Timeline of Orthodoxy in the British Isles

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Revision as of 22:41, March 2, 2010

The early Christian writers Tertullian and Origen mention the existence of a British church in the third century AD and in the fourth century British bishops attended a number of councils, such as the Council of Arles in 314 and the Council of Rimini in 359.

The first member of the British church whom we know by name is St Alban, who, tradition tells us, was martyred for his faith on the spot where St Albans Abbey now stands.

The British church was a missionary church with figures such as St Illtud, St Ninian and St Patrick evangelising in Wales, Scotland and Ireland, but the invasions by the pagan Angles, Saxons and Jutes in the fifth century seem to have destroyed the organisation of the church in much of what is now England. In 597 a mission sent by St Gregory the Dialogist and led by St Augustine of Canterbury landed in Kent to begin the work of converting these pagan peoples.

What eventually became known as the "Church of England"[note 1] was the result of a combination of three traditions, that of Augustine and his successors, the remnants of the old Romano-British traditions and the Celtic tradition coming down from Scotland and associated with people like St Aidan and St Cuthbert.

These three traditions came together as a result of increasing mutual contact and a number of local synods, of which the Synod of Whitby in 664 has traditionally been seen as the most important. The result was an English Church, led by the two Archbishops of Canterbury and York, that was fully assimilated into the mainstream Church. This meant that it was influenced by the wider development of the Christian tradition in matters such as theology, liturgy, church architecture, and the development of monasticism.

Regarding the British Isles, what is known about the state of the Church there at the time of the Great Schism is that subsequent to the Norman Invasion in 1066, church life was radically altered. Native clergy were replaced, liturgical reform enacted, and a strong emphasis on papal church control was propagated. As such, it is probably safe to say that, prior to 1066, the church of the British Isles was Orthodox, and the Normans brought the effects of the Great Schism to British soil. As such, it is probably proper to regard King Harold II as an Orthodox Christian.

It also meant that after King Harold II, the English church continued under the authority of the "Pope" and not with Orthodoxy and this article does not consider the historical development of the "Church of England" after this date.

Orthodoxy was reintroduced by the Church of Greece and by Russia ... [to be developed] ...

The greatest contributor towards documenting the ecclesiastical and political history of England is attested to St. Bede, who completed in 731 five volumes of his best known work The Ecclesiastical History of England.

Contents

Pre-Roman Britain (55BC - AD43)

  • 55 BC Julius Caesar's first expedition to Britain, gaining a foothold on the coast of Kent.
  • 54 BC Julius Caesar's second invasion of Britain, resulting in many of the native celtic tribes paying tribute and giving hostages in return for peace.[note 2]
  • 5 Rome acknowledges Cymbeline, King of the Catuvellauni, as king of Britain.

Roman Britian: Introduction of Christianity (43-410)

  • Apostolic Era: According to the compilers of the Synaxarion, three members of the Apostolic Church had been responsible for preaching the Gospel in Britain:
Apostle Aristobulus, Apostle of Britain.
St. Alban, Protomartyr of Britain.
St. Declan, Bishop & Abbot of Ardmore in Ireland.
St. Patrick, Bishop of Armagh and Enlightener of Ireland.
  • Apostle Peter who, after visiting Milan, had "passed over to the island of Britain, now called England, (where) he spent many years and turned many erring Gentiles to faith in Christ";
  • Apostle Aristobulus (brother of St. Barnabas), who is called the Apostle of Britain and who was its first bishop; and
  • Apostle Simon the Canaanite and Zealot. In these Islands, the Celtic Church had shone forth - especially during the glorious period known as the "Age of Saints" when its missionaries preached throughout much of Europe, becoming 'Equals to the Apostles'.
  • Apocryphal legend claims that Joseph of Arimathea accompanied the Apostle Philip, Lazarus, Mary Magdalene & others on a preaching mission to Gaul. citation needed.
  • Eusebius of Caesarea, (AD 260-340) Bishop of Caesarea and father of ecclesiastical history wrote: "The Apostles passed beyond the ocean to the isles called the Britannic Isles."
  • Ireland had been a place of refuge for monks fleeing from iconoclastic persecution; so, later, it was referred to as "the New Thebais" on account of the number of its monasteries.
  • 43 Roman Emperor Claudius conquers England at Richborough (Kent), making it part of the vast Roman Empire; London is founded.
  • 51 Caratacus, British resistance leader is captured and taken to Rome.
  • 61 Boudicca, queen of the Iceni, let uprising against the Roman occupiers but was defeated and killed by the Roman governor, Suetonius Paulinus.
  • 63 Joseph of Arimathea, travels to Britain and lands in Glastonbury[note 3] on the first Christian mission to Britain; Aristobulus, consecrated as first bishop to Britain.
  • ca.75-77 The Roman conquest of Britain is complete, as Wales is finally subdued; Julius Agricola is imperial governor (to 84).
  • 122 Construction of Hadrian's Wall.
  • 133 Julius Severus is sent to Palestine to crush the revolt.
  • 140 Romans conquer Scotland.
  • ca. 155-222 Tertullian wrote that Britain had received and accepted the Gospel in his life time.[note 4]
  • 167 Most commonly held date that Phagan and Deruvian sent by Eleutherius to convert the Britons to Christianitycitation needed
  • ca. 170-236 Hippolytus of Rome[note 5] identifies Apostle Aristobulus listed in Romans 16:10 with Joseph of Arimathea and states that they ended up becoming Shepherds of Britain.
  • 180 Protomartyr of Wales, St. Dyfan of Merthyr martyred at Merthyr Dyfan, Wales
  • 208 Tertullian writes that Christ has followers on the far side of the Roman wall in Britain where Roman legions have not yet penetrated.
  • ca.251 St. Alban Protomartyr of England.[note 6]
  • 304 Death of Amphibalus at Verulamium (St Albans), Hertfordshire; Julius and Aaron[note 7] martyred at Caerleon, Britain, under the persecutions of the Emperor Diocletian; Socrates and Stephanus martyred in Monmouthsire.[note 8]
  • 307 The Church in Britain enjoys peace from the persecutions
  • 313 "Edict of Toleration" (Milan), Christianity is made legal throughout the empire.
  • 314 Council of Arles, for the first time, three British bishops attend a council, including the Abp. of Londinium, Restitutus.
  • 325 First Ecumenical Council of Nicea convened by the Roman Emperor Constantine.
  • 337 Constantine received "Christian" baptism on his deathbed; joint rule of Constantine's three sons: Constantine II (to 340); Constans (to 350); Constantius (to 361)
  • 350 Ninian establishes the church Candida Casa at Whithorn in Galloway, Scotland, beginning the missionary effort to the Picts.
  • 380 Pelagius[note 9] enters Britain from Rome and introduces the heresy of Pelagianism.[note 10]
  • 383 Rome appoints Magnus Maximus as emperor in Britain while conquering Gaul, Spain and Italy.
  • 390 Patrick born at Kilpatrick, Scotland.
  • 395 Death of Theodosius, the last emperor to rule an undivided empire, leaving Arcadius, emperor in the East and his other son, Honorius, emperor in the West; the office of Roman Emperor changes from a position of absolute power to one of being merely a head of state.
  • 5th c. St. Declán of Ardmore founded the monastery of Ardmore (Ard Mór) in what is now Co. Waterford, believed to be the oldest Christian settlement in Ireland, Christianizing the area and converting the Déisi before the coming of St. Patrick.
  • 403 Abduction of Patrick to Ireland to serve as a slave; Victricius, Bishop of Rouen, visits Britain for the purpose of bringing peace to the island's clergy, who were in dispute over the Pelagian heresy.
  • 406 Invasion of Gaul by Germanic tribes, severing contact between Rome and Britain.[note 11]
  • 410 Escape of Patrick back to Britain; Emperor Honorious recalls the last legions from Britain; Britain gains "independence" from Rome;[note 12] the Goths, under Alaric, sack Rome

Early British Kingdoms: Era of Celtic Missionaries (410-597)

St. Columba of Iona, Enlightener of Scotland.

Anglo-Saxon England: The English Orthodox Church (597-1066)

According to historians, during this period St. Non, the mother of St. David of Wales, and the daughter of the nobleman Cynyr of Caer Goch of Pembrokeshire, reposed and St. Materiana of Cornwall, April 9, reposed early 6th-century at Minster of Cornwall.

St. Augustine, Archbishop of Canterbury, Apostle of the English.
  • 597 Gregory the Great sends Augustine[note 16] and forty monks to Britain to convert the Kingdom of Kent; Augustine first preaches in the Isle of Thanet to King Ethelbert, receiving license to enter the Kingdom of Kent; King Ethelbert is converted and on Christmas day 10,000 of the king's subjects were baptized; Augustine was consecrated Abp. at Arles, and establishes the See of Canterbury.
  • 598 Brandon mac Echac (d. 603) convence a synod at which the Diocese of Ferns is made an episcopal see and Aedan of Ferns is made the first Bishop; Glastonbury Abbey founded; the Church in the British Isles numbers 120 bishops, hundreds of monasteries and parishes organized under a Primate with his See at Menevia.
  • 7th c. Celtic missions are launched in Northumbria (Aidan, Cuthbert).
  • ca.600 Emergence of Insular art, also known as the Hiberno-Saxon style, produced in the post-Roman history of the British Isles, originating from the Irish monasticism of Celtic Christianity, or metalwork for the secular elite; the most important centres were in Ireland, Scotland and the kingdom of Northumbria in Northern England.
  • 601 Death of David of Wales, Bishop of Menevia; Gregory sends the St Augustine Gospels to Augustine of Canterbury[note 17]
  • 602 Augustine repares the church of our Saviour and builds the monastery of St. Peter the Apostle, "Peter" is the first abbot of the same.
  • 603 Death of Kentigern of Glasgow; Ethelfrid, king of the Northumbrians, having vanquished the nations of the Scots, expels them from the territories of the English.
  • 604 First Bishop of London, Mellitus consecrated by Augustine in the province of East Saxons; Repose of Saint Augustine of Canterbury "Apostle to the English;" Saint Laurence of Canterbury consecrated as the second Archbishop of Canterbury; Bp. Mellitus founded the first St. Paul's Cathedral, traditionally said to be on the site of an old Roman Temple of Diana (although Christopher Wren in the 17th c. found no evidence of this).
Aidan of Lindisfarne, Enlightener of Northumbria.
St. Cuthbert the Wonderworker, Bishop of Lindisfarne.
Folio 27r from the Lindisfarne Gospels contains the incipit from the Gospel of Matthew.
  • 664 Synod of Whitby; Cuthbert stricken by the great pestilence; death of St. Boisil, abbot of Melrose Abbey, Scotland;[note 20] death of St. Cedd, Apostle of Essex.
  • 668 Gerald of Mayo follows Colman and settles in Innisboffin.
  • 669 Theodore of Tarsus arrives in Kent at the age of seven.
  • 670 Colman founds an English monastery, separate to the Irish, the "Mayo of the Saxons,"[note 21] with Gerald of Mayo as the first abbot.
  • 672 Death of Chad of Lichfield and Mercia.
  • 673 Historian Bede born.
  • 675 Death of Ethelburgh, first abbess of the Convent of Barking
  • 676 Cuthbert becomes a solitary on Farne Island; Malmesbury Abbey (Benedictine) is founded at Malmesbury in Wiltshire, England, by the scholar-poet Aldhelm, a nephew of King Ine of Wessex.
  • 679 Death of Audrey of Ely.
  • 680 Death of Botolph of Iken; Repose of St. Hilda of Whitby; Sussex is the last part of England to be converted to Christianity.
  • 681 Death of Caedmon,[note 22]
  • 682 Foundation of Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Abbey in England.
  • 685 Cuthbert of Lindisfarne consecrated Bishop of Lindisfarne, by St. Theodore
  • 686 Death of Cuthbert of Lindisfarne.
  • 689 Death of Benedict Biscop, abbot, in Wearmouth, Co Durham.
  • 690 Death of Theodore of Tarsus, eighth Archbishop of Canterbury.
  • 694 Death of Sebbe, founder of the monastery of Westiminster.
  • 693 Death of Erconwald, Bishop of London.
  • 696 Incorrupt body of Audrey of Ely found.
  • 697 Gerald of Mayo resigns as abbot of the "Mayo of the Saxons" in favour of St. Adamnan; Relics of Cuthbert of Lindisfarne revealed to be incorrupt.
  • 703 Gerald of Mayo resumes the abbacy of the "Mayo of the Saxons".
  • 705 The Saxon Diocese of Sherborne was founded by King Ine of Wessex, who set Aldhelm as first Bishop of the see of Western Wessex, with his seat at Sherborne.
  • 709 Death of Wilfrid, Bishop of Hexham.
  • 712 Glastonbury Abbey is founded as a stone church in Glastonbury, Somerset, England, under the patronage of Saxon King Ine of Wessex, although the abbey itself was founded by Britons dating to at least the early 7th century.
  • 714 Death of Guthlac of Crowland, the hermit.
  • ca. 715 Lindisfarne Gospels produced in Northumbria (Northern England).
  • 716 Death of Donald of Ogilvy, Confessor of Scotland, whose nine daughters all entered a monastery in Abernethy, founded by Ss. Darlugdach and Brigid, where they became known as the Nine Maidens, or the Nine Holy Virgins.
  • 717 In Scotland, the Iona monks were expelled by the Pictish king Nechtan son of Derile.
    St Bede, or the Venerable Bede, Monk of Jarrow, biblical scholar (+735).
  • 725 During his pilgrimage to Rome, King Ina of the West Saxons first gives the tribute or alms knows as "Peter's-Pence" (otherwise called in the Saxon Romefeoh).[note 23]
  • 731 Death of Gerald, Bishop of Mayo and english monk; Bede writes "The Ecclesiastical History of the English People"'
  • 735 Death of Venerable Bede; See of York achieves archepiscopal status.
  • 747 Witenagamot of England again forbids appeals to the Roman Pope; Council of Clovesho I adopts Roman calendar, observance of the feasts of Gregory the Great and Augustine of Canterbury, and adopts the Rogation Days.
  • ca.750-800 Book of Mulling composed, an Irish pocket Gospel Book.
  • 768 Wales adopts Orthodox Paschalion and other decrees of the Synod of Whitby at teaching of Elfoddw of Gwynedd.
  • 781 King Charlemagne of the Franks summons Alcuin of York to head palace school at Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) to inspire revival of education in Europe.
  • 785 Synod of Cealchythe erects the Archbishopric of Lichfield.
  • 787 Two councils held in England, one in the north at Pincanhale, and the other in the south at Chelsea, reaffirming the faith of the first Six Ecumenical Councils (the decrees of the Seventh having not yet been received), and establishing a third archbishopric at Lichfield.
    Book of Kells, Folio 183v, Text from Mark.

Viking Age (793-1066)

  • 793 Sack of Lindisfarne Priory, beginning Viking attacks on England.
  • 794 Vikings sack the Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Abbey; Offa, King of the Mercians, offers the tribute or alms known as "Peter's Pence" (Romefeoh).
  • 795 In the earliest recorded Viking raid on Ireland, they attack Iona, Inisbofin and Inismurray.
  • ca.800 Book of Kells is completed by the Celts.
  • 802 The Vikings sack Iona.
  • 803 Council of Clovesho II abolishes archbishopric of Lichfield, restoring the pattern of the two metropolitan archbishoprics (Canterbury and York) which had prevailed before 787, and requires the use of the Western Rite amongst the English speaking peoples.
  • 806 Vikings kill all the inhabitants on the religious island of Iona, Scotland, UK.
  • 807 The Christianized Vikings (Danes) land on the Cornish coast, and form an alliance with the Cornish to fight against the 'heathen' West Saxons.
  • 815 Egbert of Wessex ravages the territories of the west Welsh (Cornwall).
  • 824 Death of Óengus of Tallaght (Óengus the Culdee), held to be the author of the Félire Óengusso ("The Martyrology of Óengus") and possibly the Martyrology of Tallaght.
  • 825 Egbert of Wessex defeats Beornwulf of Mercia at Ellandun; Kent, Surrey, Sussex and Essex submit to Wessex and East Anglia acknowledges Egbert as overlord.
  • 828 Egbert of Wessex becomes the first King of England.
  • ca.830 Historia Brittonum written (known for its list of 12 battles of King Arthur).
  • 836 Egbert of Wessex is defeated by the Danes.
  • 838 Death of Bp. Winnoc (Gwynog, Guinoch) of Scotland, a counsellor to King Kenneth, whose prayers helped the king to vanquish the Picts in seven battles on a single day; at Hingston Down, Egbert of Wessex beats the Danish and the West Welsh.
  • 843 Kenneth I (Cináed mac Ailpín), King of the Scots, also becomes King of the Picts, thus becoming the first monarch of the new nation of Scotland; the Alpin dynasty of Scottish kings begins to reign.
Edmund the King-Martyr of East Anglia (+869).

Roman Catholic Period (1066-1534)

Anglo-Norman Britain: Latin Continental Ecclesiology Formalized (1066-1154)

Norman conquests in red. Norman conquest of England (1066); Kingdom of Sicily (founded ca.1042-1154); Principality of Antioch (1098).
  • 1066 Normans invade England flying banner of Pope of Rome, defeating King Harold of England at Battle of Hastings; death of Harold of England, the last Orthodox King of England.
  • 1066-1171 Beginning reformation of English church and society to align with Latin continental ecclesiology and politics.
  • 1072 On October 15, the last English Orthodox bishop, Ethelric of Durham, after anathematizing the Pope, died in prison at Westminster.
  • 1075 Council of London, a council of the Roman Catholic church in England held by the new Norman archbishop of Canterbury Lanfranc, deciding that all dioceses were to be re-centred on cities.
  • 1080 York Minster cathedral is again rebuilt from 1080 AD.
  • 1083 Shrewsbury Abbey (the Abbey of Saint Peter and Saint Paul) is founded by the Norman Earl of Shrewsbury, Roger de Montgomery, in the county town of Shropshire, England.
  • ca.1085 Great Malvern Priory (Benedictine) is founded in Malvern, Worcestershire, England, as Wulfstan, Bishop of Worcester, had encouraged a hermit named Aldwyn to found a monastery in what was then the wilderness of Malvern Chase.
  • 1092 The first cathedral at Old Sarum is completed by Bp. Osmund.
  • 1093 Durham Cathedral is founded.
  • 1095 Death of Wulfstan, Bishop of Worcester, the only English Bishop who maintained his office under William the Conqueror, after the Norman conquest (i.e. Bp. of Worcester 1062-1095).
  • 1096 Colchester Abbey (Benedictine) is founded by Eudo, son of Hubert de Ria, seneschal of King William II, on a site believed to be the location of a miracle.
  • 1098 Anselm of Canterbury completes Cur Deus homo, marking a radical divergence of Western theology of the atonement from that of the East.
  • 1102 Council of London, a Roman Catholic church council of the church in England convened by Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, to debate and pass decrees to reform the clergy; it is best known for confirming homosexuality as a sin in the English and wider church, and for outlawing the export of Christian slaves to non-Christian lands.
  • 1104 Relics of Cuthbert of Lindisfarne translated[note 26] from Lindisfarne to Durham Cathedral.
  • ca.1120-1145 St. Albans Psalter is produced at St Albans Abbey, one of the most important examples of English Romanesque book production, of almost unprecedented lavishness of decoration.
  • 1128 Holyrood Abbey (Augustinian) is founded in Scotland.
  • 1131 Tintern Abbey is founded in Wales, being only the second Cistercian foundation in Britain, and the first in Wales.
  • 1132 Rievaulx Abbey (Cistercian) is founded in North Yorkshire, England, by twelve monks from Clairvaux Abbey as a mission centre for the colonisation of the north of England and Scotland, becoming one of the great Cistercian abbeys of England; Fountains Abbey (Cistercian) is founded two miles southwest of Ripon in North Yorkshire, England, being one of the largest and best preserved Cistercian houses in England, and now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • 1136 Melrose Abbey (Cistercian) is founded on the request of King David I of Scotland.
  • ca.1136 Geoffrey of Monmouth writes his chronicle Historia Regum Britanniae ("History of the Kings of Britain").
  • 1150 Kinloss Abbey (Cistercian) is founded by King David I of Scotland, going on to become one of the largest and wealthiest religious houses in Scotland.

Plantaganet Era (1154-1485)

This period witnessed the continual struggle between the English Kings and the Church in Rome for the legal high ground.

Tudor Era (1485-1603)

English Reformation (1534-1660)

  • 1534 Act of Supremacy by which the Parliament of England declared King Henry VIII as 'the only supreme head on earth of the Church in England', and affirming the legal sovereignty of the civil laws over the laws of the Church in England.
  • 1535 By order of King Henry VIII, Sir Thomas More and John Fisher were executed by beheading for refusing to accept him as Head of the Church of England (More and Fisher were both canonized by Pope Pius XI in 1935).
  • 1536-1541 Dissolution of the Monasteries, nunneries and friaries in England, Wales and Ireland.
  • 1536 The Pilgrimage of Grace, a popular rising in York, Yorkshire, in protest against England's break with Rome and the Dissolution of the Monasteries, as well as other specific political, social and economic grievances; Wales is incorporated into England with the Laws in Wales Acts 1536–1542.
  • 1549 First Book of Common Prayer is introduced.
  • 1550 Vestments controversy begins as John Hooper called for the elimination of vestments; the controversy was ostensibly concerning vestments, but more fundamentally concerned with English Protestant identity, doctrine, and various church practices, shedding much light on the development of English forms of Puritanism and Anglicanism.
  • 1553-1558 Restoration of Roman Catholicism by Queen Mary I; Queen Mary I restored the Sarum rite in 1553 and promulgated it throughout England, but it was finally abolished by Elizabeth I in 1559.
  • 1558-1603 Elizabethan Era, final break with the Roman Church.
  • 1560 Scottish Reformation marks Scotland's formal break with the Papacy in 1560; the Reformation Parliament repudiated the pope's authority, forbade the celebration of the Mass and approved a Protestant Confession of Faith, being made possible by a revolution against French hegemony.
  • 1563 The Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion were established, the historic defining statements of Anglican doctrine in relation to the controversies of the English Reformation.
  • 1564-1660 The Era of Puritanism.
  • 1603-1625 Jacobean Era.
  • 1625-1642 Caroline Era.
  • 1626 Death of Anglican Bp. Lancelot Andrewes, Bp. of Winchester, and head translator of the 1611 Authorised Version ("King James") Bible, remembered chiefly for his sublime sermons (lately admired and interpreted by Russian Orthodox theologian Nicolas Lossky for their patristic quality and profound affinities with Eastern Orthodox theology and liturgical texts).
  • 1649-1660 Interregnum: Commonwealth of England: Anglicanism was disestablished and outlawed, and in its place, Presbyterian ecclesiology was introduced in place of the episcopate; the 39 Articles were replaced with the Westminster Confession, and the Book of Common Prayer was replaced by the Directory of Public Worship.
  • 1650 Anglican Abp. of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland James Ussher writes his "Annals of the World," a chronology that purported to establish the time and date of the creation as the night preceding 23 October 4004 BC, according to the proleptic Julian calendar.

English (Stuart) Restoration (1660-1689): Orthodox Presence Re-established

Anglicanism was restored in a form not far removed from the Elizabethan version. However the ideal of encompassing all the people of England in one religious organisation, which was taken for granted by the Tudors, had to be abandoned. The religious landscape of England assumed its present form; the Anglican was the established church occupying the middle ground; Roman Catholics and those Puritans and Protestants who dissented from the Anglican establishment, too strong to be suppressed altogether, had to continue their existence outside the National Church rather than controlling it.
  • 1662 Major revision of the Book of Common Prayer is published, remaining the official prayer book of the Church of England up until the 21st century (when an alternative book called Common Worship largely displaced it in Anglican parishes).
  • 1670 Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain established by priest Daniel Voulgaris first Greek Orthodox Community in London, re-establishing an Orthodox presence in Great Britain.
  • 1676 Arrival of Joseph Georgerines, Archbisop of Samos.
  • 1677 "Greek St Church to the Panagia" erected for the Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain[note 32]
  • 1684 "Greek St Church to the Panagia" confiscated and handed over to Huguenot refugees from France. Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain forced to worship for the next 150 years in the Imperial Russian Embassy.
  • 1688 The Glorious Revolution (Revolution of 1688), overthrew King James II of England (VII of Scotland and II of Ireland) by a union of Parliamentarians with an invading army led by William III of Orange-Nassau.
  • 1689 Act of Toleration, partially restores civil rights to Nonconformists who dissented from the Church of England, such as Baptists and Congregationalists, allowing them their own places of worship and their own teachers and preachers, subject to acceptance of certain oaths of allegiance; however this did not include Roman Catholics, Quakers or non-trinitarians.

The Revolution Entrenched (1689-1707)

  • 1700 The Parliament of England passed Popery Act 1698, intended to prevent the Growth of Popery, imposing a number of penalties and disabilities on Roman Catholics in England.

United Kingdom of Great Britian (1707-1801)

  • 1708 St Paul's Cathedral, London, is consecrated, designed by Sir Christopher Wren, seat of the Anglican Bp. of London, reckoned to be London's fifth St Paul's Cathedral, all having been built on the same site since 604 A.D. (when the first Saxon cathedral was built by Mellitus in Lundenwic).
  • 1714-1837 Georgian Era.
  • 1738 Print 'Noon'[note 33] by William Hogarth[note 34] shows evidence of a crowd exiting a Greek Orthodox church.
  • 1778 The Parliament of Great Britain enacted the Papists Act 1778, the first Act for Roman Catholic Relief, reversing some of the penalties imposed in Popery Act 1698.
  • 1780 The Gordon Riots, an anti-Catholic uprising against the act of 1778, which became an excuse for widespread rioting and looting.
  • 1791 Frederick North, the 5th Earl of Guilford, a lifelong philhellene, converted to the Eastern Orthodox Church and became an ardent adherent.[note 35]

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801-1927)

  • 1815-1914 Pax Britannica.
  • 1827 A Byzantine silk depicting the Earth and the Ocean was found in the tomb of St. Cuthbert Bp. of Lindisfarne, when it was uncovered in May at Durham; the personified Earth is shown emerging from the waters with ducks and fishes, fishing being an allegory in Church art of apostolic mission of preaching the Gospel.
  • 1837-1901 Victorian Era.
  • 1837 Imperial Russian Embasy offers hospitality in Finsbury Park, London to the Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain community for their religious activities.
  • ca. 1840-1927 St. Arsenios of Cappadocia prophesised that "The Church in the British Isles will only begin to truly grow again when it begins to venerate once more its own saints".
  • 1845-52 Great Irish Famine, a period of mass starvation, disease and emigration in Ireland during which the island's population dropped by 20 to 25 percent.
  • 1850 Greek Orthodox church built in London Street in the City.
  • 1863-64 "The Eastern Church Association" was founded in London, its purpose being to pray and work for Anglican reunion with the Eastern Church.
  • 1866 British Orthodox Church (Coptic) is originally established, when a Frenchman, Jules Ferrette, was consecrated as a bishop by the Syriac Orthodox Church with the purpose of re-establishing Orthodoxy to the West.
Greek Orthodox Cathedral of St. Sophia, Bayswater, London.
  • 1877 Greek Orthodox Church of the Divine Wisdom (St Sophia) in Bayswater built, the first Liturgy being celebrated on June 1, 1879, 18 months after Eustratios Ralli laid the first stone.
  • 1882 Greek Orthodox Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of St Sophia is consecrated by Antonios, Abp. of Corfu, being the mother church of the Greek Orthodox church in Great Britain.
  • 1884 Nicholas II of Russia meets Princess Alice Victoria Helen Louise Beatrix von Hessen-Darmstadt
  • 1885 English Revised Version published; Archbishop of Canterbury officially removes all of Apocrypha from the Authorized King James Bible.
  • 1896 Papal bull Apostolicae Curae is issued in by Pope Leo XIII, declaring all Anglican ordinations to be "absolutely null and utterly void".
  • 1897 The Anglican Archbishops of Canterbury and York of the Church of England responded to the papal charges of 1896 with the encyclical Saepius Officio.
  • 1899 Bede is made a "Doctor of the Church"[note 36] by Leo XIII.
  • 1901-1910 Edwardian Era.
  • 1906 Greek Orthodox Church of Saint Nicholas built in Cardiff; a new society, called "The Anglican and Eastern Orthodox Churches Union" was formed in London by a group of Anglo-Catholic clergymen, whose purpose was to promote an interest in the Eastern Church among a wider circle of Anglicans and to establish personal contacts.
  • 1908 Oecumenical Patriarchate transfers its rights for four Greek Orthodox community churches to Church of Greece; British writer, philosopher and Christian apologist G. K. Chesterton writes Orthodoxy, a classic of Christian apologetics.[note 37]
  • 1914 By this time in Great Britain there existed four thriving Greek Orthodox Communities, all centred around a Greek Church of their own: London (Saint Sophia), Manchester (The Annunciation), Liverpool (Saint Nicholas), and Cardiff (Saint Nicholas).
  • 1918 The family of Tsar Nicholas II Romanov, Alexandra and their five children are lined up in their basement and shot.
  • 1922 Holy Synod of the Oecumenical Patriarchate recognises the Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain with London as its seat; Germonos (Strinopoulos), former Rector of the Halki Theological Academy, is chosen as the first Bishop and Metropolitan of Thyateira (1922-1951), and first Orthodox Bishop in Great Britain since the Norman conquest in 1066.
  • 1926 The Society of St. John Chrysostom is founded as a group of a group of Catholics of the Latin and Eastern Churches, along with friends in other traditions, promoting awareness and friendship in the Christian West for Christians of the East, through prayer and liturgy, conferences and lectures, and praying for the unity of the Churches of East and West.
  • 1926 The Russian parish of the Dormition in London split into those who continued to support ROCOR, and those who supported the Moscow Patriarchate.
  • 1927 Russian émigré lay Orthodox theologian Nicholas Zernov who was one of the founders of the Anglican-Orthodox ecumenical group the Fellowship of Saint Alban and Saint Sergius, organized the Anglo-Russian Student Conferences of 1927 and 1928 that gave strong impetus to theological contact among English-speaking Christians and Orthodox Christians who had fled Russia after the Russian Revolution of 1917.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1927-Present)

  • 1928 Fellowship of St. Alban and St. Sergius is founded; the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia appointed the 38-year-old Archimandrite Nicholas (Karpov) to London.
  • 1929 On All Saints Sunday, June 30, Archimandrite Nicholas (Karpov) was consecrated Bishop of London (ROCOR); present at the consecration was the Grand Duchess Ksenia Aleksandrovna, the sister of the martyred Tsar Nicholas II.
  • 1933 Canon John Douglas (1868-1956) became the Secretary of the Church of England Council on Foreign Relations, whose main object in dealing with the Orthodox was to obtain from them official recognition of Anglican Orders.[note 38]
  • 1934 Nicholas (Gibbes), former English tutor of Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich of Russia, converted to Orthodox Christianity, and was tonsured a monk then ordained to the priesthood.
  • 1941 Death of Evelyn Underhill, an English Anglo-Catholic writer and pacifist known for her numerous works on religion and spiritual practice, in particular Christian mysticism.
  • 1948 HRH Princess Elizabeth, the present Queen, married the Greek Orthodox Prince Philip, the present Duke of Edinburgh; he was officially required to cease to be Orthodox, although he never ceased to make the Orthodox sign of the cross in public; Hieromonk Anthony (Bloom) was appointed Chaplain of the Anglican-Orthodox Fellowship of St. Alban and St. Sergius.
Archimandrite Sophrony (Sakharov) (+1993).
Metr. Anthony (Bloom) of Sourozh, (1962-2003).
The Most Reverend Metropolitan Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia, (1982-present).
Bp. Elisey (Ganaba) of Sourozh, (2007-present).

See also

Timelines

Othodox Churches in the British Isles

Founded Diocese Jurisdiction
1922 Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain Ecumenical Patriarchate
1929 ??
1985
Diocese of Great Britian and Ireland;
Germany and Great Britain Diocese
Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia
1962 Diocese of Sourozh Russian Orthodox Church
1990 ?? Serbian Orthodox Diocese of Great Britain and Scandinavia Church of Serbia
1994 British Orthodox Church (Coptic) Church of Alexandria (Coptic)
1995 Antiochian Orthodox Deanery of the United Kingdom and Ireland Church of Antioch
???? Ukrainian Orthodox Diocese in Western Europe Ecumenical Patriarchate
2006 Episcopal Vicariate of Great Britain and Ireland Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of Russian Tradition in Western Europe (Ecumenical Patriarchate)
???? Church of Romania Church of Romania
???? London Parish of St George Church of Georgia

Notes

  • Some of these dates are necessarily a bit vague, as records for some periods are particularly difficult to piece together accurately.
  • The division of Church History into separate eras as done here will always be to some extent arbitrary, though it was attempted to group periods according to major watershed events.
  • This timeline is necessarily biased toward the history of the Orthodox Church, though a number of non-Orthodox or purely political events are mentioned for their importance in history related to Orthodoxy or for reference.
Unknown dates

If you know the dates for these events, please assist us

  • G. E. Palmer, Philip Sherrard and Bishop Kallistos Ware translate and publish four volumes of the Philokalia into English; Bishop Kallistos Ware and Mother Mary produced English translations of the Lenten Triodion and Festal Menaion.
  • Grand Duchess St. Elizabeth (a grand-daughter of Queen Victoria and a great-aunt of Prince Philip) and St. John Maximovich, who have been associated with them in the recent past.
  • The memory of Brother Lazaros, killed (some would say, martyred) within the Cathedral at Camberwell, remains vivid...
  • Monastery of St. John the Baptist in Essex, which depends directly on the Oecumenical Patriarchate and whose Founder was the saintly Archimandrite Sophrony, a pupil of St. Silouanos of the Holy Mountain.
  • The British Association of Iconographers (BAI) is founded, based at the Benedictine Turvey Abbey in Bedfordshire (Priory of Our Lady of Peace).



  1. The "Church of England" (the Ecclesia Anglicana - or the English Church)
  2. The British forces are led by Cassivellaunus.
  3. St. Philip sent Joseph of Arimathea, with twelve disciples, to establish Christianity in the most far-flung corner of the Roman Empire: the Island of Britain. The year AD 63 is commonly given for this "event", with AD 37 sometimes being put forth as an alternative.
  4. Tertullian wrote that Britain had received and accepted the Gospel in his life time: "All the limits of the Spains, and the diverse nations of the Gauls, and the haunts of the Britons--inaccessible to the Romans, but subjugated to Christ."
  5. Hippolytus was considered to have been one of the most learned Christian historians and is the one who identifies the seventy whom Jesus sent in the Gospel of Saint Luke
  6. The date of St Alban's martyrdom is uncertain, but it is believed that it took place during the reign of Decius (ca. 251) or Valerian (ca. 257). The eighteenth century Turin manuscript (which may be based on a fifth century source) suggests that St Alban may have been executed as early as 209, when the emperor Septimus Severus and his two sons were in Britain. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle list the year of St. Alban's execution as 283 not as 305.
  7. The earliest authority for their existence is St. Gildas in De Excidio Britanniae.
  8. Ss. Socrates and Stephanus appear in the Martyrologion Hieronymianum MS.50 from Trinity College, Dublin (11th-century) and one of the earliest amplifications of Bede's martyrology. Tradition holds them to be disciples of St. Amphibalus.
  9. St. Jerome suggests that this Pelagius was of Scottish descent but in such terms that it is uncertain as to whether he was from Scotland or Ireland. He is also frequently referred to as a British monk and Augustine has been documented as referring to him as "Brito" to distinguish him from Pelagius of Tarentum.
  10. http://www.seanmultimedia.com/Pie_Pelagius_Synod_Lydda_415AD.html
  11. In early January, 406, a combined barbarian force (Suevi, Alans, Vandals & Burgundians) swept into central Gaul, severing contact between Rome and Britain. In autumn 406, the remaining Roman army in Britain decided to mutiny. One Marcus was proclaimed emperor in Britain, but was immediately assassinated.
  12. Emperor Honorius tells Britain to attend to its own affairs, effectively removing the Roman presence.
  13. St. Auxilius of Ireland: The date of death is also given as 454 or 455, see Sabine Baring-Gould, The Lives of the Saints (J. Hodges, 1898), 275.
  14. When he came to Ireland, as its enlightener, it was a pagan country; when he ended his earthly life some thirty years later, about 461, the Faith of Christ was established in every corner." (Great Horologion) The work of St Patrick and his brethren has been called the most successful single missionary venture in the history of the Church.
  15. The date of St. Gildas' birth can only tentatively be placed to the decades either side of the beginning of the Sixth Century. St. Bede indirectly suggests the year 493 for this event and this is the date adopted for this article.
  16. Saint Augustine of Canterbury is also called the "Apostle to the English".
  17. The "St Augustine Gospels" manuscript is the oldest surviving Latin illustrated Gospel book in existence.
  18. A bronze reliquary in which the relics of St. Aed of Ferns are kept is currently preserved in Dublin.
  19. St. Beuno the Wonderworker, Abbot of Clynnog, was uncle to St. Winefride of Treffynon, November 3, whom he also restored to life.
  20. Almost all that is known of St. Boisol or Boswell, is learned from St. Bede (Eccles. Hist., IV, xxvii, and Vita Cuthberti).
  21. The Mayo (Magh Eo, the yew plain), known as "Mayo of the Saxons". St. Bede writes of this monastery: "This monastery is to this day (731) occupied by English monks... and contains an exemplary body who gathered there from England, and live by the labour of their own hands (after the manner of the early Fathers), under a rule and canonical abbot, leading chaste and single lives."
  22. Cædmon is said to have taken holy orders at an advanced age and it is implied that he lived at Streonæshalch at least in part during Hilda’s abbacy (657–680). Book IV Chapter 25 of the Historia ecclesiastica appears to suggest that Cædmon’s death occurred at about the same time as the fire at Coldingham Abbey, an event dated in the E text of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle to 679, but after 681 by Bede.
  23. It was said not to be a tribute to the pope, but for the sustenation of the English School or College at Rome.
  24. Considered a local Saint by the Orthodox church of England but not formally canonised.
  25. The proper name of Milton Abbey is the Abbey Church of St. Mary, St. Samson and St. Branwalader.
  26. His [St. Cuthbert of Lindisfarne] body was still found to be untouched by decay, giving off "an odour of the sweetest fragrancy", and "from the flexibility of its joints representing a person asleep rather than dead.
  27. During the crusades Richard the Lionheart claimed to have seen a vision of St George bearing a red-cross banner. Although he himself did not enter Jerusalem (declaring himself unworthy to do so), in gratitude for the victory he repaired the church over the grave of St George of Lydda and there took the saint as his personal patron.
    The earliest reference to the cross of St George as an English emblem (not flag) was in a roll of account relating to the Welsh War of 1277.
    Edward the Confessor was "patron saint" of England until 1348 when the greater importance of St George was promoted by the establishment of the Chapel of St George at Windsor.
    St George's cross did not achieve any sort of status as the national flag until the 16th century, when all other saints' banners were abandoned during the Reformation. The earliest record of St George's flag at sea, as an English flag in conjunction with royal banners but no other saintly flags, was 1545.
  28. White Friars (Carmelites);
    Grey Friars (Francicans);
    Black Friars (Dominican order);
    Austin Friars (Order of St. Augustine).
  29. Prior to this, Saint Edmund had been considered the patron saint of England, although his veneration had waned since the time of the Norman conquest, and his cult was partly eclipsed by that of Edward the Confessor.
  30. The earliest reference to the Saint Andrew's Cross as a flag is to be found in the Vienna Book of Hours, ca. 1503, where a white saltire is depicted with a red background.
    In the case of Scotland, use of a blue background for the Saint Andrew's Cross is said to date from at least the 15th century, with the first certain illustration of a flag depicting such appearing in Sir David Lyndsay of the Mount's Register of Scottish Arms, ca. 1542.
  31. Margery Kempe (ca.1373-ca.1439) stands very much alone in the English mystical tradition. Indeed, she is thought by some to be outside this tradition because of the lack of depth in her revelations, the highly personal level of her visions, and the extremes of her behaviour. If she is a mystic, it is certainly not in the same sense as her better known contemporaries such as Richard Role or Julian of Norwich.
  32. "In the year of salvation 1677 this Temple was erected for the nation of the Greeks, the Most Serene Charles II being King, and the Roual Prince Lord James being commander of the foreces, the Right Reverend Lord Henry Compton being Bishop, at the expense of the above and other Bishops and Nobles and with the concurrence of our Humility of Samos Joseph Georgeirenes, from the island of Melos." - Inscription from tablet carved in Greek preserved on the west wall of the church Charing Cross Road. This site is now occupied by St Mary's of Kenton a non-Orthodox denomination.
  33. From the series entitled "The Four Times of the Day".
  34. In Hogarth’s time the portion of the street where the church stood was called Hog Lane. It was later renamed Crown Street and was demolished when Charing Cross Road was widened.
  35. In 1824 North established the Ionian Academy on the island of Corfu, which was under British control. It was the first University to be established in Modern Greece.
  36. The position of "Doctor of the Church" is a position of theological significance; St. Bede is the only man from Great Britain to achieve this designation (Anselm of Canterbury, also a Doctor of the Church, was originally from Italy
  37. Chesterton routinely referred to himself as an "orthodox" Christian, and came to identify such a position with Roman Catholicism more and more, eventually converting to Roman Catholicism from Anglicanism.
  38. He was only partially successful, for only three Patriarchates (those of Constantinople, Alexandria and Jerusalem, together with the Church of Cyprus) made a favourable pronouncement. Later in 1936, the Romanian Church came to a similar conclusion. The rest of the Orthodox world, in the absence of the Russian Church which had been silenced under the Communist regime, refrained from committing itself either way.
  39. Raised in a church-going family in the Church of Ireland, Lewis became an atheist at the age of 15, though he later paradoxically described his young self as being "very angry with God for not existing". Influenced by arguments with his Oxford colleague and friend J. R. R. Tolkien, and by the book The Everlasting Man by G. K. Chesterton, he slowly rediscovered Christianity. After his conversion to theism in 1929, Lewis converted to Christianity in 1931. A committed Anglican, Lewis upheld a largely orthodox Anglican theology, though in his apologetic writings, he made an effort to avoid espousing any one denomination. Mere Christianity was voted best book of the 20th century by the Evangelical magazine Christianity Today in 2000.
  40. "The Cathedral has a Lower Church (the original) and an Upper Church - which has just been finished. They have given us the Lower Church to use for Western Rite. So we celebrate our Western Rite in the Lower Church at the same time as they celebrate the Eastern Rite in the Upper Church..."

External links

Greek Orthodox Church in Great Britain

Russian Orthodox Church in Great Britain

Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of Western and Central Europe

Wikipedia

Traditions of Christianity
Missions
History
Categories
Other
Orthodox Church

General

Published Works

Roman Britian

Celtic Christianity

  • Allchin, A.M., and Esther De Waal. Threshold of Light: Prayers and Praises from the Celtic Tradition. Templegate, 1988.
  • Bitel, Lisa M. Isle of the Saints. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990.
  • Bitel, Lisa M. Landscape with Two Saints: How Genovefa of Paris and Brigit of Kildare Built Christianity in Barbarian Europe. Oxford University Press US, 2009. ISBN 0195336526
  • Chadwick, Nora. The Age of Saints in the Early Celtic Church. London: Oxford University Press, 1961.
  • De Paor, Maire and Liam. Early Christian Ireland. London: Thames and Hudson, 1978.
  • Gougaud (OSB), Dom Louis. Christianity in Celtic Lands. London, 1932.
  • Gougaud (OSB), Dom Louis. Gaelic pioneers of Christianity: The Work and Influence of Irish Monks and Saints in Continental Europe (VIth-XIIth cent). Dublin: M.H. Gill and Son, Ltd., 1923.
  • Hughes, Kathleen, and Ann Hamlin. Celtic Monasticism. New York: Seabury Press, 1981.
  • Mackey, James, (Ed.). An Introduction to Celtic Christianity. Edinburgh : T.T. Clark, 1989.
  • Matthews, Caitlin. The Elements of the Celtic Tradition. Worcester, England: Element Books, 1989.
  • McNeill, John T. The Celtic Churches. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974.
  • O'Dwyer, Peter. Celi De: Spiritual Reform in Ireland 750-900. Dublin: Editions Tailliura, 1981.
  • Ryan, John. Irish Monasticism. Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 1931.

Anglo-Saxon Chrisitanity

  • Bede. A History of the English Church and People. Transl. Leo Sherley-Price. Penguin Classics, 1988. ISBN 0-14-044042-9.
See: Ecclesiastical History of the English People, excerpts from the Internet Medieval Sourcebook.
  • Blair, John P. The Church in Anglo-Saxon Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-921117-5.
  • Brooks, Nicholas. The Early History of the Church of Canterbury: Christ Church from 597 to 1066. London: Leicester University Press, 1984. ISBN 0-7185-0041-5.
  • Campbell, James. "Observations on the Conversion of England." Essays in Anglo-Saxon History. London: Hambledon Press, 1986. pp.69–84. ISBN 0-907628-32-X.
  • Cavill, Paul. Anglo-Saxon Christianity: Exploring the Earliest Roots of Christian Spirituality in England. Zondervan, 1999. ISBN 978-0006281122
  • Chaney, William A. "Paganism to Christianity in Anglo-Saxon England." In: Thrupp, Sylvia L.. Early Medieval Society. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1967. pp. 67–83.
  • Church, S.D. "Paganism in Conversion-age Anglo-Saxon England: The Evidence of Bede's Ecclesiastical History Reconsidered". History Vol.93, Issue 310, pp.162–180, March 4, 2008.
  • Deanesly, Margaret and Grosjean, Paul. "The Canterbury Edition of the Answers of Pope Gregory I to St Augustine." Journal of Ecclesiastical History Vol. 10, Issue 1, pp.1–49, April 1959.
  • Demacopoulos, George. "Gregory the Great and the Pagan Shrines of Kent." Journal of Late Antiquity Vol. 1, Issue 2, pp.353–369, Fall 2008.
  • Fletcher, R. A. The Barbarian Conversion: From Paganism to Christianity. New York: H. Holt and Co., 1998. ISBN 0-8050-2763-7.
  • Foley, W. Trent and Higham, Nicholas. J. "Bede on the Britons." Early Medieval Europe Vol. 17, Issue 2, pp. 154–185, 2009.
  • Gameson, Richard and Fiona. "From Augustine to Parker: The Changing Face of the First Archbishop of Canterbury." In: Smyth, Alfred P.; Keynes, Simon. Anglo-Saxons: Studies Presented to Cyril Roy Hart. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2006. pp.13–38. ISBN 1-85182-932-6.
  • Herrin, Judith. The Formation of Christendom. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-691-00831-0.
  • Jones, Putnam Fennell. "The Gregorian Mission and English Education." Speculum Vol. 3, No. 3, pp.335–348., July 1928.
  • Lawrence, C. H. Medieval Monasticism: Forms of Religious Life in Western Europe in the Middle Ages. New York: Longman, 2001. ISBN 0-582-40427-4.
  • Markus, R. A. "The Chronology of the Gregorian Mission to England: Bede's Narrative and Gregory's Correspondence." Journal of Ecclesiastical History Vol. 14, No. 1, pp.16–30, April 1963.
  • Markus, R. A. "Gregory the Great and a Papal Missionary Strategy." Studies in Church History 6: The Mission of the Church and the Propagation of the Faith. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1970. pp. 29–38.
  • Mayr-Harting, Henry. The Coming of Christianity to Anglo-Saxon England. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991. ISBN 0-271-00769-9.
  • Meens, Rob. "A Background to Augustine's Mission to Anglo-Saxon England." In: Lapidge, Michael. Anglo-Saxon England 23. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1994. pp.5–17. ISBN 978-0-521-47200-5.
  • Ortenberg, Veronica. "The Anglo-Saxon Church and the Papacy." In: Lawrence, C. H.. The English Church and the Papacy in the Middle Ages. Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 1965. pp.29–62. ISBN 0-7509-1947-7.
  • Thacker, Alan. "Memorializing Gregory the Great: The Origin and Transmission of a Papal Cult in the 7th and early 8th centuries." Early Medieval Europe Vol.7, No. 1, pp.59–84, 1998.
  • Wood, Ian. "The Mission of Augustine of Canterbury to the English." Speculum Vol. 69. No. 1, pp. 1–17, January 1994.
  • Yorke, Barbara. The Conversion of Britain: Religion, Politics and Society in Britain c. 600–800. London: Pearson/Longman, 2006. ISBN 0-582-77292-3.

Fall of Orthodoxy

Late Medieval, Early Modern

(Foreword by Michael Ramsey; afterword by A.M. Allchin.)
(Foreward by Rowan Williams, Abp. of Canterbury; Introduction by Kallistos Ware, Bp. of Diokleia)

Modern

  • Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia. “The Orthodox Church in England.” In: Zoe Brotherhood (ed.), A Sign of God: Orthodoxy 1964 (Athens: Zoe, 1964), 47-62.
  • Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia. “Orthodoxy in Britain: Its Origins and Future.” Sourozh, 42 (1990), 23-8.
  • Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia. “Father Lev Gillet and the Fellowship of St Alban and St Sergius.” Sobornost (incorporating Eastern Churches Review) , new series 15.2 (1993), 7-15.
  • Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia. C. S. Lewis: An ‘Anonymous Orthodox’?” Sobornost (incorporating Eastern Churches Review) , new series 17.2 (1995) , 9-27.
  • Makarios (Tillyrides) of Kenya. “Orthodoxy in Britain: Past, Present, and Future.” In: John Behr, Andrew Louth, Dimitri Conomos (eds.). Abba, The Tradition of Orthodoxy in the West: Festschrift for Bishop Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 2003. pp.135-155. ISBN 0-88141-248-1

Saints Lives

  • Doble, Gilbert H. The Saints of Cornwall. Oxford: Holywell Press, 1970.
  • Duckett, Eleanor. The Wandering Saints. London: Catholic Book Club, 1960.
  • Hanson, R.P.C. The Life and Wanderings of the Historical Saint Patrick. New York: Seabury Press, 1983.
  • James, J.W. (Transl.). Rhigyfarch's Life of St. David. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1967.
  • Moss, Vladimir. The Saints of Anglo-Saxon England (9th to 11th Centuries). Vol. 1. Seattle, Washington: St. Nectarios Press, 1992. ISBN 0-913026-32-8
  • Moss, Vladimir. The Saints of Anglo-Saxon England (9th to 11th Centuries). Vol. 2. Seattle, Washington: St. Nectarios Press, 1993.ISBN 0-913026-34-4
  • Sellner, Prof. Edward C. Wisdom of the Celtic Saints. Notre Dame: Ave Maria Press, 1993. ISBN 0-87793-492-4
  • Sharpe, Richard. Medieval Irish Saints' Lives. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.
  • Stokes, Whitley, (Transl.). Lives of Saints from the Book of Lismore. Oxford: Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1890.
  • Walsh, Michael J. A New Dictionary of Saints: East and West. London: Burns & Oates. ISBN 0-8601-2438-X.

Art

  • Dodwell, C. R. Anglo-Saxon Art: A New Perspective. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 1985. ISBN 0-8014-9300-5.
  • Green, Miranda. Symbol and Image in Celtic Religious Art. New York: Routledge, 1989.
  • Karkov, Catherine E., and Michael Ryan, Robert T. Farrell. The Insular Tradition. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997.
  • Nordenfalk, Carl. Celtic and Anglo-Saxon Painting: Book Illumination in the British Isles 600–800. New York: George Braziller, 1977.
  • Wilson, David M. Anglo-Saxon Art: From the Seventh Century to the Norman Conquest. London: Thames and Hudson, 1984.
  • Youngs, