vol. III: Chamier - Draendorf'' by Philip Schaff at the Christian Classics Ethereal Library*[http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/inquirers/ca4_loukaris.aspx The Myth of the "Calvinist Patriarch"]by Archbishop Chrysostomos of Etna* [http://www.nndb.com/people/008/000097714/ Cyril Lucaris] (Short bio with picture)* [http://theologytoday.ptsem.edu/oct1961/v18-3-bookreview10.htm (book review Review by Glanville Downey] of "''Protestant Patriarch: The Life of Cyril Lucaris (1572-1638); Patriarch of Constantinople''")* http://www.cresourceiby George A.org/creedcyril.html (''The Confession of Cyril Lucaris'')Hadjiantoniou* [http://anglicanhistory.org/orthodoxy/germanos1929.html Progress Towards the Re-Union of the Orthodox and Anglican Churches]by the Most Rev. Archbishop Germanos, Metropolitan of Thyatira* [http://anglicanhistory.org/orthodoxy/jad_germanos1929.html Archbishop Germanos on Anglicanism]by Canon J. A. Douglas, Ph.D. (a response to the above "Progress Towards the Re-Union of the Orthodox and Anglican Churches"
===Writings===
*[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/creeds1.v.v.html The Confession of Cyril Lucar, A.D. 1631.] from ''Creeds of Christendom'' at the Christian Classics Ethereal Library
*[http://www.crivoice.org/creedcyril.html ''The Confession of Cyril Lucaris'']
 
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[[ro:Chiril Lucaris]]
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