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Sava of Serbia

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[[Image:SvetiSavaMileseva.jpg|thumb|300px|right|St. Sava of Serbia]]Our father among the [[saint]]s '''Sava of Serbia''' (1175 or 1176 - [[January 12]], 1235 or 1236), originally the prince Rastko Nemanjic (son of the Serbian ruler also '''Savvas''' and founder of the Serbian medieval state Stefan Nemanja and brother of Stefan Prvovencani, first Serbian king)'''Sabbas''', was the first [[PatriarchArchbishop]] of Serbia (1219-1233) and is an important saint in on the calendar of the [[Church of Serbia|Serbian Orthodox Church]]. His [[feast day]] is celebrated observed on [[January 1214]] or and [[January 14|1412]]. Alternate versions of his name include '''Savvas''' and '''Sabbas'''.
In his youth (around 1192) St. ==Life==Sava escaped from home to join was born Prince Rastko Nemanjic, the orthodox monastic colony on son of [[Mount AthosStefan Nemanja]] (Holy Mountain on , the Chalkidiki peninsula) Serbian ruler and was given founder of the name ''Sava''medieval Serbian state. He first traveled to a Russian [[monastery]] and then moved to a Greek MonasteryHis brother, [[Vatopedi Monastery (Athos)|Vatoped]]. At the end of 1197 his father, king Stefan Nemanja, joined him. In 1198 they together moved to and restored the abandoned monastery [[Chilandari Monastery (Athos)|Hilandar]]Prvovencani, which was at that time the center of first Serbian Christian monastic lifeking. Rastko Nemanjic was born in either 1175 or 1176.
StIn the early 1190s, the young Rastko left home to join the Orthodox [[Monasticism|monastic]] community on [[Mount Athos]]. Sava's father took the Taking monastic vows under , he was given the name ''SimeonSava'' (Serbian form of ''Sabbas'') in honour of St. [[Sabbas the Sanctified|Sabbas]]. Initially, and died in Hilandar on he joined a Russian [[February 13monastery]], 1200but then moved to the Greek [[Vatopedi Monastery (Athos)|Vatopedi Monastery]]. He is also canonisedAt the end of 1197, as Saint Simeonhis father, Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja, joined him. In 1198, together they moved to and restored the abandoned [[Chilandari Monastery (Athos)|Hilandar]] monastery, which at that time became the center of Serbian Orthodox Christian monastic life.
After his fatherSt. Sava's death, Sava retreated to an [[ascetic]] monastery in Kareya which he built himself <!-- in father took monastic vows under the middle of Athos? --> in 1199name ''Simeon''. He also wrote died in the Kareya Typicon both for Hilandar and for the monastery of ascetism. The last Monastery on [[typiconFebruary 13]] is inscribed into the marble board at the ascetic monastery, which today also exists in it1200. He stayed on Athos until the end of 1207is also [[glorification|canonized]] as Saint Simeon.
St. After his father's death, Sava managed retreated to persuade an [[ascetic]] cell in Kareya which he built himself <!-- in the patriarch of the Greek/Byzantine Orthodox Church to elevate him to the position middle of Athos? --> in 1199. He also wrote the first Serbian Kareya and Hilandar [[ArchbishopTypika]], thereby establishing . The last Kareya typikon is inscribed into the independence of marble board at the Archbishopic of the Serbian Church in ascetic cell. He stayed on Athos until the year end of 12191207.
Saint When Sava is celebrated entered his native land in 1207, he unfortunately found the country just as Simeon had informed him in his dream—in total disarray. The Serbian state was split in two. By secret negotiations with Hungary and Pope Innocent III, Vukan, the founder eldest of the independent Serbian Orthodox Church and three brothers, who was bitter over the appointment of his younger brother Stephen as heir to the [[patron saint]] throne, was able to amass troops and capture Zeta; he then was set to launch a campaign against Raška, Stephen's portion of education and medicine among Serbsthe divided kingdom. His feast day This civil war was only a microcosm of a larger conflict instigated by the West—that is observed on , the hostilities initiated by the Great Crusades of the Latin church. In 1204, the soldiers of the [[January 27Fourth Crusade]] in captured Constantinople and much of the territory of [[Gregorian calendarByzantium]] (, including the Holy Mountain. In 1205, the Holy Mountain was officially placed under the authority and [[January 14jurisdiction]] in the of a Roman Catholic [[Julian calendarbishop]] still observed by . It is believed that this occurrence was the Serbian Church)most influential factor in Sava's decision to return to Serbia. Since Hence, the 1830s, Saint Sava has become the patron saint of Serb schools and schoolchildren. On returned home with his feast day, students partake in recitals in churchwork cut out for him.
