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Cyril Lucaris

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{{cleanup}}Hieromartyr '''Cyrillos Lukaris''', also '''Cyril I Lucaris''', '''Cyril Loukaris''' or '''Cyril Lucar''', was a Greek prelate and [[theologian]]. He was [[Patriarch of Alexandria]] as '''Cyril III''' from 1601 to 1620 and [[Patriarch of Constantinople]] as '''Cyril I''' for five different periods from 1620 until 1638. He was the first great name in the Orthodox Church after the [[fall of Constantinople]] in 1453, and dominated its history in the seventeenth century.
'''Cyrillos Lukaris''' or '''Although the Calvinist confession attributed to him caused great controversy in the Orthodox Church, Hieromartyr Cyril Lucaris''' or '''Cyril Lucar''' (†1638) was honoured as a Saint and Martyr shortly after his martyric death, and the Venerable Saint Eugenios of [[1572Metropolis of Aitolia and Akarnania|Aitolia]]-June (†1682, [[1637August 5]]) was a compiled an [[Greece|GreekAkolouthia]] prelate and (Service) to celebrate his memory. The official [[theology|theologianglorification]] and a native of Hieromartyr Cyril Loukaris took place by decision of the Holy Synod of the [[CreteChurch of Alexandria|Patriarchate of Alexandria]]. He later became the on October 6, 2009, and his memory is commemorated on [[Orthodox Patriarch of AlexandriaJune 27]] as .<ref name=GRKSYNAX>{{el icon}} ''[http://www.saint.gr/4188/saint.aspx Άγιος Κύριλλος Λούκαρις Πατριάρχης Κωνσταντινουπόλεως].'Cyril III'Ορθόδοξος Συναξαριστής. 27/06/2013.</ref><ref>'' and [[Patriarch of Constantinoplehttp://www.patriarchateofalexandria.com/index.php?module=news&action=details&id=373 FIRST DAY OF THE DELIBERATIONS OF THE HOLY SYNOD OF THE ALEXANDRIAN PATRIARCHATE]] as .'''Cyril I'''. He was the first great name in the [[Eastern Orthodoxy|Greek Orthodox]] Eastern Church since the fall Patriarchate of [[Constantinople]] in [[1453]], Alexandria and dominated its history in the [[17th century]]All Africa'''. 06/10/2009.</ref>
==Life==Cyril Lucaris was born in Candia (Heraklion), Crete on [[November 13]], 1572 during the time Crete was occupied by the Venetian Republic. In his early youth he travelled studied under a number of eminent scholars including Maximus Marguius, Bishop of Kythira. For his later education he traveled through Europe, studying studied at [[Venice]] and [[, Padua]], and at [[Geneva]] where . In Geneva, he came under the influence of the reformed faith as represented by [[John Calvin]]. In He developed a great antipathy toward [[1602Roman Catholic]] ism after he was elected Patriarch of Alexandriahad pursued theological studies in Venice, Padua, Wittenberg, and Geneva. In addition to being fluent in [[1621]] Patriarch of ConstantinopleGreek, he learned Latin thoroughly during his student days.
Due to Turkish oppression combined with the proselitisation of the Orthodox faithful by Jesuite missionariesHe was [[ordination|ordained]] a [[deacon]] in 1593, when he was 21 years old and, later, there was ordained a shortage [[priest]] by Patriarch [[Meletius I Pegas of schools which taught the Orthodox faith and Greek language. Catholic schools were set up and Catholic Churhes were built next to Orthodox ones and since Orthodox priests were in short demand something had to be done. Due to good relations with the AnglicansAlexandria|Meletius Pegas]], in 1677 Bishop Henry Compton Patriarch of London built a church for the Greek Orthodox in London but in 1682 the Greek Orthodox Church in London closed. But in 1694 renewed sympathy for the Greeks drew up plans for Worcester College, Oxford (then Gloucester Hall) to become a college for the Greeks but never came to fruitionAlexandria.
