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Supersessionism

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Supersessionism refers to the concept that the [[New Testament]] supersedes the [[Old Testament]]. But it can also refer to other vaguely related ideas that the [[Church]] supersedes ancient Israel, that the Church fulfills the missions Israel held, or simply that Christianity brings something new.
The term developed in Protestant scholarship in the 1970's-1980's1970s and 1980s, and its is uncommon in Orthodox literature. Its normal use is to portray traditional Church teachings on these questions, often in a negative light.
== "Supersession" as a simple concept ==
"Supersession" comes from the word "supersede", which means “to set above; to make void or inoperative by a superior authority; to stay, suspend or supplant” <ref> Kendrick Kinney: A Law Dictionary and Glossary, 1893, Callaghan and Company, p. 642</ref> It can also mean to overrule, override, or replace the function of something.
For example, an amendment to a law supersedes the original law, and a governor's pardon overrules a sentence prescribed by law, and a remodeled home or car replaces the old one. Note that in each of these cases that which is superseded may remain in existence or operation fully or partially. Consequently, supersession may cause the new thing to remove, modify, affect, or only add to the previous one.
==="Supersession" in Orthodoxy===
Orthodox writers on occasion use the term "supersession" to describe the relationship between the Old and New Testaments or between certain ideas in them. According to the Orthodox Study Bible, an Orthodox priest is not merely reenacting the ancient Israelite priesthood, but is ''"a minister of a new covenant that supersedes the old"''<ref>Orthodox Study Bible, Conciliar Press, p. 1635</ref>.
Fr. Evan Armatas of Saint Spyridon Greek Orthodox Church uses it to describe the hierarchy of relative importance of parts of the Bible::The New Testament, as we call it, is the last part of the Christian Bible, and we accept both Old and New, although we do believe that the New Testament supersedes the Old.Within the New... :If you do not have the framework that the New Testament supersedes the Old, you’re going to run into some theological problems. People do this all the time.They’ll quote something in the Old Testament to contradict what the Church teaches, and we don’t do that in the Church. In the Church, we keep the hierarchy of the Bible by the way we do it liturgically. Where is the Gospel? On the altar table. Where [are] the epistles and the Old Testament? Out on the side. <ref>Fr. Evan Armatas, "Formation of the New Testament Canon", Ancient Faith Radio. http://ancientfaith.com/podcasts/transforminglives/formation_of_the_new_testament_canon</ref>
Pope St. [[Leo the Great]] in his Sermon on the Passion described Old Testament elements as ceasing, or passing into or changing into New Testament ones, noting that ''"the True Sheep had to supersede the sheep which was its antitype"''.<ref>St. Leo the Great, On the Passion, VII. http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/360358.htm</ref> The idea of [[Typology]] in the Old Testament prophesying the new one is an important concept in Orthodox theology.
===Clarifying the Church's use of "Supersession"===
Despite the New Testament's precedence, and despite certain Old Testament ritual elements ceasing or changing, the Old Testament continues to have importance: It . For example, it remains an important source of learning, as St. Paul writes: ''“All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine and for instruction in righteousness”.'' (II Tim 3:16)
[[Maximus the Confessor]] sees the two Testaments as complementary, writing: ''“The Old Testament provides to the knowledgeable man the modes of virtues. The New Testament gives the practical man the words of true knowledge.”''<ref>St Maximus the Confessor, Exegesis of Zechariah 4:1–3</ref>
While the term might describe certain Orthodox views, it is uncommon among Orthodox worldwide, since an exact translation does not exist in Slavic languages. It is also rare in patristic writings.
The term may cause confusion because supersession can refer to a new thing either adding onto an older thing that still remains (eg. adding a new provision onto a law), ''or '' to an older thing being destroyed in every sense (eg. a law that has been canceled).
=="Supersessionism" as an ideology==
Supersessionism makes supersession into an ideology, or "ism". This ideology is very rarely mentioned by Orthodox writers. Yet it is increasingly discussed by Protestant ones, whose definitions of it vary wildly: from the simple, fundamental belief that Christianity brought "something better" into the world<ref>Rabbi David Novak, "The Covenant in Rabbinic Thought", printed in Eugene Korn, "Two Faiths, One Covenant " p.67, cited with approval in "One Covenant of Grace", Committee on Church Doctrine Recommendation No. 2, Presbyterian Church of Canada, 2011. http://presbyterian.ca/wp-content/uploads/referrals_2011_one_covenant_of_grace_study_document_re_engagement_with_jewish_people.pdf</ref> to one where the Church's fulfillment of Israel's role supposedly condemns the Jews as a racial group.<ref>One Covenant "A Theological Understanding of Grace, Committee on Church Doctrine Recommendation No. 2the Relationship between Christians and Jews", General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of Canada(USA), 20111987. http://presbyterianwww.notredamedesion.caorg/wp-content/uploadsen/referrals_2011_one_covenant_of_grace_study_document_re_engagement_with_jewish_peopledialogue_docs.pdfphp?a=2&id=65&categoria=altrechiese</ref>