After participating in a ceremony called Blessing When he returned, Sava brought with him the medicine to heal the entire situation: the [[relics]] of his father, the Grand Župan and saint, Stephen Nemanja&mdash;Simeon the Waters (Agiasmo) he developed Myrrh-flowing and co-founder of Hilandar. Upon entering [[Studenica Monastery]], St. Simeon's foundational [[monastery]], Sava invited his two brothers to a cough that progressed into pneumoniaproper and rightful [[memorial service]] for their father. He died from pneumonia in As the casket was opened, before their eyes the evening between Saturday body of their father was found to be sweet-smelling, exuding a fragrant oil and [[myrrh]], warm and Sundayaglow, January 14looking very much alive, 1235as if he were only restfully sleeping. This act of [[]] He of their father was buried at the Cathedral of first step in healing the Holy Forty Martyrs in Trnovo. He remained in Trnovo until fraternal [[May 6schism]]between Vukan and Grand Prince Stephen. Shortly thereafter, 1237the civil war was halted and a peace agreement was drawn up, when once again restoring the kingdom of Serbia as it was under the reign of the great ruler Stephen Nemanja. In discussions with his reunited brothers, Sava also designed plans for an immediate, systematic, and far-reaching [[relics|sacred bonesmissionary]] were moved program to save the monastery Mileseva in southern SerbiaOrthodox souls of the Serbian people. Studenica Monastery, with St. 360 years later Simeon's [[relics]] making it a national [[shrine]], was chosen as the Ottoman Turks dug out his bones and burnt them on outreach station for all activities. Sava was appointed [[Archimandrite]] of Studenica. St. Sava wrote the main square in BelgradeMonastery's Typikon, which strengthened Studenica's monastic life.
== Archbishop == St. Sava managed to persuade the [[Patriarch of Constantinople]], who was residing in [[Nicea]] since Constantinople was under Latin rule until 1261, to establish the independence of the [[Church of Serbia|Serbian Church]] in the year of 1219. At Patriarch [[Manuel I Charitopoulos of Constantinople|Manuel's]] request, Sava was selected to be elevated to Archbishop. At first, Sava vehemently refused this offer on the grounds that he was truly unworthy for such a position and calling. He offered several of the [[monk]]s from Hilandar who were present as potential candidates for the position. In the end, Sava accepted and was [[Consecration of a bishop|consecrated]] in Nicea on the [[Feast]] of St. [[Nicholas of Myra|Nicholas]], [[December 6]], 1219, becoming the first Archbishop of the newly autocephalous Orthodox Church of Serbia. He was 44 years old at the time.  The following are the exact words of the Greek text of Patriarch Manuel's decree elevating Sava to Archbishop, thus granting [[autocephaly]] to the Serbian Church: :''I, Manuel, the Ecumenical Patriarch and the Archbishop of the City of Consrantinople, New Rome, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, have consecrated Sava, Archbishop of all the Serbian lands, and have given him in God's name the authority to consecrate bishops, priests, and deacons within his country; to bind and loose sins of men, and to teach all and to baptize in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Therefore, all you Orthodox Christians, obey him as you have obeyed me." After his consecration, Sava returned to the Holy Mountain in order to say farewell to Hilandar and to receive the blessing and prayers of the entire monastic community of the Holy Mountain.  The newly consecrated Archbishop Sava then traveled by boat to Thessalonica, where he tarried awhile at Philokalos Monastery. At Philokalos, he, along with a few others, made a translation from Greek into Slavonic of the Byzantine ecclesiastical law book ''[[The Rudder]]'' or ''Nomocanon'' of St. [[Photios the Great]] (9th century). Called ''KormchajaKnjiga'' ("Book of the Pilot") in Slavonic, this translation contained not only the ecclesiastical [[canon]]s—including the dogmatic decrees of the seven [[Ecumenical Councils]]—with commentaries by the best medieval Greek canonists, but also numerous precepts of the [[Church Fathers|Fathers]] of the Church and several of the imperial edicts of the great Byzantine Emperor [[Justinian]] (6th century).  