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Church of Estonia (Ecumenical Patriarchate)

4,704 bytes added, 13:42, February 22, 2015
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External links: Fixed broken link to CNEWA website.
[[Image:Tallinn.jpg|right|350px|thumb|Churches in Tallinn, capital of Estonia]]
{{church|
name=Estonian The Orthodox Churchof Estonia|founder=—|
independence=1917|
recognition=1923, 1996 by [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]]|
primate=[[Stephanos (Charalambides) of Tallinn|Metr. Stephanos]]|
hq=Tallinn, Estonia|
territory=Republic of Estonia|possessions=—|
language=Estonian|
music=traditions of [[Byzantine chant|Byzantine]] and Estonia[[Estonian chant|Estonian]]|calendar=[[Revised Julian Calendar]]|number of parishespopulation=6028,000[http://www.cnewa.org/ecc-bodypg.aspx?eccpageID=33]|website=[http://www.eoc.ee/index.html Church of Estonia]
}}
The '''Church of Estonia''' or '''Estonian Orthodox Churchof Estonia''' ('''Eesti Apostlik-Õigeusu Kirik''') is an [[autonomy|autonomous]] Orthodox churchwhose [[primate]] is confirmed by the [[Church of Constantinople]]. Its official name in English is the '''Orthodox Church of Estonia'''.
The current primate of the Church church is His Eminence [[Stephanos (CharalambitesCharalambides) of Tallinn|Stephanos]], [[Metropolitan]] of Tallinn and all Estonia (elected 1999).
 {{stub}}This autonomous church should not be confused with the [[Church of Estonia (Moscow Patriarchate)|church of the similar name]] which is an [[exarchate]] of the [[Moscow Patriarchate]].
== History ==
<b>1030</b> – Orthodox missionaries were active among the Estonians in the southeast regions of the area, closest to [[Pskov]], in the 10th through 12th centuries. The first mention of an Orthodox congregations [[congregation]] in Estoniawas in 1030 in Tartu. Around 600 AD on the east side of Toome Hill (Toomemägi) the Estonians erected a fortress named Tarbatu. In 1030 the Kievan prince, Jaroslav the Wise, raided Tarbatu and built his own fort in this place as well as the congregation in a [[cathedral]] dedicated to St. [[George the Trophy-bearer]]. Orthodox Christians were later expelled from the city by the Germans in 1472, who [[martyr]]ed their [[priest]], Isidor, along with a number of Orthodox faithful (the group is commemorated on [[January 8]]).
Little is known about the history of the church in the area until the 17th and 18th centuries, when many [[Old Believers]] fled there from Russia to avoid the liturgical reforms introduced by Patriarch [[Nikon of Moscow]].
<b>17 th- 18 th In the 18th and 19th centuries</b> – The Old Believers fled from Russia to , Estonia was a part of the Tsarist Russian Empire, having been conquered by Tsar [[Peter the Great]]. A large number of Estonians, particularly rural people, were converted to avoid the changes Orthodox faith in the hope of obtaining land. Numerous Orthodox churches were built. In 1850 the Diocese of Riga (in Latvia) was established by the [[Church of Russia]] and persecution many Estonian Orthodox believers included. In the late 19th century, a wave of [[Russification]] was introduced, supported by the officialsRussian hierarchy but not by local Estonian [[clergy]]. The St. [[Alexander Nevsky]] Cathedral in Tallinn and the Pühtitsa Dormition [[Stavropigial|Stavropegic]] Convent (Kuremäe) in East Estonia were also built around this time.
In 1917 the first Estonian, Platon (Paul Kulbusch), was [[consecration of a bishop|consecrated]] Bishop of Riga and Vicar of Tallinn. Two years later, the Bolsheviks murdered Platon and his [[deacon]] for political reasons. 81 years later, in 2000, Bp. Platon was [[glorification|proclaimed a saint]] by the Churches of Constantinople and Russia, commemorated on [[January 14]].
