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Old Calendarists

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Greece
In 1921, a council was called in Athens, led by Metropolitan [[Germanos of Demetrias]], the Vice-President of the Holy Synod, deposing Archbishop [[Meletios_IV_(Metaxakis)_of_Constantinople|Meletios (Metaxakis)]] of Athens, who had previously known for ecumenical activity, for recognizing the revolutionary Venizelos government in Greece. Meletios was recognized as Patriarch of Constantinople on November 21, 1921, where he began his programs anew, though previously his candidacy was declined by the Holy Synod of Constantinople in 1912.
In 1923, a "Pan-Orthodox Congress" (not a normal term for any Orthodox meeting of hierarchs) was held under the presidency of Meletios composed of members, specifically six Bishops, two laymen, and an archimandrite, of a few of the local Churches (none of the members of the Pentarchy save Constantinople sent representatives). [[Anastasy (Gribanovsky) of Kishinev|Metropolitan Anastassy]] of the Russian Church Abroad attended its initial meeting, having been in the area. He declared that the Synod had given him no instructions on the matter and soon departed. In total, less than half of the local Churches were represented by anyonenanyone.<ref>http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ecumenism/photii_2.aspx Bishop Photii of Triaditsa, "The 70th Anniversary of the Pan-Orthodox Congress", Orthodox Life, 1&2, 1994</ref> The purpose of the meeting was to implement the suggestions of the 1920 document, along with other proposals that were largely rejected, such as the elevation of married men to the Episcopate and the remarriage of widowed priests (sessions three and four). Representatives of the Anglican Church were present at the final meetings, specifically former Bishop Gore of Oxford. At these meetings, it was decided that nothing stood in the way of Orthodox-Anglican ecclesiastical union. In response, a five-member commission in Greece (of whom then Archimandrite, later Archbishop, Chrysostom Papadopolous of Athens) determined to study the question of the use of the New Calendar and found that "''Not a single one of them [local Orthodox Churches] can separate from the others and adopt the New Calendar without becoming schismatic in relation to the others.''"<ref>''Journal of the Government of the Greek Kingdom'', chapter 1, 24/25. 1. 1923, No. 8, see also ''OEM'', 1989, Chapter 17, p. 73, as noted in [http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ecumenism/photii_2.aspx]</ref>
==Greece==
'''''The Florinites'''''
After the death of Metropolitan Chrysostom, the Florinites had no bishops, and Metropolitan Chrysostom advised his flock to go under the protection of the Matthewite bishops. Fearing the repercussions, however, the Florinites opted to seek a new hierarchy and appealed to Bishops of the [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia]] to help them. In 1960, Archimandrite Akakios Pappas was made a bishop with the title of Bishop of Talantion for these communities without the official blessing of the ROCOR Synod by Archbishop Seraphim (Ivanov) of Chicago<ref>[http://www.roca.org/life_of_archbishop_seraphim.htm]</ref> and Bishop Theophilos (Ionescu), a an anti-communist Romanian New Calendar Bishop bishop under the ROCOR, whose parishes followed the new calendar. The following year, the ROCOR elected and ordained Archimandrite Petros Astyfides as Bishop of Astoria in order to serve as archpastor of the Greek Old Calendarist immigrant communities in the United States and Canada. Later Bishop Akakios of Talantion and Archbishop Leonty (Filipovich) of Chile<ref>[http://users.sisqtel.net/williams/archbishopleonty.html]</ref> of ROCOR ordained five more bishops in Greece. Thus in 1961, Akakios of Talantion became the new First-Hierarch of the restored Florinite Synod. He died, however, in 1963. The Synod thus proceeded to elect Auxentios Pastras, Bishop of Gardikion, to be their new leader as Archbishop of Athens. The ROCOR under Metropolitan Philaret recognized the validity of the consecrations in 1969.
''Divisions within the Florinites''
The Restored Florinite Synod of the True Orthodox Church of Greece was fraught with problems by the 1970s, and two major separations occurred during the lifetime of Archbishop Auxentios. However, few doubt that Archbishop Auxentios himself was of a saintly character, albeit a poor bishop. Recently there have been attempts to rehabilitate his memory (Archbishop Auxentios died in 1994); most of his synod, barely held together by the 1980s. In 1979, two Florinite Metropolitans, Kallistos of Corinth and Antonios of Attica, unilaterally consecrated seven Archimandrites to the episcopacy in an attempt to counteract the irregularities they perceived in the administration of Archbishop Auxentios. This led to the formation of the short-lived '''Kallistite Synod''', most of whose members reconciled themselves with the main body of the Florinite Synod by 1985.
'''[[Genuine Orthodox Church of Greece (Florinite)|The Synod Genuine Orthodox Church of Archbishop Chrysostomos of AthensGreece]]''': In 1986, Archbishop Auxentios was removed from the Archdiocese of Athens and the leadership of the Old Calendar Church of Greece. The Florinite Synod chose in 1986 a new leader in Archbishop Chrysostom (Kiousis), who demonstrated rather effectively that the True Orthodox in Greece were a force to be reckoned with. Choosing to take on the Greek legal system, court cases were held where it was demonstrated that the Old Calendarists of Greece were not schismatics. Though their public reputation had been tarnished over nearly two decades of divisions, their legal existence was, and is presently, safe. The synod of Archbishop Chrysostom of Athens represents today the main body of the True Orthodox Church of Greece. IN 2010, Archbishop Chrysostomos fell asleep in the Lord and was succeeded by Archbishop Kallinikos (Sarantopoulos).
'''The Auxentios Synod''': Archbishop Auxentios was removed in 1986 by the Florinite Synod on account of a series of controversial episcopal ordinations conducted in the early 1980s with his apparent consent. Having the support of the dissenting minority of bishops, Auxentios proceeded to form a counter Synod. He died in 1994, having failed to reconcile with the Florinite Synod under Archbishop Chrysostom. The remaining parishes of the Auxentios Synod, however, elected Archbishop Maximos of Kephalonia as president in 1995. However, after a series of questionable ordinations and maladministration by Archbishop Maximos, the Auxentios Synod dissolved in the mid 1990's. In 2006, clergy and a bishop (Metropolitan Athanasios of Larissa) from the Auxentios Synod reconciled themselves with the main body of the Old Calendar Church in Greece and were admitted into the Synod of Archbishop Chrysostom. In North America, the parishes loyal to Auxentios under the American Bishops organized around Holy Transfiguration Monastery in Boston (HOCNA), left the Synod, and elected Makarios of Toronto as locum tenens of the see of Athens. Since 2008, HOCNA has been in a cordial dialogue with the Synod of Archbishop Chrysostom in hope of establishing closer ties.
'''[[Genuine Orthodox Church of Greece (Matthewite)|The Gregorian Synod]]''': Under the primacy of Andreas of Athens, there were virtually no divisions in the Matthewites until 1995, when Metropolitan Gregory of Messinia separated with a small majority of the synod (five versus four), ostensibly over the issue of the "God the Father" [[icon]] and the related issues of Western-style icons in general. However, with the deaths of three of their bishops, the remaining two split, one remaining completely alone from the eldest hierarch, and the with Gregorios of Messinia naming three more bishops (Abramios, Pavlos, and Nectarios).
'''[[Genuine Orthodox Church (Matthewite)|The Synod of Metropolitan Kirykos]]''': Originally not a schism proper, Metropolitan Kirykos and two other bishops of the synod refused to recognize the retirement of Archbishop Andreas or the enthronement of the new Archbishop, but continued to remain a member of the Synod of Archbishop Nicholas. Finally, in 2005, after several attempts, the Synod of Abp Nicholas endeavored to depose Metropolitan Kirykos, who has since added five Bishops to his Synod in a number of countries.<ref>[http://genuineorthodoxchurch.com/ The Genuine Orthodox Church of Greece under the Omophorion of Metropolitan Kirykos of Mesogaias and Lavreotikis].</ref>
==Romania==
===Greece===
*[[Florinites]]
**[[Genuine Orthodox Church of Greece (Florinite)| Synod of Archbishop Chrysostom Kallinikos of Athens]]
**[[Genuine Orthodox Church of Greece| Makarian/Lamian Synod]]
** [[Holy Synod in Resistance| Cyprianite Synod)]]
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