Changes

Jump to: navigation, search

Gabriel Kostelnik

4,442 bytes added, 14:37, November 9, 2015
m
categories
[[File:Gavriil Kostelnik.jpg|right|thumb|Protopresbyter Gabriel Kostelnik (1866-1948) as a Uniate priest.]]
The New [[Hieromartyr ]]<ref group=note>Fr. Gabriel has not yet been glorified, although he is currently under consideration for canonization by the [[Church of Ukraine]]. In this regard, it has been suggested that the title '''"[[Passion-bearer]]"''' should be considered as a more accurate title for him based on the events of his life.</ref> Protopresbyter Dr. '''Gabriel Kostelnik''', also '''Havryil Kostelnyk''', '''Havriil Kostelnik''' or '''Gabriel of Galicia''' ({{ru icon}} Костельник, Гавриил Фёдорович, {{sr icon}} Хавријил Костељник, June 15, 1886 - [[September 20]], 1948) was a Carpatho-Russian [[priest]] who returned to the [[Orthodox Church]] soon after the end of World War II. He was an outstanding church leader, theologian, philosopher, religious publicist, poet, playwright and prose-writer,.<ref name=DECR>Russian Orthodox Church: Official Website of the Department for External Church Relations. ''[http://www.mospat.ru/archive/en/ne081285.htm 50th anniversary of the martyrdom of Protopresbyter Gabriel Kostelnik].'' 8.12.1998.</ref> and Controversially however, in March 1946 he presided over the state-sponsored Reunion Council in Lviv in March 1946 Lvov (''Lvov Assembly / Lviv Sobor'') calling for the return of all [[Uniates]] to the Orthodox Faith, before he was assassinated during the political and religious turmoil of the late 1940s.
==Life==
In 1913, he married the daughter of the principal of the Lvov Ruska gymnasium, Eleonora Zaricka. The couple had five children: Sviatoslava, Irene, Bohdan, Zenon, and Christina.
In Also in 1913, Gabriel was [[ordination|ordained]] a priest in the Uniate Church in Lvov. After his ordination he served in the [[Cathedral]] of the Transfiguration in Lvov as well as . He also became a professor of theology and philosophy at the Greek Catholic Theological Seminary in Lvov academy. In the late 1920s Gabriel emerged as a critic of the Vatican's Uniate policy and the leading representative of the ‘Eastern’ (anti-[[Latinization]]1920–8) orientation among and the [[w:Ukrainian Catholic University|Greek CatholicTheological Academy]] clergy(1928–30). He also edited the religious journal ''Nyva'' (1922–32).<ref name=UKRAINIAN>Bohdan R. Bociurkiw. ''[http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/display.asp?AddButton=pages\K\O\KostelnykHavryil.htm Kostelnyk, Havryil].'' Encyclopedia of Ukraine, Vol. 2 (1989).</ref> In the late 1920s Gabriel emerged as a critic of the Vatican's Uniate policy and became the leading representative of the ‘Eastern’ (anti-[[Latinization]]) orientation among the [[Greek Catholic]] clergy.<ref name="UKRAINIAN"/>
His continuing studies of the Church Fathers convinced him of the correctness of the position of the [[Orthodox Church]]. In 1930, after expressing his views in published papers, Fr. Gabriel was dismissed from his position with the academy. Not cowered by his dismissal, Fr. Gabriel continued his critique of [[Roman Catholic Church|Catholicism]] throughout the 1930s. At the Uniate congress in 1936 in Lvov, Father Gabriel read a paper on the Ideology of the Unia, arguing that the Greek Catholic Church was doomed and that it was necessary to return to the fathers’ faith.<ref name="DECR"/> He courageously developed the same theme at the Lvov diocesan clergy congress in 1943.<ref name="DECR"/> He was convinced of the error of the [[Unia]] and its wrongful effect on [[church]] life. During this time he formed a body of supporters who agreed with his position.
