Typikon

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The '''Typikon''' (Greek: ''τυπικόν''/''typikon'', pl. ''τυπικα/typika'', lit. ''following the order''; Slavonic: ''ѹставъ/ustav'') is the book of directives and [[rubrics]] that establishes in the Orthodox Christian Church the order of divine services for each day of the year. It assumes the existence of liturgical books that contain the fixed and variable parts of these services. In [[monastery]] usage, the typikon of the monastery includes both the rule of life of the community and the rule of  prayer.
+
The '''Typikon''' (Greek: τυπικόν/''typikon'', pl. τυπικα/''typika'', lit. "following the order"; Slavonic: ѹставъ/''ustav'') is a book of directives and [[rubrics]] that establishes in the Orthodox Christian Church the order of divine services for each day of the year. It assumes the existence of liturgical books that contain the fixed and variable parts of these services. In [[monastic]] usage, the typikon of the monastery includes both the rule of life of the community and the rule of  prayer.
 +
 
 +
There are a number of major typikon traditions, but there are also many local variations, often codified into an official typikon.
  
 
==Origin of the Typikon of St. Savas and the Studite Typikon==
 
==Origin of the Typikon of St. Savas and the Studite Typikon==
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The liturgical books presently used by the Orthodox Church have originated either in monasteries or have been greatly influenced by monastic practices. The services of the daily cycle of worship used today in the Orthodox East reflect monastic usages and traditions, especially those of the two monastic centers that produced and developed them, the [[Holy Lavra of St. Savas (Jerusalem)|Holy Lavra of St. Savas of Jerusalem]] and the Monastery of Studion in Constantinople.   
 
The liturgical books presently used by the Orthodox Church have originated either in monasteries or have been greatly influenced by monastic practices. The services of the daily cycle of worship used today in the Orthodox East reflect monastic usages and traditions, especially those of the two monastic centers that produced and developed them, the [[Holy Lavra of St. Savas (Jerusalem)|Holy Lavra of St. Savas of Jerusalem]] and the Monastery of Studion in Constantinople.   
  
The liturgical tradition originating with ''The Typikon of St. Savas'' produced by the [[Lavra]] in its initial stages was influenced by the customs and practices of the monastic communities in the Near East, Egypt, Palestine, and Asia Minor. Under St. [[Theodore the Studite|Theodore]] the Studion Monastery in Constantinople became the center of monastic revival and reform in the imperial city. During the times of the iconoclastic controversy the Palestinian monastic typikon came to the Constantinople monasteries. In the Studion Monastery a synthesis occurred as elements of the [[Cathedral Office]] of Constantinople were added to the Palestinian typikon. In time this Studite synthesis was further modified by Palestinian monks to produce a revised Typikon of St. Savas that remained in general use until the nineteenth century.
+
The liturgical tradition originating with ''The Typikon of St. Savas'' — produced by the [[Lavra]] in its initial stages — was influenced by the customs and practices of the monastic communities in the Near East, Egypt, Palestine, and Asia Minor. Under St. [[Theodore the Studite|Theodore]], the Studion Monastery in Constantinople became the center of monastic revival and reform in the imperial city. During the times of the iconoclastic controversy, the Palestinian monastic typikon came to the Constantinople monasteries. In the [[Studion Monastery]], a synthesis occurred as elements of the [[Cathedral Office]] of Constantinople were added to the Palestinian typikon. In time, this Studite synthesis was further modified by Palestinian monks to produce a revised Typikon of St. Savas that remained in general use until the nineteenth century.
  