In 1753 Patr. Meletius Pegas sent Cyril to Poland in 1596 to lead the opposition by the Orthodox to the Patriarch Cyril Lukaris opened a school of thought called [[AthoniadaUnion of Brest]] that proposed a union of Kiev with Rome. During this time, he was a professor at [[Mount Athos]], but the Orthodox and Catholics insisted to academy in Vilnus, now the Turkish authorities that this should be closedcapital of Lithuania. In 1759 the Athos School 1601, he was closedelected Patriarch of Alexandria, succeeding Patr. The next option was to send students abroad to studyMeletius Pegas, as long as it was not Catholic thoughta position he filled with dedication for nineteen years. The Calvinists were appealing because their beliefs were very similar During this time he re-organized the finances of the patriarchate and repaired churches in addition to Orthodox onespreaching and maintaining constant correspondence with the Patriarch of Jerusalem and Cyprus.
It is alleged that the great aim of his life In 1612, he was to reform the Church on [[CalvinismLocum tenens|Calvinisticlocum tenens]] lines, and to this end he sent many young Greek theologians to of the universities Church of Constantinople for a short time. On [[SwitzerlandNovember 4]], 1620, the northern [[Netherlands]] and [[EnglandHoly Synod]]of Constantinople elected Cyril Patriarch of Constantinople. In [[1629]] he published his famous ''Confessio'' (Calvinistic in doctrine)His patriarchate was broken into five different periods: 1620 to 1623, 1623 to 1633, 1633 to 1634, but as far as possible accommodated 1634 to the language 1635, and creeds of 1637 to 1638, by intrigues involving the Orthodox Church. It appeared the same year in two Latin editionspapacy, four Frenchreformists, one German and one EnglishJesuits, and in the Eastern Church started Ottoman sultan that included schemes against Cyril to discredit him by spreading rumors he was a controversy which culminated in Calvinist. After each [[1691deposition]] in , Patr. Cyril was re-elected by the convocation by [[Dositheos]], [[Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem|patriarch of Jerusalem]], of a [[synodclergy]] supported by which the Calvinistic doctrines were condemnedOrthodox population.
Cyril It is alleged that the great aim of his life was also particularly well disposed towards to reform the Anglican Churchon [[Calvinism|Calvinistic]] lines, and his correspondence with to this end he sent many young Greek theologians to the Archbishops universities of Canterbury is extremely interestingSwitzerland, the northern Netherlands and England. It In 1629, his famous ''Confessio'' (Calvinistic in doctrine) was published in his time that Mitrophanis Kritopoulos - later Latin, but as far as possible accommodated to the language and creeds of the Orthodox Church. From 1629 to become 1633, it appeared in two Latin editions, four French, one German and one English. The "Confession" started a controversy in the Eastern Church which culminated in 1672 in the convocation by [[Dositheus II Notarius of Jerusalem|Dositheus]], [[Patriarch of Alexandria (1636-1639) Jerusalem]], of a [[synod]] by which the Calvinistic doctrines were condemned. Since then, eminent historians, theologians, and researchers have attempted to clarify whether Cyril Lucaris was sent the actual author of the "Confession" attributed by the Calvinists to England to studyhim. While Cyril denied it verbally a number of times and proclaimed his Orthodox faith in his letters as well by his attitude, he did not disavow the "Confession" in writing. Both The orthodoxy of Cyril Lucaris and Kritopoulos were lovers himself has continued to be a matter of books and manuscriptsdebate in the Eastern Church. Even Dositheus, and many in view of the reputation of the items great patriarch, thought it expedient to gloss over his [[heterodoxy]] in the collections interests of books and these two Patriarchs acquired manuscripts that today ‘adorn’ the Patriarchal LibraryChurch.
Lucaris Cyril was several times temporarily deposed also particularly well disposed towards the Anglican Church, and banished at the instigation of his orthodox opponents and of correspondence with the [[JesuitArchbishop of Canterbury|Archbishops of Canterbury]]sis extremely interesting. Through his contacts with the Church of England, who were his bitterest enemieshe also set up a program of sending young Greeks to England to study. FinallyAmong these students was the youth from Macedonia, when the [[Ottoman EmpireMetrophanes (Kritopoulos) of Alexandria|OttomanMetrophanes Kritopoulos]] [[Sultan]] [[Murad III]] was about to set out for the Persian Warwho later would become Patriarch of Alexandria. Both Cyril and Metrophanes were lovers of books and manuscripts, and acquired manuscripts that today adorn the patriarch was accused Patriarchal Library. Cyril also presented King James I of England with a design to stir up fine manuscript of the Holy Bible, known as [[CossackCodex Alexandrinus]]s, and to avoid trouble during his absence the sultan had him killed by . He also sent a manuscript of the [[JanissariesPentateuch]] in June 1637. His body was thrown into the sea, recovered and buried at a distance from the capital by his friendswith Arabic translation, and only brought back to Constantinople after many yearsLaud, Archbishop of Canterbury.
===Martyrdom===While Cyril was several times [[deposition|deposed]] temporarily and banished at the instigation of his orthodox opponents and of the [[w:Society of Jesus|Jesuit]]s, who were his bitterest enemies, his death came suddenly. According to Professor Christos Patrinellis:<blockquote>"The orthodoxy Catholic Church used all its religious and political influence to destroy this "son of darkness": the [[w:Society of Jesus|Jesuits]] and [[w:Order of Lucaris Friars Minor Capuchin|Capuchins]] of Constantinople, the French and Austrian ambassadors, the newly constituted [[w:Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples|Propaganda Fidei]], Pope [[w:Pope Urban VIII|Urban VIII]] himself continued and even [[w:Louis XIII of France|Louis XIII]] and the powerful [[w:Cardinal Richelieu|Cardinal Richelieu]]. Almost any means of attacking Loukaris were regarded as legitimate because the motive was "sacred": these included threats and violence, bribing Turkish officials and pro-Catholic clerics in the circle of his successor Cyril Kontares, forging texts incriminating Loukaris, and claiming that the patriarch was inciting foreign powers against the Ottoman Empire. The Austrian Embassy planned Loukaris' assasination or his abduction to Italy and delivered to the [[w:Holy Inquisition|Holy Inquisition]]. Eventually the Austrian ambassador and Kontares persuaded the [[w:Sublime Porte|Sublime Porte]] to be eliminate the patriarch and he was strangled on [[June 27]], 1638."<ref>Patrinelis, Christos (1975a). ''"Antagonismos ton ideon Metarrythmiseos kai Antimetarrythmiseos" [Conflict between the Ideas of Reform and Counterreform].'' In: '''Istoria tou Ellinikou Ethnous.''' 1, 130. Athens: Ekdotiki Athinon.<br>:* In: [[Christos Yannaras]]. ''Orthodoxy and the West: Hellenic Self-Identity in the Modern Age.'' Transl. Peter Chamberas and Norman Russell. Brookline: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 2006. p. 79.</ref><ref group="note">{{el icon}} "Στις 27 Ιουνίου του 1638 Λατίνοι και εβραίοι εξαγόρασαν με 4.000 τάλληρα τον Μέγα Βεζύρη Βαϊράμ Πασά και με διαταγή του συνελήφθη και εξετελέσθη ο Κύριλλος Λούκαρις με την κατηγορία ότι προπαρασκεύαζε εθνική επανάσταση των Ελλήνων με την βοήθεια των Ορθοδόξων Κοζάκων."<br>:(<small>''[http://alithislogos.blogspot.ca/2009/07/blog-post.html Κύριλλος Λούκαρις].'' '''ΑΛΗΘΗΣ ΛΟΓΟΣ'''. JULY 5, 2009.)