===Lvov Assembly(1946)===
[[File:Bundesarchiv Bild 137-083713, Lemberg, Innenstadt.jpg|right|thumb|[[w:St. George's Cathedral, Lviv|St. George's Cathedral]], St. George's square, Lviv, 1943.]]
In the midst of the chaos at the end of World War II, Fr. Gabriel and his supporters called for a return to the Mother Orthodox Church. As the pre-war political alignments collapsed around them, Patriarch [[Alexei I (Simansky) of Moscow|Alexei I of Moscow]] welcomed their desire for the return of the Uniate [[clergy]] and faithful to Orthodoxy. <ref group="note">It is important to note that there were precedents in the history of the [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniate church]] similar to Father Gabriel's movement. According to Patriarch [[Alexei II (Ridiger) of Moscow]], the [[Union of Brest]], enforced in 1596, retained a strong internal opposition throughout its 400 years which would resolutely break away in favorable times, citing three outstanding examples: :* "Greek Catholics in Belorussia, Lithuania, Volhynia and Podolia, led by the Uniate bishop Joseph (Semashko) and his colleagues representing the high-ranking Greek Catholic clergy, reunited with the Russian Orthodox Church in 1839 (Synod of Polotsk). :* The same was done by Greek Catholics in [[Diocese of Lublin-Chełm|Kholm]] region led by bishop Markell (Popel) in 1875. :* In 1890, the Uniate priest [[Alexis Toth]] initiated in the USA a process of reunification in which some 90 thousand Greek-Catholic clergy and laity – emigres from Galicia and the Carpathian Rus – reunited with the Mother Church. :"It was natural that in May 1945, immediately after the victorious end of the Great Patriotic War, an Initiative Group for Reunification of the Greek-Catholic Church with the Russian Orthodox Church was formed to implement the idea for which Father Gabriel suffered so much."</ref> On [[February 23]], 1946, Metr. John of Kiev received Fr. Gabriel and twelve other priests from the Unia to Orthodoxy. By the end of the month two of these priests, Antoni Pelvetsky and Mykhailo Melnyk, had been consecrated bishops. Over the following months additional priests and [[laity|laypeople]] joined Fr. Gabriel's movement.  Orthodox scholar Dr. Vladimir Moss has written the following historical-critical account of the council:
On [[February 23]]<blockquote>"After the Soviet victory in the war, 1946, Metr. John it was the turn of Kiev received Fr. Gabriel the Soviets and twelve other priests from the Unia Sovietized Moscow Patriarchate to Orthodoxyapply pressure. By Towards the end of the month two of these priestswar it was suggested to the uniate episcopate in Western Ukraine that it simply “liquidate itself”. When all five uniate bishops refused, in April, Antoni Pelvetsky and Mykhailo Melnyk1945, had been consecrated bishopsthey were arrested. Within a month a clearly Soviet-inspired “initiative movement” for unification with the MP headed by Protopresbyter G. Kostelnikov appeared. Over By the following months additional spring of 1946 997 out of 1270 uniate priests and [[laity|laypeople]78%] in Western Ukraine had joined Fr. Gabriel's this movement.<ref group="note">A criticism On March 8-10 a uniate council of Fr. Gabriel by clergy and laity meeting in Lvov [in [[Eastern Catholic Churchesw:St. George's Cathedral, Lviv|Byzantine-Ruthenian CatholicSt George's Cathedral]]] priest Christopher Lawrence Zugger argues that:<br>:"Partly hoping voted to save his son (who, he had been told was a prisoner join the [[Orthodox Church]] and annul the [[Union of Brest|Brest unia]] with the Soviets), partly out of anti-[[Latinization|Latin Roman CatholicChurch]] feelings, partly out of conviction, Kostelnyk led 1596. Those uniates who rejected the destruction council were forced underground. Similar liquidations of his own Church with the assistance uniate churches took place in Czechoslovakia and Romania… Central Committee documents show that the whole procedure was controlled by the first secretary of two other apostate prieststhe Ukrainian party, Nikita Khruschev, Antoni Pelvetsky and Mykhailo Melnykwho in all significant details sought the sanction of Stalin." (Rev. Christopher Lawrence Zugger<ref>Vladimir Moss. ''"[http://bookswww.googleorthodoxchristianbooks.cacom/books?id=HnUnJ7X10BMC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false The Forgotten: Catholics of articles/384/orthodoxy-unia-east-central-europe/ Orthodoxy and the Soviet empire from Lenin through StalinUnia in East-Central Europe]."'' Syracuse University PressMarch 30 / April 12, 2001. p2011.423.)</ref></blockquote>
<blockquote>"On 8 and 9 March 1946 a Council took place in [[w:St. George's Cathedral, Lviv|St George's Cathedral in Lvov]], presided over by Fr Gabriel. The two new bishops and the other ex-Uniat clergy were also present. Other Orthodox bishops also took part, as well as 204 Uniat priests and a few laypeople. The main speaker at the Council of Lvov was Fr Gabriel. He affirmed what all Orthodox know, that the 'Union' of Brest was the greatest catastrophe ever in the spiritual and national life of western Russia. Fr Gabriel called for the return of all Uniats to the Faith of Kiev, 'the Slav Jerusalem', the Orthodox Mother-Church and for freedom from papist tyranny and heresy. The following morning all 204 Uniat clergy renounced the Latin errors. They were united with the Orthodox Church through the sacrament of confession [[Confession]] by the newly-received ex-Uniat clergy. This was , followed by the concelebration of the [[Divine Liturgy. A ]], and a message was sent to Patriarch [[Alexei I (Simansky) of Moscow|Alexis]], which welcomed the day of that spiritual freedom that had arrived, announcing the reunion of Uniats with the Orthodox Church and the Universal Faith of the First Millennium."<ref>Orthodox England. ''[http://orthodoxengland.org.uk/lvov.htm Hieromartyr Gabriel of Galicia (1886-1948): A Carpatho-Russian Martyr for Christian Unity in Western Russia].'' St John's Orthodox Church, Colchester.</ref></blockquote>
According to Dr. Stepan Voznyak,<ref group="note">Professor of History of Philosophy and Vice[[Eastern Catholic Churches|Byzantine-Director of Scientific Library at Ruthenian Catholic]] priest Christopher Lawrence Zugger argues that Father Gabriel was motivated partly from the [http://www.pu.if.ua/en/ PreCarpathian National University], Galicia, Ukraine.</ref> in a 1986 interview, "78% hope of Uniate clergymen saving his son (who were at the time in the western oblasts of the Ukraine joined the organising body for severing relations with the Vatican, which he had been told was led by a priestprisoner of the Soviets), Gavriil Kostelnikpartly out of anti-[[Latinization|Latin Catholic]] feelings, Doctor and partly out of Theologyconviction."<ref>BBC Summary of World BroadcastsRev. Christopher Lawrence Zugger. ''"Anti-Communist and Anti-[http://books.google.ca/books?id=HnUnJ7X10BMC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false The Forgotten: Catholics of the Soviet Link Between Uniatism, Nationalism and Fascismempire from Lenin through Stalin]."'' November 18Syracuse University Press, 1986, Tuesday2001. p.423.)</ref><ref group="note">According to DrThe ''[http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/default. Voznyak:<br>:"The Lvov Assembly constituted the most democratic forum in the entire, let us say, history asp Encyclopedia of the Greek Catholic ChurchUkraine]'' adds that Fr. And therefore all sorts Gabriel's theological position made him a target of fabrications abroad alleging that NKVD pressure and blackmail during the Uniate Church was abolished, that the decision 1939–41 Soviet occupation of the Lvov Assembly was against canon lawGalicia, and so on, all these things do not reflect when the truth. Because the Assembly was attended by representatives authorities first tried unsuccessfully to have him organize an ‘away from every deanery of Rome’ schism in the Greek Ukrainian Catholic Church, including two bishops church; and 214 priests. There were also representatives of believers who were not clergymen. Thus when the decision of Soviets reoccupied Galicia in 1944 and arrested the Lvov Assembly on the self-abolition of the Uniate Church was canonicalentire Ukrainian Catholic episcopate, it he was democratic, it was representative and expressed not just the requirements finally compelled to assume chairmanship of the time but it also expressed Initiating Committee for the spiritual requirements Reunification of the entire population of Greek Catholic Church with the western oblasts of UkraineRussian Orthodox Church.<ref name=" (BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. ''UKRAINIAN"Anti-Communist and Anti-Soviet Link Between Uniatism, Nationalism and Fascism."'' November 18, 1986, Tuesday.)</ref>
However this In sum, the religious movement came which started with the anti-[[Latinization]] orientation among the Greek Catholic clergy led by Fr. Gabriel, and which culminated in the state-sponsored Synod of Lvov, occured at the same time that the political atmosphere in the area changed, as the remnants of the Nazi regimes, various nationalistic groups, the Bolshevik forces, and religious differences all collided with the sincerity of the people. In that environment, many of the clergy and laypeople returning to Orthodoxy became victims of fanatics, both religious and political.
