Changes

Jump to: navigation, search

Gabriel Kostelnik

5 bytes added, 17:08, January 27, 2012
m
no edit summary
[[File:Gavriil Kostelnik.jpg|right|thumb|Protopresbyter Gabriel Kostelnik (1866-1948) as a Uniate priest.]]
The New [[Hieromartyr]] Protopresbyter Dr. '''Gabriel Kostelnik''', also '''Havryil Kostelnyk''', '''Havriil Kostelnik''' or '''Gabriel of Galicia''' ({{ru icon}} Костельник, Гавриил Фёдорович, {{sr icon}} Хавријил Костељник, June 15, 1886 - [[September 20]], 1948) was a Carpatho-Russian [[priest]] who returned to the [[Orthodox Church]] soon after the end of World War II. He was an outstanding church leader, theologian, philosopher, religious publicist, poet, playwright and prose-writer,<ref name=DECR>Russian Orthodox Church: Official Website of the Department for External Church Relations. ''[http://www.mospat.ru/archive/en/ne081285.htm 50th anniversary of the martyrdom of Protopresbyter Gabriel Kostelnik].'' 8.12.1998.</ref> and presided over the Reunion Council in Lviv Lvov in March 1946 (''Lvov Assembly / Lviv Sobor'') calling for the return of all [[Uniates]] to the Orthodox Faith, before he was assassinated during the political and religious turmoil of the late 1940s.
==Life==
===Lvov Assembly===
[[File:Bundesarchiv Bild 137-083713, Lemberg, Innenstadt.jpg|right|thumb|[[w:St. George's Cathedral, Lviv|St. George's Cathedral]], St. George's square, Lviv, 1943.]]
In the midst of the chaos at the end of World War II, Fr. Gabriel and his supporters called for a return to the Mother Orthodox Church. As the pre-war political alignments collapsed around them, Patriarch [[Alexei I (Simansky) of Moscow|Alexei I of Moscow]] welcomed their desire for the return of the Uniate [[clergy]] and faithful to Orthodoxy.  On [[February 23]], 1946, Metr. John of Kiev received Fr. Gabriel and twelve other priests from the Unia to Orthodoxy. By the end of the month two of these priests, Antoni Pelvetsky and Mykhailo Melnyk, had been consecrated bishops. Over the following months additional priests and [[laity|laypeople]] joined Fr. Gabriel's movement.<ref group="note">It is important to note that there were precedents in the history of the [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniate church]] similar to Father Gabriel's movement. According to Patriarch [[Alexei II (Ridiger) of Moscow]], the [[Union of Brest]], enforced in 1596, retained a strong internal opposition throughout its 400 years which would resolutely break away in favorable times, citing three outstanding examples.
:* "Greek Catholics in Belorussia, Lithuania, Volhynia and Podolia, led by the Uniate bishop Joseph (Semashko) and his colleagues representing the high-ranking Greek Catholic clergy, reunited with the Russian Orthodox Church in 1839.
:* The same was done by Greek Catholics in [[Diocese of Lublin-Chełm|Kholm]] region led by bishop Markell (Popel) in 1875.
:* In 1890, the Uniate priest [[Alexis Toth]] initiated in the USA a process of reunification in which some 90 thousand Greek-Catholic clergy and laity – emigres from Galicia and the Carpathian Rus – reunited with the Mother Church.
:"It was natural that in May 1945, immediately after the victorious end of the Great Patriotic War, an Initiative Group for Reunification of the Greek-Catholic Church with the Russian Orthodox Church was formed to implement the idea for which Father Gabriel suffered so much."</ref> On [[February 23]], 1946, Metr. John of Kiev received Fr. Gabriel and twelve other priests from the Unia to Orthodoxy. By the end of the month two of these priests, Antoni Pelvetsky and Mykhailo Melnyk, had been consecrated bishops. Over the following months additional priests and [[laity|laypeople]] joined Fr. Gabriel's movement.<ref group="note">A criticism of Fr. Gabriel by [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Byzantine-Ruthenian Catholic]] priest Christopher Lawrence Zugger argues that:<br>
:"Partly hoping to save his son (who, he had been told was a prisoner of the Soviets), partly out of anti-[[Latinization|Latin Catholic]] feelings, partly out of conviction, Kostelnyk led the destruction of his own Church with the assistance of two other apostate priests, Antoni Pelvetsky and Mykhailo Melnyk." (Rev. Christopher Lawrence Zugger. ''"[http://books.google.ca/books?id=HnUnJ7X10BMC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false The Forgotten: Catholics of the Soviet empire from Lenin through Stalin]."'' Syracuse University Press, 2001. p.423.)</ref>
In July 1948, Fr. Gabriel took an active part in the celebrations in Moscow on the occasion of 500th anniversary of the [[autocephaly]] of the [[Church of Russia|Russian Orthodox Church]].<ref name="Interfax"/>
On [[September 20]], 1948, after the [[Divine Liturgy]] Fr. Gabriel was attacked on the steps of the [[w:Church of Transfiguration, Lviv|Cathedral of the Transfiguration in Lvov]] and killed by one, Vasily Pankiv , a political terrorist, who killed himself immediately after his deadly assault. According to the official Soviet version, he was a member of the terrorist group led by [[w:Roman Shukhevych|Roman Shukhevich]], chief of the Ukrainian Rebel Army (UPA).<ref name=Interfax>Interfax-Religion. ''[http://www.interfax-religion.com/?act=news&div=5186 The initiator of elimination of the Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church could be canonized].'' 23 September 2008, 12:16.</ref><ref>{{ru icon}} Из мемуаров Петра Судоплатова. ''[http://militera.lib.ru/memo/russian/sudoplatov_pa/08.html «Военная Литература» Мемуары: Глава 8. «Холодная война» - Дорога к Ялте и начало мирного противостояния].''</ref> However, representatives of the UPA denied any involvement in the murder. The ''[http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/default.asp Encyclopedia of Ukraine]'' argues that although "Soviet authorities have blamed his murder on the Vatican and Ukrainian nationalists, the evidence suggests that the assassination was masterminded by the Soviet police."<ref>Bohdan R. Bociurkiw. ''[http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/display.asp?AddButton=pages\K\O\KostelnykHavryil.htm Kostelnyk, Havryil].'' Encyclopedia of Ukraine, Vol. 2 (1989).)</ref>
An official bulletin printed in the ''[http://www.jmp.ru/ Journal of the Moscow Patriarchate]'' (1948, № 10) and signed by Metropolitan Nicholas (Yarushevich) stated that Kostelnik was "killed by an agent of the Vatican."<ref>{{ru icon}} ''[http://www.jmp.ru/ Журнал Московской Патриархии].'' 1948, № 10, стр. 9.</ref>
8,916
edits

Navigation menu