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Hi Iliada - I wish you all success with learning Byzantine notation - it's not an easy task...but I assume you already know that!
The three 1-note-ascent's are somewhat different - I've forgotten their names over the years, but...
- -- The usual one is a straight line, and this one is a standard one note up.
- ,, This one is one note up, but instead of it being a separate note like the previous (e.g. πα, βου or και νυν), it is connected to the previous note - perhaps because the text has the same word (α-ει) or even the same syllable (Φο-ος). If you're reading the text as it should be read (and not as disjointed syllables), the differences between the two are usually worked out by themselves.
- υ - This one, like the first, is one note up; but there's also a slight waver. When it's just one note, the waver is barely audible; when it's extended for two notes, it certainly is. In this example (using Νη as the previous note), the resultant is Πα-β.-π. - as in, the original πα is a full note, but the second note has a spike to βου before coming back to πα.
I hope that this is helpful to you - I would take this opportunity to suggest, though, that learning Byzantine music is best done under the guidance of a teacher... CDs and recordings are wonderful, and make for a good chanter; but when it comes to notation, it's very difficult to learn without a local teacher. Of course, in some locations, that's just not possible, but if it is, it's very beneficial.