===Death===
[[File:KOSTELNIK.jpg|right|thumb|Protopresbyter Gabriel's monument and gravesite.]]
On [[September 20]], In July 1948, after the [[Divine Liturgy]] Fr. Gabriel was attacked took an active part in the celebrations in Moscow on the steps occasion of the Cathedral 500th anniversary of the Transfiguration in Lvov and killed by one, Vasily Pankiv a political terrorist, who killed himself immediately after his deadly assault. He was a member of a terrorist group, led by [[w:Roman Shukhevych|Roman Shukhevichautocephaly]], chief of the Ukrainian Rebel Army (UPA).<ref name=Interfax>Interfax-Religion. ''[http://www.interfax-religion.com/?act=news&div=5186 The initiator [Church of elimination of the Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Russia|Russian Orthodox Church could be canonized]].'' 23 September 2008, 12:16.</ref><ref groupname="note">On the other hand, the ''[http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/default.asp Encyclopedia of Ukraine]'' argues that:<br>:"He was killed under mysterious circumstances; while Soviet authorities have blamed his murder on the Vatican and Ukrainian nationalists, the evidence suggests that the assassination was masterminded by the Soviet police.Interfax" (Bohdan R. Bociurkiw. ''[http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/display.asp?AddButton=pages\K\O\KostelnykHavryil.htm Kostelnyk, Havryil].'' Encyclopedia of Ukraine, Vol. 2 (1989).)</ref> Fr. Gabriel was buried in the [[w:Lychakiv Cemetery|Lychakov cemetery]] in Lvov. His funeral was attended, at least according to some Soviet authors, by around 40,000 people. Church leaders decided to inform the highest Soviet administrators of the great loss they suffered. Among others, J.V. Stalin and Nikita Khrushchev were contacted.<ref>[http://rdsa.tripod.com/biografeng.html Havriil Kostelnik (1886-1948)].</ref>
On [[September 20]], 1998, in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the demise of Protopresbyter Gabriel Kostelnik1948, after the [[Divine Liturgy]] Fr. Gabriel was celebrated in St. George’s church, followed by a [[Memorial Services|Panikhida]] at attacked on the tomb steps of Father Gabriel at the [[w:Lychakiv CemeteryChurch of Transfiguration, Lviv|Lychakov cemetery]] conducted by Archbishop Augustine Cathedral of Lvov and Drogobych. Later, a historic conference was held on the theme ''‘Protopresbyter Gabriel Kostelnik and His Role Transfiguration in the Revival of Orthodoxy in Galicia’''.<ref name="DECR"/> A message from His Holiness Patriarch [[Alexei II (Ridiger) of Moscow|Alexei IILvov]] said that "the death of Protopresbyter Gabriel Kostelnik was an irretrievable loss for the spiritual life of his legacy – the people of God who reunited with Holy Orthodoxy at the Church Council of Lvov and for the Russian Orthodox Church as killed by one, Vasily Pankiv, a wholeterrorist who killed himself immediately after his deadly assault."<ref name="DECR"/>
On According to the official Soviet version, Pankiv was a member of the terrorist group led by [[w:Roman Shukhevych|Roman Shukhevich]], chief of the Ukrainian Rebel Army (UPA).<ref name=Interfax>Interfax-Religion. ''[http://www.interfax-religion.com/?act=news&div=5186 The initiator of elimination of the Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church could be canonized].'' 23 September 192008, 12:16.</ref><ref>{{ru icon}} Из мемуаров Петра Судоплатова. ''[http://militera.lib.ru/memo/russian/sudoplatov_pa/08.html «Военная Литература» Мемуары: Глава 8. «Холодная война» -20, 2008Дорога к Ялте и начало мирного противостояния].''</ref> In addition, an official bulletin printed in the Lvov Diocese ''[http://www.jmp.ru/ Journal of the Moscow Patriarchate]'' (1948, № 10) and signed by Metropolitan [[Church Nicholas (Yarushevich) of UkraineKrutitsy|Ukraine Orthodox ChurchNicholas (Yarushevich)]] celebrated the 60th anniversary stated that Kostelnik was "killed by an agent of the death of Father GabrielVatican."<ref>{{ru icon}} ''[http://www.jmp.ru/ Журнал Московской Патриархии].'' 1948, № 10, стр. 9.</ref>
However, representatives of the UPA denied any involvement in the murder. And the ''[http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/default.asp Encyclopedia of Ukraine]'' states that although "Soviet authorities have blamed his murder on the Vatican and Ukrainian nationalists, the evidence suggests that the assassination was masterminded by the Soviet police."<ref name="UKRAINIAN"/>  Fr. Gabriel was buried in the [[w:Lychakiv Cemetery|Lychakov cemetery]] in Lvov. His funeral was attended, at least according to some Soviet authors, by around 40,000 people. Church leaders decided to inform the highest Soviet administrators of the 'great loss' they suffered. Among others, J.V. Stalin and Nikita Khrushchev were contacted.<ref>[http://rdsa.tripod.com/biografeng.html Havriil Kostelnik (1886-1948)].</ref> ==Commemoration==On September 20, 1998, in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the demise of Protopresbyter Gabriel Kostelnik, the [[Divine Liturgy]] was celebrated in St. George’s church, followed by a [[Memorial Services|Panikhida]] at the tomb of Father Gabriel at the [[w:Lychakiv Cemetery|Lychakov cemetery]] conducted by Archbishop [[Augustine (Markevitch) of Lviv and Galicia|Augustine (Markevitch)]] of Lviv and Drogobych.  Later, a historic conference was held on the theme ''‘Protopresbyter Gabriel Kostelnik and His Role in the Revival of Orthodoxy in Galicia’''.<ref name="DECR"/><ref group="note">Taking part in the Divine service and in the conference were hierarchs of the [[Church of Ukraine|Ukrainian Orthodox Church]]: Archbishops Onuphry of Chernigov and Bukovina, Niphont of Lutsk and Volyn, Augustine of Lvov and Drogobych, Sergy of Ternopol and Kremenets, Bishops Methodius of Khust and Vinogradov, Simeon of Vladimir-Volynsky and Koval, representatives of the theological schools from Moscow, Kiev, Lutsk, Pochaev and Warsaw, clergymen from the Rovno, Khust, Chenovtsy; Vladimir-Volynsky and Brest dioceses, Abbess Mikhaila Zaets, mother superior of the Gorodets convent, representatives of the Union of Orthodox Brotherhoods in Ukraine, and many parishioners.</ref> A message from His Holiness Patriarch [[Alexei II (Ridiger) of Moscow|Alexei II]] said that "the death of Protopresbyter Gabriel Kostelnik was an irretrievable loss for the spiritual life of his legacy – the people of God who reunited with Holy Orthodoxy at the Church Council of Lvov and for the Russian Orthodox Church as a whole."<ref name="DECR"/> On September 19-20, 2008, the Lviv Diocese of the [[Church of Ukraine|Ukraine Orthodox Church]] celebrated the 60th anniversary of the death of Father Gabriel. ==Glorification===Fr. Gabriel has been under consideration for [[glorification]]. According to Archbishop [[Augustine (Markevitch) of Lviv and Galicia|Augustine (Markevitch)]] of Lvov Lviv and Galicia, the Church has already begun to work on the appropriate documents.<ref name="Interfax"/><ref group="note">"According to our procedure of canonization, a [[martyr]] really had to suffer for [[Christ]] or for the Church, but not to die by chance. Moreover he shouldn't be a [[heretic]] or a [[schismatic]]. As for the pious, the Reverend Fathers, there should be the sanctity of life and authority. Kostelnik is somewhere in between a martyr and a pious," the Archbishop said.</ref>
<center>''Holy Hieromartyr Gabriel, pray to God for us!''</center>
* Russian Orthodox Church: Official Website of the Department for External Church Relations. ''[http://www.mospat.ru/archive/en/ne081285.htm 50th anniversary of the martyrdom of Protopresbyter Gabriel Kostelnik].'' 8.12.1998.