When he arrived in Serbia Sava decided that on the first day of his archepiscopacy in Žiča, the Feast of the [[Ascension]], 1220, he would, as the as the newly consecrated Archbishop of Serbia, crown his brother Stephen as the first Serbian king. In 1228 he crowned his nephew Radoslav as king. Venerable Sava decided to visit Jerusalem and the [[Holy Land]]. Thus, in 1229, after ten years of dedicated hard work and fruitful labor in the vineyard of the Lord in his homeland, Sava decided to renew his own spirit by making a [[pilgrimage]] to the cradle of Christianity itself, Jerusalem, where the Lord first brought salvation to the world. When it was time for Sava to leave the Holy Land for Serbia, he decided to go by way of Nicea. There he met with John, the new emperor of Byzantium (1222-1254) now residing in Nicea, who succeeded Theodore Laskaris. He also met [[Germanus II of Constantinople|Germanus]], the new patriarch who succeeded the late Patriarch [[Manuel I Charitopoulos of Constantinople|Manuel]].  In Serbia a new civil war broke out between Radoslav and his brother Vladislav. Unfortunately for Radislav, his military prowess waned as well, for in a fratricidal civil war against his younger brother Vladislav during the summer of 1233, he was defeated and exiled to Durazzo, Albania. Although Sava was unsuccessful in reconciling these brothers—who were both disloyal to their grandfather St. Simeon's call for unity—nevertheless he knew it was better for the country to be ruled by Vladislav. Several years later, as a result of his negotiations with King Vladislav, Sava was able to obtain safe conduct for Radislav, who was allowed to return to Serbia. Unfortunately again for Radislav, his wife had eloped with a French duke during his exile in Albania. Radislav then decided to become a monk, and Sava [[tonsure]]d him, giving him the name "Jovan (John)." == Retirement == Sava abdicated from archepiscopal [[see]] in 1233 and appointed his most capable pupil St. Arsenije as Archbisop of Serbia (1233-1263). In the spring of 1234, Archbishop Sava, age 59, only five years after his first trip to the Holy Land, decided to make a second pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Upon arrival in Jerusalem, Sava lodged at the St. George Monastery in Acre, a monastery he had purchased from the Latins during his first pilgrimage. Sava visited Patriarch Athanasius of Jerusalem and then went by boat to Alexandria, Egypt, to meet with Pope Nicholas, "Patriarch of [[Church of Alexandria|Alexandria]] and all Africa."  He then went to [[St. Catherine's Monastery (Sinai)|St. Catherine's Monastery]] on Mt. Sinai, where he spent [[Great Lent]] of 1234. This was a most blessed [[Pascha]]l journey for Sava, for he climbed the heights where the great man of God, [[Moses]] the God-seer and Deliverer of his people, had spent many hours speaking to the Lord God face to face as a friend converses with a friend. Sava, too, had been a "Moses" to his people, pastoring, leading and organizing them into a community of God. After the Paschal celebration of 1234, Sava returned to Jerusalem and then traveled to Antioch. After visiting Constantinople, Sava intended to visit the Holy Mountain and Hilandar, but "it did not please the [[Holy Spirit]]." Instead, he left for Trnovo, Bulgaria, the capital of King Ivan Asen II's Bulgarian kingdom and patriarch of Trnovo. Participating in a ceremony called Blessing of the Waters (Agiasmo) he developed a cough that progressed into pneumonia. He died from pneumonia in the evening between Saturday and Sunday, [[January 14]], 1235. [] He was buried at the [[Cathedral]] of the Holy Forty Martyrs in Trnovo where his body remained until [[May 6]], 1237, when his [[relics|sacred bones]] were moved to the monastery Mileseva in southern Serbia. 