 
==The Typikon of the Great Church==
 
==The Typikon of the Great Church==
 +
The difficulty of using a monastic typikon at the [[parish]] level came to a head as the nineteenth century began, and abbreviations and omissions of the services became widespread. Accordingly, the [[Ecumenical Patriarch]] authorized the revision of the typikon for parish use. This revision became known as ''Ecclesiastical Typikon according to the Style of the Great Church of Christ'', and was published in 1838. This revision was further revised by Protopsaltis George Violakes in the ''Typikon of the Great Church of Christ'', published in 1888.<ref>''The Festal Menaion'' (Tr. Mother Mary and Archimandrite [[Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia|Kallistos Ware]], Faber and Faber, London, 1984), p. 543.</ref>
  
The difficulty of using a monastic typikon at the [[parish]] level came to a head as the nineteenth century began, and abbreviations and omissions of the services became widespread. Thus, the [[Ecumenical Patriarch]] authorized the revision of the typikon for parish use. This revision became known as ''Ecclesiastical Typikon according to the Style of the Great Church of Christ'', and was published in 1838. This revision was further revised in the ''Typikon of the Great Church of Christ'', published in 1888.
+
Bishop Kallistos notes:
 +
 
 +
:"Violakis made extensive and often ill-advised changes, especially in the order of the service for [[Matins]] on Sunday: for example, the [[katavasia|katavasiai]] are appointed to be sung all together at the end of [[Biblical Odes|Canticle]] Eight of the [[Canon (hymn)|Canon]], instead of occurring one at the end of each canticle; and the reading of the Gospel is moved from its old position before the Canon, and awkwardly inserted between Canticles Eight and Nine. Thus Canticle Nine is separated from those which precede it, and the whole structure of the Canon is unhappily obscured." <ref>''The Festal Menaion'' (Tr. Mother Mary and Archimandrite Kallistos Ware, Faber and Faber, London, 1984), p. 543.</ref>
 +
 
 +
He goes on to note, however:
 +
 
 +
:"In making these and other changes, perhaps Violakes was not innovating but simply giving formal approval to practices which had already become established in parishes. Presumably the Gospel was moved nearer to the end of the service because so few of the [[congregation]] arrived in time for the earlier parts of Matins!"<ref>''The Festal Menaion'' (Tr. Mother Mary and Archimandrite Kallistos Ware, Faber and Faber, London, 1984), p. 543.</ref>
  
 
==Divergence of Slavic and Byzantine Practice==
 
==Divergence of Slavic and Byzantine Practice==
  
To meet the needs of the Slavic world translations for a Slavic typikon originated as soon as missions to the Slavic world began. With the revisions originating in the Mediterranean world coupled with the Mongol invasions the Slavic typikon lost its conformity to the that standard in the Byzantine world.  This was recognized by the [[Church of Russia]] in the seventeenth century. It was this revision effort of the Slavic typikon that resulted in the Raskolnik ([[Old Believers]]) controversies under Czar Alexis and Patriarch [[Nikon of Moscow]].
+
To meet the needs of the Slavic world, translations for a Slavic typikon originated as soon as missions to the Slavic world began. With the revisions originating in the Mediterranean world coupled with the Mongol invasions, the Slavic typikon lost its conformity to the that standard in the Byzantine world.  This was recognized by the [[Church of Russia]] in the seventeenth century. It was this revision effort of the Slavic typikon &mdash; along with the [[Liturgical books|service books]] &mdash; that resulted in the [[Old Believers|Old Believer]] controversies under Czar Alexis and Patriarch [[Nikon of Moscow]].
  
The primary differences between the liturgical practice of the Byzantine and Slavic worlds stem from their origins in the Savaite and Studite typika, respectively, along with subsequent revisions.
+
The primary differences between the liturgical practice of the Byzantine and Slavic worlds stem from their origins in the Savaite and Studite typika, respectively, along with subsequent revisions. However, for the most part, the Greek, Romanian, and Slavic Typikons were closely aligned until the publication of the Violakes edition of ''the Typikon of the Great Church'' in 1888.<ref>''The Festal Menaion'' (Tr. Mother Mary and Archimandrite Kallistos Ware, Faber and Faber, London, 1984), p. 542.</ref>
  