===Orthodox Approval of Supersessionism===
Fr. Tonias wrote that St. Gregory of Nyssa would be considered "supersessionist" because he depicted “Moses and other figures of the Jewish Bible as kinsmen, fellow members of Israel, after which the members of the New Covenant should pattern their lives.”<ref>Id.</ref> Fr. Tonias said that the New Testament contained supersessionist language (citing Acts 15:14, 1 Pet. 2:10). He added that "the more refined" discussions in the early church on the topic came from polemics, but that Orthodoxy cannot easily dismiss the views of Justin Martyr and Melito of Sardis because patristic writings are "formative" for the Church.<ref>Id.</ref>
===Orthodox Opposition to Criticism of Supersessionism=== In the "Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodox Christianity", Prof. Eugene Pentiuc of Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology, called supersessionism a "danger" discernible in Biblical passages<ref>Cited are: Mat 21:33-46, Gal 3:24-5, Rom 10:4</ref>, adding that it was especially pronounced in writings about Old Testament [[Typology]]. He wrote that "many early Christian writings" portray the New Testament and the Church as superseding the Old Testament and what he calls the "old Israel".<ref>Prof. Eugene Pentiuc, “Judaism, Orthodoxy and”, cited in Fr. John McGuckin The Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, p. 356.</ref> The entry claims that supersessionism fueled "anti-Jewish sentiment" and devalued the Old Testament, but that ''"the church as a whole has [kept] the two Testaments in a dialectical unity, in the main avoiding... supersessionism as [a] danger."''<ref>Id.</ref> Fr. Yves Dubois of St. John Kronstadt Church pointed out that while in Luke 2:32 Simeon called Christ "the glory of thy people Israel", a hymn in the Feast of the [[Meeting of the Lord]] has Simeon call Christ "the glory of the newly-chosen Israel."<ref>Fr. Yves Dubois, "An Orthodox Perspective", cited in "Christian-Jewish Dialogue", edited by Helen Fry, 1996, p.34</ref> He wrote that this twists Scriptural texts to make ''"Judaism and the Jewish community redundant, substituting the Gentile Church for Israel."'' He defines "supersessionism" as this substitution of ''"the Gentile Christian Church for the people of Israel"'' after God had made promises to Israel. Fr. Dubois writes that it ''"is theologically untenable because it questions God's consistency."'' This hinges on the liturgy's insertion of the phrase "newly-chosen Israel". The phrase "New Israel" is common in Orthodox writing. Herman Blaydoe, the Orthodox Monachos forum moderator, comments on the term::The Church is the continuation of Israel. We call it the New Israel, not because it no longer includes the Jewish people, but because it now includes ALL people. It goes beyond what it was; it does not replace what was before.<ref>Orthodoxy and Supersessionism, Monachos Forum, http://www.monachos.net/conversation/topic/7236-the-orthodox-church-and-supersessionism/page-2</ref>
In Thus Fr. Feodor Lyudogovsky comments about the Feast of the "Encyclopedia [[Meeting of Eastern Orthodox Christianitythe Lord]] that the hymn writer's paraphrase contains the perspective revealed with ''"the Incarnation - Christ's Church, Prof. Eugene Pentiuc of Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theologythe newly chosen Israel, wrote that supersessionism was discernible in Biblical passages<ref>Cited are: Mat 21:33-46which yesterday's gentiles and believing Jews became, Gal 3:24-5, Rom in the Savior's words (John 10:4</ref>16), and that it was especially pronounced in writings about Old Testament Typologyone flock. He wrote that "many early Christian writings" portray the New Testament and the Church as superseding the Old Testament and what he calls the "old Israel".''<ref>Prof. Eugene Pentiuc, “Judaism, Orthodoxy and”, cited in Fr. John McGuckin The Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodox ChristianityFeodor Lyudogovsky, p. 356.</ref> The entry claims that supersessionism fueled "anti-Jewish sentimentСретение Господне: Ветхий днями – значит Вечный" and devalued the Old Testament, but that ''"the church as a whole has [kept] the two Testaments in a dialectical unityFebruary 14, in the main avoiding2013.http://www.nsad. supersessionism as [a] danger."''<ref>Id.ru/articles/sretenie-gospodne-vethij-dnyami-znachit-vechnyj</ref>
==References==
<references/>
 
==See Also==
 
*[[Israel]]
*[[Dispensationalism]]
 
==External link==
*[http://www.newenglishreview.org/custpage.cfm/frm/142205/sec_id/142205 Is the Orthodox Church “Supersessionist”?] by Hal Smith of the Orthodox Church in America
 
[[Category:Ecclesiology]]
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