<b>1850</b> – After the Estonian Republic was proclaimed in 1918, the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church, St. [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon]], in 1920 recognised the Orthodox Church of Estonia (OCE) as being independent. Archbishop Aleksander Paulus was elected and installed as the head of the Estonian church. In 1923 Abp. Aleksander turned to the Patriarch of Constantinople to receive canonical recognition. The Riga Diocese same year the OCE was established canonically subordinated to the Patriarchy of Constantinople and gained extensive [[autonomy]]. Before 1941, one fifth of the total Estonian population (who had been mostly Lutheran since the 16th century occupation of Estonia by Sweden) were Orthodox believers Christians under the Patriarchy of Constantinople. There were 158 parishes in Estonia and 183 clerics in the Estonian church. There was also includeda Chair of Orthodoxy in the Faculty of Theology at the University of Tartu. There was a [[monastery]] in Petseri, two convents in Narva and Kuremäe, a priory in Tallinn and a [[seminary]] in Petseri. The ancient monastery in Petseri (Pechory, which used to belong to the Estonian Republic, now belongs to Russia) was preserved from the mass church destructions that occurred in Soviet Russia.
In 1940, Estonia was occupied by the Soviet Union, whose government undertook a general programme of the dissolution of all ecclesiastical independence within its territory. From 1942 to 1944, however, autonomy under Constantinople was temporarily revived. In 1945, a representative of the Moscow Patriarchate dismissed the members of the OCE synod who had remained in Estonia and established a new organisation, the Diocesan Council. Orthodox believers in occupied Estonia were thus subordinated to being a diocese within the Russian Orthodox Church.
<b>18th-19th centuries</b> – Estonia was a part Just before the second Soviet occupation in 1944 and the dissolution of the Tsarist Russian Empire. A large number Estonian synod, the [[primate]] of Estoniansthe church, particularly country peopleMetropolitan Aleksander, were converted went into exile along with 21 clergymen and about 8,000 Orthodox believers. The Orthodox Church of Estonia in Exile with its synod in Sweden continued its activity according to the Orthodox faith in canonical statutes, until the hope restoration of obtaining landEstonian independence in 1991. Before he died in 1953, Metr. Numerous Orthodox churches Aleksandr established his community as an [[exarchate]] under Constantinople. Most of the other bishops and clergy who remained behind were builtdeported to Siberia. In 1958, a new synod was established in exile, and the church organized from Sweden.
[[Image:Ecum. Patriarch Bartholomew.jpg|thumb|125px|left|Patr. [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople|Bartholomew I of Constantinople]]]]
Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, divisions within the Orthodox community in Estonia arose between those who wished to remain under Russian authority and those who wished to return to the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, with the dispute often taking place along ethnic lines, many Russians having immigrated to Estonia during the Soviet occupation. Lengthy negotiations between the two patriarchates failed to produce any agreement.
The end In 1993, the synod of the Orthodox Church of Estonia in Exile was re-registered as the 19th century – A wave legal successor of Russification supported by the autonomous Orthodox Church of Estonia, and on [[February 20]], 1996, Ecumenical Patriarch [[Bartholomew I (but not by most Archontonis) of Constantinople|Bartholomew I]] renewed the [[tomos]] granted to the OCE in 1923, restoring its canonical subordination to the Estonian clergyEcumenical Patriarchate. This action brought immediate protest from Patriarch [[Alexei II (Ridiger). Building of Moscow|Alexei II]] of the Moscow Patriarchate, which regarded the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Tallinn Estonian church as being part of its territory, and the Pukhtitsa Dormition Stavropegic Convent (Kuremäe) in East EstoniaPatriarch of Moscow temporarily removed the name of the Ecumenical Patriarch from the [[diptychs]].
[[Image:Stefanos of Tallinn.jpg|125px|right|thumb|Metr. [[Stephanos (Charalambides) of Tallinn|Stephanos (Charalambides)]]]]
An agreement was reached in which local congregations could choose which jurisdiction to follow. The Orthodox community in Estonia, which accounts for about 14% of the total population, remains divided, with the majority of faithful (mostly ethnic Russians) remaining under Moscow. As of a government report of November 2003, about 20,000 believers (mostly ethnic Estonians) in 60 parishes are part of the autonomous church, with 150,000 faithful in 31 parishes, along with the monastic community of Pukhitsa, paying allegiance to Moscow.
<b>1917</b> – The first EstonianIn 1999, Platon the church gained a resident hierarch (Paul Kulbuschit had been under the Archbishop of [[Church of Finland|Finland]] as ''[[locum tenens]]''), was ordained Bishop of Riga and Vicar Metropolitan [[Stephanos (Charalambides) of Tallinn. Later in 1919, the Bolsheviks murdered Platon for political reasons. |Stephanos (In 2000Charalambides)]], Bishop Platon was declared as a saint both by who had formerly been an [[auxiliary bishop]] under the Patriarchy Ecumenical Patriarchate's Metropolitan of Constantinople and the Moscow PatriarchyFrance.)