360 years later the Ottoman Turks dug up his relics and burned them in the main square in Belgrade. ==Legacy==There were many [[miracle]]s at the grave of St. Sava in the Mileševa monastery. Venetian diplomat Ramberty who visited Mileševa in 1534 wrote that not only Serbs, but also Turks and Jews were visiting the monastery and asking for healing. French diplomat Jacques de Chenoais wrote in 1547 that he saw uncorrupted [[relics]] of St. Sava; he also said that Turks and Jews were giving bigger donations than Christians themselves. Another passinger as Venetian Zen, and French Lescalonieur were reporting about similar events in 1550 and 1574. Lescalonieur wrote that the head of the saint was covered, because one Turk who saw it died a few decades later. {{citation}} St. Sava is remembered as the founder of the independent Serbian Orthodox Church and is celebrated as the [[patron saint]] of education and medicine among Serbs. Prince Miloš of Serbia January 13 (Julian), 1830, proclaimed St. Sava the patron saint of Serb schools and schoolchildren. On his feast day, students partake in recitals in church. The [[Temple of Saint Sava (Belgrade)|Temple of St. Sava]] in Belgrade, whose construction was planned to start in 1939, begun but actually began in 1985 and awaits completion by completed in 2004 , is the largest active Orthodox temple in the world today. It was built on the place where the holy bones were burned.
''At first we were confused. The East thought that we were West, while the West considered us to be East. Some of us misunderstood our place in the clash of currents, so they cried that we belong to neither side, and others that we belong exclusively to one side or the other. But I tell you, Ireneus, we are doomed by fate to be the East in the West and the West in the East, to acknowledge only heavenly Jerusalem beyond us, and here on earth--&mdash;no one'' :&mdash;''St. Sava to Ireneus, 13th century'' == Hymnography ==[[Troparion]] - Tone 3 :Thou wast a guide to the Way of Life, a first Hierarch and a teacher; :thou didst come and enlighten thy home country, O Sava, :and give it rebirth by the Holy Spirit. :Thou hast planted thy children like olive trees in the spiritual Paradise. :O [[Equal-to-the-Apostles]] and Saints, pray to Christ our God to grant us His great mercy. <sup>[]</sup> [[Kontakion]] - Tone 8  :As the first great hierarch and co-worker with the [[Apostles]],:the Church of thy people magnifies thee;:and since thou hast found favor with Christ,:save us by thy prayers from every calamity,:so that we may proclaim to thee: Rejoice, God-wise Father Sava. Troparion - Tone 8
-:O guide of Orthodoxy and blessed teacher of virtues,:purifier and [[enlightener]] of thy homeland,:beauty of monastics,:most wise Father, Holy Sava,:by thy teaching thou didst enlighten thy people,:O flute of the Spirit, pray to Christ God for our souls. ==Source==* [[:wikipedia:Saint Sava|'' St. Saint Sava to Ireneus, 13th century''on Wikipedia]]<!--
==See also==
*[[Hilandar Research Library]]'', Resource Center for Medieval Slavic Studies, University of Ohio (Columbus)
==External links and references==
* [ St. Sava I, First Archbishop of Serbia] ([[OCA]])
* [ Life of our Holy Father Sava I: Enlightener and First Archbishop of the Serbs (+1235)]
* [ St Sava of Serbia] ([[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia]])
* [ Library ''Saint Sava''] - Online Library Cataloging System
* [ Collected works] (in Serbian language)
== Succesion ==
{{start box}}
title=[[List of Patriarchs of Serbia|Archbishop of Serbia]]|
after=St. [[Arsenius I (Sremac) of Pec|Arsenije]]}}
{{end box}}
[[Category:Patriarchs of Serbia]]
[[Category:13th-century bishops]]
[[Category:Serbian Saints]]
[[Category:13th-century saints]]
[[sr:Сава српски]]

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