A [[see]] was established in Caesarea in Cappadocia during the early Christian period beginning in the third century as "protothronos", that is, 'first in hierarchy' among the dioceses that came under the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. During the following centuries the diocese saw a number of prominent Orthodox Christian [[clergy]] such as [[Basil of Caesarea]], [[Gregory of Nyssa]], and [[Gregory of Nazianzus]] during the fourth century. As in all Asia Minor, the Christian communities, including Caesarea, flourished during the following centuries until the rise of [[Islam]] and especially after the conquests by the Turkish tribes. Thus, the regions of Cappadocia and Lycaonia, that formerly included five dioceses and twenty nine bishoprics began to decline from the fourteenth century, a result of the political instability and disasters that Asia Minor suffered in the fifteenth century. The former dioceses were ceded to Caesarea in order to reinforce its financial condition which placed a wider area under the control of one hierarch.
The Diocese of Caesarea possibly became inactive for some time during the fifteenth/sixteenth centuries, despite its mention in the patriarchal [[w:Notitia Dignitatum|Notitia]] of 1500 or the consecration of metropolitans, which obviously concerned only its title. An indication of this practice is that of Metropolitan Metrophanes who while holding the title of Metropolitan of Caesarea, lived in [[Venice]] where he led the Greek Orthodox community. He subsequently became Patriarch [[Metrophanes III of Constantinople]].
*Ioannes Anastasiadis 1878
*[[Eustathius of Caesarea|Eustathius Kleovoulos]] 1871 - 1875
c. 1832 - 1871