</small></ref></blockquote> Thus, when the Ottoman Sultan Murad IV was about to set out for the Persian War, the [[patriarch]] was accused of a matter design to stir up the Cossacks. and the Sultan had Cyril strangled by the Janissaries on [[June 27]], 1638. His body was thrown into the Bosporus and was later recovered after being washed ashore on Halki Island. His body was buried at the Monastery of Panagia Kamariotissa on Halki by Patr. Parthenius I. ==Historical Assessment==According to Archbishop Chrysostomos of debate Etna:<blockquote>"Despite Western references to Patriarch Kyrillos’ wide contacts with the Reformers, he is in fact most famous in the Orthodox world for his anti-Papist stand against the Uniate menace and for his opposition to Jesuit missions in Eastern Europe. His contacts in Eastern ChurchEurope, where he studied, served, and traveled, were extensive. His opposition to Uniate Catholicism after the Brzeesc-Litewski Treaty of 1596 was so strong and widespread, that his so-called "Confession," whatever its true source, even Dositheosis a mere footnote to his struggle against Papism. It was THIS anti-Latin Loukaris who supported Protestant opposition to Papism, who perhaps allowed his views to be restated and published by his Calvinist contacts in view Geneva, and who earned the enduring hatred of the reputation Papacy, which has played an essential role — if one reads the intellectual history surrounding this issue — in perpetuating the idea that the "Confessio" was the direct work of Kyrillos and that he was a Protestant in his thinking."<ref>Archbishop Chrysostomos of Etna. ''[http://orthodoxinfo.com/inquirers/ca4_loukaris.aspx The Myth of the great patriarch"Calvinist Patriarch"].'' '''Orthodox Christian Information Center'''. Retrieved 19 October 2013.</ref></blockquote> In addition, thinking it expedient according to gloss over his professor [[heterodoxyw:Dionysios Zakythinos|Dionysios Zakythinós]] :<blockquote>"in the bold policy of this Patriarch...we find mixed and mingled many of the conflicting trends which distracted the Greek community of the seventeenth century with a multitude of warring influences — conservatism against reform; Orthodox mysticism against the materialistic rationalism of the West; traditional Byzantinism against the emerging spirit of the new Greece. Buffeted between the Ottoman authorities on the one side and the Western powers on the other, battling against the infiltration of Roman Catholicism, Cyril Loukaris gave his own original reply to the problem of relations between Orthodoxy and Western Christianity. In doing so he 'crystallized and translated into action the confused aspirations of a Greece which was just beginning to collect its thoughts with a view to making contact with Western civilization.' His attempted reform of the clergy, his introduction of a calendar dated from the Nativity of Christ in place of the old Byzantine chronology dated from the Creation, the establishment by Nicodemus Metaxas, at Constantinople, of the first Greek press in the interests East (1627), the translation of the New Testament into popular Greek (Geneva, 1638) 'are works of mark, witnessing to the Churchbreadth of view and the bold initiative of this great reformer'."<ref>[[w:Dionysios Zakythinos|D.A. Zakythinós]] (Professor). ''The Making of Modern Greece: From Byzantium to Independence.'' Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1976. pp. 145-146.ISBN 9780631153603</ref></blockquote>
This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain (see also entry in the latest online edition of Encyclopædia Britannica [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9049229]).