In 2013, in response to a joint invitation by the Autonomous Church of Estonia and the President of the Republic of Estonia, His All-Holiness Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew traveled to Tallinn, Estonia, on September 4, 2013, in order to preside over celebrations for the 90th anniversary since the declaration of the Estonian Church as Autonomous by the Mother Church of Constantinople.
<b>1920</b> – After the ==Estonian Republic was proclaimed in 1918, the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodoxy today==The Orthodox Churchof Estonia today consists of 73 parishes, served by 3 bishops, Tikhon33 priests and 9 deacons, recognised the Orthodox Church of Estonia (OCE) as being independent. Archbishop Aleksander Paulus was elected and ordained for life as the head of the OCEa convent.
{{churches}}
<b>1923</b> – Archbishop Aleksander Paulus turned to the Patriarch of Constantinople to receive canonical recognition. The same year the OCE was canonically subordinated to the Patriarchy of Constantinople and gained extensive autonomy. ==Sources==  <b>Until 1941</b> – One-fifth *''Blackwell Dictionary of the total Estonian population was Orthodox Christians under the Patriarchy of ConstantinopleEastern Christianity'', pp. There were 158 parishes in Estonia, 183 clerics in the OCE. There was a Chair of Orthodoxy in the Faculty of Theology at the University of Tartu. There was a monastery in Petseri, two convents – in Narva and Kuremäe, a priory in Tallinn and a seminary in Petseri. -4 The ancient monastery in Petseri (Pechory, which used to belong to the Estonian Republic, now belongs to Russia) was preserved from the mass church destructions that occurred in Soviet Russia.   <b>1940-1945<*[http://b> – In 1940, Estonia was occupied by the Soviet Unionwww. In 1945, an authorised representative of the Patriarchy of Moscow dismissed the members of the OCE Synod who had remained in Estonia and established a new organisation – the Diocesan Councilcnewa. Orthodox believers in occupied Estonia were now subordinated to a diocese within the Russian Orthodox Church.  Just before the second Soviet occupation in 1944, the Head of the Church, Metropolitan Aleksander went into exile, along with 21 clergymen and about 8 thousand Orthodox believersorg/ecc-bodypg-us. aspx?eccpageID=33&IndexView=toc The Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church of Estonia in Exile with Synod in Sweden continued its activity ] by the Statute until the restoration of Estonian independence in 1991.   <b>1993</b> – The Synod of the Orthodox Church of Estonia in Exile was re-registered as the legal successor of the autonomous Orthodox Church of Estonia.   <b>1996</b> – Bartholomeos, the Ecumenical Patriarch of ConstantinopleRonald Roberson, renewed the tomos granted to the OCE in 1923 by which the OCE restored its canonical subordination to the Patriarchy of Constantinople.   The Orthodox Church of Estonia (OCE) is an autonomous Church i.e. a local independent Orthodox Church. It has existed in Estonia as such since it was given autonomy by the Ecumenical Patriarchy of Constantinople in 1923. It was dissolved during the Stalinist occupation in 1945 and was restored legally in 1993 Roman Catholic priest and canonically in 1996. == Estonian Orthodoxy Today == == Church structure == {{churches}}scholar
==External links==
*[http://www.eoc.ee/ Orthodox Church of Estonia - Official Site]
*[http://www.orthodoxa.org/ Orthodox Estonia]
*[http://www.cnewa.org/default.aspx?ID=33&pagetypeID=9&sitecode=HQ&pageno=1 "The Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church"] in ''The Eastern Christian Churches: A Brief Survey'' by Ronald Roberson, on the CNEWA website.
*[http://www.patriarchate.org/news/releases/his-all-holiness-in-estonia/ His All-Holiness in Estonia]
* [http[Category://www.eoc.ee/index.html Estonian Orthodox Church - Official SiteJurisdictions|Estonia]* [http://www.cnewa.org/ecc-bodypg.aspx?eccpageID=33 The Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church] by Ronald Roberson, a Roman Catholic priest and scholar
[[Categoryel:Jurisdictions|EstoniaΕκκλησία της Εσθονίας]][[fr:Église d'Estonie (Patriarcat œcuménique)]][[ro:Biserica Ortodoxă a Estoniei]]
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