 
For more information on this, see [http://www.holy-trinity.org/liturgics/krivoshein-greekandrussian.html ''Some differences between Greek and Russian divine services and their significance'', by Archbishop Basil Krivoshein of Brussels and Belgium]
 
For more information on this, see [http://www.holy-trinity.org/liturgics/krivoshein-greekandrussian.html ''Some differences between Greek and Russian divine services and their significance'', by Archbishop Basil Krivoshein of Brussels and Belgium]
  
==Note==
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==Notes==
The Greek Archdiocese of North America has placed on the internet an extensive overview of the origins of the Paschal and [[Holy Week]] services including other Orthodox service books and discussion of the Typikon. These sites are noted under External links with another site that discusses the state of the Slavic Typikon.
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<div class="references-small">
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<references />
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</div>
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==External links that Discuss the Typikon==
 
==External links that Discuss the Typikon==
*[http://www.goarch.org/en/ourfaith/articles/article8504.asp The Origins of Pascha and Great Week - Part I]
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*[http://www.goarch.org/ourfaith/ourfaith8504 The Origins of Pascha and Great Week - Part I]
*[http://www.goarch.org/en/ourfaith/articles/article8505.asp The Origins of Pascha and Great Week - Part II]
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*[http://www.goarch.org/ourfaith/ourfaith8505 The Origins of Pascha and Great Week - Part II]
 
*[http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/praxis/typicon.aspx How to Keep the Church Typicon: The Question of Uniformity in the Church Services Discussed at the Council of Hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad (1951), by St. John (Maximovitch)]
 
*[http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/praxis/typicon.aspx How to Keep the Church Typicon: The Question of Uniformity in the Church Services Discussed at the Council of Hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad (1951), by St. John (Maximovitch)]
*[http://www.stjohndc.org/russian/What/e_9609ca.htm The Late, Great Typikon]
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*[http://www.stjohndc.org/Russian/what/e_9609ca.htm The Late, Great Typikon]
 
*[http://www.metropolitancantorinstitute.org/Typikon.html The Typikon] (includes brief history, from an [[Eastern Catholic]] website)
 
*[http://www.metropolitancantorinstitute.org/Typikon.html The Typikon] (includes brief history, from an [[Eastern Catholic]] website)
 
*[http://www.orthodox.net/ustav/index.html Information on and from the Typikon]  
 
*[http://www.orthodox.net/ustav/index.html Information on and from the Typikon]  
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*[http://groups.yahoo.com/group/typikon/messages The Typikon List: A Discussion Group about the Typikon that focuses more on New Calendar Liturgical issues, and both Byzantine and Slavic practice]
 
*[http://groups.yahoo.com/group/typikon/messages The Typikon List: A Discussion Group about the Typikon that focuses more on New Calendar Liturgical issues, and both Byzantine and Slavic practice]
 
*[http://www.holy-trinity.org/liturgics/ The Holy Trinity Cathedral Liturgics Page]  
 
*[http://www.holy-trinity.org/liturgics/ The Holy Trinity Cathedral Liturgics Page]  
 +
*[http://www.holytrinitymission.org/books/english/manual_services_sokolov.htm A Manual of Divine Services, by Archpriest D. Sokolof]
  
 
==External links with Rubrics based on the Typikon==
 
==External links with Rubrics based on the Typikon==
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*[http://www.saintjonah.org/lit/ Rubrics and Texts for the Divine Liturgy] (Old Calendar).
 
*[http://www.saintjonah.org/lit/ Rubrics and Texts for the Divine Liturgy] (Old Calendar).
 
*[http://www.saintjonah.org/typ/ Rubrics and Texts for Typika] (Old Calendar).
 
*[http://www.saintjonah.org/typ/ Rubrics and Texts for Typika] (Old Calendar).
*[http://www.networks-now.net/litresswraoc/Typicon_Charts.htm How to put the Services together] (Antiochian).
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*[http://www.dowama.org/node/31 How to put the Services together] (Antiochian).
 