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{{succession box|before=[[Patriarch Meletius I Pegas of Alexandria|Meletius I]]|title=[[List of Orthodox Patriarchs of Alexandria|Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria]]|years=[[1601]]&ndash;[[-1620]]|after=[[Patriarch Gerasimius Gerasimus I of Alexandria|Gerasimius Gerassimus I]]|}}{{succession box|before=[[Timothy Neophytus II of Constantinople|TimotheusNeophytus II]]<br>|title=[[Timothy II List of Patriarchs of Constantinople|TimotheusPatriarch of Constantinople]]<br>locus tenens|years= 1612-1612|after=[[Anthimus Timothy II of Constantinople|Anthimus Timothy II]]<br>[[Cyril }}{{succession|before=Timothy II |title=Patriarch of Constantinople|Cyril II Kontares]]<br>years=1620-1623|after=[[Athanasius III Gregory IV of Constantinople|Athanasius III PatelarosGregory IV]]<br>}}{{succession|before=[[Neophytus III Anthimus II of Constantinople|Neophytus IIIAnthimus II]]|title=[[List of Constantinople patriarchs|Patriarch of Constantinople]]|years=[[1612]], [[1620]]&ndash;[[1623]], [[1623]]&ndash;[[1630]], [[1630]]&ndash;[[-1633]], [[1633]]&ndash;[[1634]], [[1634]]&ndash;[[1635]], [[1637]]&ndash;[[1638]]|after=[[Timothy Cyril II of Constantinople|TimotheusCyril II Kontares]]<br>[[Gregory IV of Constantinople}}{{succession|Gregory IV]]<br>[[before=Cyril II Kontares|title=Patriarch of Constantinople|Cyril II Kontares]]<br>years=1633-1634|after=[[Athanasius III of Constantinople|Athanasius III Patelaros]]<br>[[Cyril II }}{{succession|before=Athanasius III Patelaros|title=Patriarch of Constantinople|years=1634-1635|after=Cyril II Kontares}}{{succession|before=[[Neophytus III of Constantinople|Neophytus III]]<br>[[Cyril II |title=Patriarch of Constantinople|years=1637-1638|after=Cyril II Kontares]]|}}
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==See also==
* [[CalvinismAnglican Communion]]* [[Western Rite]] ==Notes==<references group="note" /> ==References== <div><references/></div> ==Sources==*[http://www.ec-patr.org/list/index.php?lang=en&id=202 Ec-patr: Cyril Lucarius] - [[Church of Constantinople]] website*[[w:Cyril_Lucaris|''Cyril Lucaris'' at Wikipedia]]*This article incorporates text from the 1911 ''Encyclopædia Britannica'', which is in the public domain (see also [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9049229/Cyril-Lucaris entry] in the latest online edition of ''Encyclopædia Britannica'').
==External links==
*[http://www.ccel.org/s/schaff/encyc/encyc03/htm/ii.11.xvii.htm#ii.11.xvii.p1.15 Cyril Lucar] from ''The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Vol. III: Chamier - Draendorf'' by Philip Schaff at the Christian Classics Ethereal Library*[http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/inquirers/ca4_loukaris.aspx The Myth of the "Calvinist Patriarch"]by Archbishop Chrysostomos of Etna* [http://www.nndb.com/people/008/000097714/ Cyril Lucaris] (Short bio with picture)* [http://theologytoday.ptsem.edu/oct1961/v18-3-bookreview10.htm (book review Review by Glanville Downey] of "''Protestant Patriarch: The Life of Cyril Lucaris (1572-1638); Patriarch of Constantinople''by George A. Hadjiantoniou*[http://anglicanhistory.org/orthodoxy/germanos1929.html Progress Towards the Re-Union of the Orthodox and Anglican Churches] by the Most Rev. Archbishop Germanos, Metropolitan of Thyatira*[http://anglicanhistory.org/orthodoxy/jad_germanos1929.html Archbishop Germanos on Anglicanism] by Canon J. A. Douglas, Ph.D. (a response to the above "Progress Towards the Re-Union of the Orthodox and Anglican Churches") ===Writings===*[http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/creeds1.v.v.html The Confession of Cyril Lucar, A.D. 1631.] from ''Creeds of Christendom'' at the Christian Classics Ethereal Library* [http://www.cresourceicrivoice.org/creedcyril.html (''The Confession of Cyril Lucaris'')]
[[Category:Bishops]]
[[Category:17th-century bishops]]
[[Category:Patriarchs of Alexandria]]
[[Category:Patriarchs of Constantinople]]
 [[Categoryro:Greek theologians|Chiril Lucaris, Cyril]]
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