* Interfax-Religion. ''[http://www.interfax-religion.com/?act=news&div=5186 The initiator of elimination of the Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church could be canonized].'' 23 September 2008, 12:16.
* BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. ''"Anti-Communist and Anti-Soviet Link Between Uniatism, Nationalism and Fascism."'' November 18, 1986, Tuesday.
 
* Bohdan R. Bociurkiw. ''[http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/display.asp?AddButton=pages\K\O\KostelnykHavryil.htm Kostelnyk, Havryil].'' Encyclopedia of Ukraine, Vol. 2 (1989).
* Vladimir Moss. ''[http://www.orthodoxchristianbooks.com/articles/384/orthodoxy-unia-east-central-europe/ Orthodoxy and the Unia in East-Central Europe].'' March 30 / April 12, 2011.
* Rev. Christopher Lawrence Zugger. ''"[http://books.google.ca/books?id=HnUnJ7X10BMC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false The Forgotten: Catholics of the Soviet empire from Lenin through Stalin]."'' Syracuse University Press, 2001.
* [http://rdsa.tripod.com/biografeng.html Havriil Kostelnik (1886-1948)].
* Rev. Christopher Lawrence Zugger. '''Other languages'''* {{ukr icon}} "Украина православна". [http://bookspravoslavye.googleorg.caua/booksindex.php?idaction=HnUnJ7X10BMCfullinfo&printsecr_type=frontcover#varticle&id=onepage10243 Биография отца Г. Костельника]. '''Пресс-служба Украинской Православной Церкви.''' 01.03.2006.* {{ru icon}} (Pravoslavie.e-brest.net): Иващук Андрей. [http://www.pravoslavie.e-brest.net/modules/sections/index.php?op=viewarticle&q&fartid=false The Forgotten66 Львовский церковный собор 1946 года. Протопресвитер Гавриил Костельник]. '''Православный информационный ресурс'''. Сергиев Посад 2004.* {{ru icon}} (Vestnik article): Catholics of the Soviet empire from Lenin through StalinАндрей ДРАНЕНКО. [http://vestnik-jzr.org.ua/200901-dranenko.html Протопресвитер Гавриил Костельник и Львовский Собор 1946 года]."'' Syracuse University Press'Вестник''', 2006, 2001№ 1. * {{ru icon}} Russian Wikipedia: ''[http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%BA,_%D0%93%D0%B0%D0%B2%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B8%D0%BB_%D0%A4%D1%91%D0%B4%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87 Костельник, Гавриил Фёдорович].''* {{sr icon}} Serbian Wikipedia: ''[http://sr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A5%D0%B0%D0%B2%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%98%D0%B8%D0%BB_%D0%9A%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%99%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%BA Хавријил Костељник].''  
[[Category: Priests|Kostelnik]][[Category: Martyrs|Kostelnik]][[Category:Converts to Orthodox Christianity|Kostelnik]][[Category:Converts to Orthodox Christianity from Roman Catholicism|Kostelnik]]
1,371
edits

Navigation menu