*[http://www.antiochian.org/1110642035 The Antiochian Liturgical Guide, Online]  
 
*[http://www.antiochian.org/1110642035 The Antiochian Liturgical Guide, Online]  
 
*[http://sgpm.goarch.org/ematins/matins.htm Texts for Sunday Matins] (New Calendar / Greek Archdiocese).
 
*[http://sgpm.goarch.org/ematins/matins.htm Texts for Sunday Matins] (New Calendar / Greek Archdiocese).
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*[http://www.holytrinitymission.org/books/english/hierarchical_services_rubrics.htm Rubrics for Hierarchical Services (Instructions for Clergy and Altar Servers)]
 
*[http://www.holytrinitymission.org/books/english/hierarchical_services_rubrics.htm Rubrics for Hierarchical Services (Instructions for Clergy and Altar Servers)]
 
*[http://www.holytrinitymission.org/books/english/liturgical_rubrics_1.htm Liturgical Instructions for Non-Hierarchical Services (for Clergy and Altar Servers)]
 
*[http://www.holytrinitymission.org/books/english/liturgical_rubrics_1.htm Liturgical Instructions for Non-Hierarchical Services (for Clergy and Altar Servers)]
*[http://www.holytrinitymission.org/books/english/manual_services_sokolov.htm A Manual of Divine Services, by Archpriest D. Sokolof]
 
  
 
==External links with Translations of the Typikon==
 
==External links with Translations of the Typikon==
  
 +
*[http://almoutran.com/pdf/typikon.pdf The Violakis Typikon of the Great Church of Christ of Constantinople in English]
 
*[http://www.angelfire.com/journal2/typikon/ An English Translation of the Slavic Typikon (an ongoing project)]  
 
*[http://www.angelfire.com/journal2/typikon/ An English Translation of the Slavic Typikon (an ongoing project)]  
*[http://www.synaxis.info/typicon/index.html The Typikon Translation Project]
 
 
*[http://www.liturgy.ru/docs/docs_all/graphics.php The Slavonic Typicon (in GIF files)]
 
*[http://www.liturgy.ru/docs/docs_all/graphics.php The Slavonic Typicon (in GIF files)]
 
*[http://www.orthlib.info/Typikon/Typikon.html The Slavonic Typikon (PDF format)]
 
*[http://www.orthlib.info/Typikon/Typikon.html The Slavonic Typikon (PDF format)]
*[http://users.forthnet.gr/ath/frc/psprotheoria.html A Draft Translation of the Biolakes Typikon]  
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*[http://web.archive.org/web/20071216201216/http://users.forthnet.gr/ath/frc/psprotheoria.html A Draft Translation of the Biolakes Typikon]  
 
*[http://www.typikon.gr/ The Biolakes Typikon in Greek]
 
*[http://www.typikon.gr/ The Biolakes Typikon in Greek]
*[http://www.holytrinitymission.org/books/english/typikon_1.htm Abbridged Typikon]
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*[http://www.holytrinitymission.org/books/english/typikon_1.htm Abridged Typikon]
 +
 
  
 
[[Category:Liturgics]]
 
[[Category:Liturgics]]

Revision as of 21:03, April 6, 2012

The Typikon (Greek: τυπικόν/typikon, pl. τυπικα/typika, lit. "following the order"; Slavonic: ѹставъ/ustav) is a book of directives and rubrics that establishes in the Orthodox Christian Church the order of divine services for each day of the year. It assumes the existence of liturgical books that contain the fixed and variable parts of these services. In monastic usage, the typikon of the monastery includes both the rule of life of the community and the rule of prayer.

There are a number of major typikon traditions, but there are also many local variations, often codified into an official typikon.

Contents

Origin of the Typikon of St. Savas and the Studite Typikon

The liturgical books presently used by the Orthodox Church have originated either in monasteries or have been greatly influenced by monastic practices. The services of the daily cycle of worship used today in the Orthodox East reflect monastic usages and traditions, especially those of the two monastic centers that produced and developed them, the Holy Lavra of St. Savas of Jerusalem and the Monastery of Studion in Constantinople.

The liturgical tradition originating with The Typikon of St. Savas — produced by the Lavra in its initial stages — was influenced by the customs and practices of the monastic communities in the Near East, Egypt, Palestine, and Asia Minor. Under St. Theodore, the Studion Monastery in Constantinople became the center of monastic revival and reform in the imperial city. During the times of the iconoclastic controversy, the Palestinian monastic typikon came to the Constantinople monasteries. In the Studion Monastery, a synthesis occurred as elements of the Cathedral Office of Constantinople were added to the Palestinian typikon. In time, this Studite synthesis was further modified by Palestinian monks to produce a revised Typikon of St. Savas that remained in general use until the nineteenth century.

The Typikon of the Great Church

The difficulty of using a monastic typikon at the parish level came to a head as the nineteenth century began, and abbreviations and omissions of the services became widespread. Accordingly, the Ecumenical Patriarch authorized the revision of the typikon for parish use. This revision became known as Ecclesiastical Typikon according to the Style of the Great Church of Christ, and was published in 1838. This revision was further revised by Protopsaltis George Violakes in the Typikon of the Great Church of Christ, published in 1888.[1]

Bishop Kallistos notes:

"Violakis made extensive and often ill-advised changes, especially in the order of the service for Matins on Sunday: for example, the katavasiai are appointed to be sung all together at the end of Canticle Eight of the Canon, instead of occurring one at the end of each canticle; and the reading of the Gospel is moved from its old position before the Canon, and awkwardly inserted between Canticles Eight and Nine. Thus Canticle Nine is separated from those which precede it, and the whole structure of the Canon is unhappily obscured." [2]

He goes on to note, however:

"In making these and other changes, perhaps Violakes was not innovating but simply giving formal approval to practices which had already become established in parishes. Presumably the Gospel was moved nearer to the end of the service because so few of the congregation arrived in time for the earlier parts of Matins!"[3]

Divergence of Slavic and Byzantine Practice

To meet the needs of the Slavic world, translations for a Slavic typikon originated as soon as missions to the Slavic world began. With the revisions originating in the Mediterranean world coupled with the Mongol invasions, the Slavic typikon lost its conformity to the that standard in the Byzantine world. This was recognized by the Church of Russia in the seventeenth century. It was this revision effort of the Slavic typikon — along with the service books — that resulted in the Old Believer controversies under Czar Alexis and Patriarch Nikon of Moscow.

The primary differences between the liturgical practice of the Byzantine and Slavic worlds stem from their origins in the Savaite and Studite typika, respectively, along with subsequent revisions. However, for the most part, the Greek, Romanian, and Slavic Typikons were closely aligned until the publication of the Violakes edition of the Typikon of the Great Church in 1888.[4]

For more information on this, see Some differences between Greek and Russian divine services and their significance, by Archbishop Basil Krivoshein of Brussels and Belgium

Notes

  1. The Festal Menaion (Tr. Mother Mary and Archimandrite Kallistos Ware, Faber and Faber, London, 1984), p. 543.
  2. The Festal Menaion (Tr. Mother Mary and Archimandrite Kallistos Ware, Faber and Faber, London, 1984), p. 543.
  3. The Festal Menaion (Tr. Mother Mary and Archimandrite Kallistos Ware, Faber and Faber, London, 1984), p. 543.
  4. The Festal Menaion (Tr. Mother Mary and Archimandrite Kallistos Ware, Faber and Faber, London, 1984), p. 542.


External links that Discuss the Typikon

External links with Rubrics based on the Typikon

External links with Translations of the Typikon

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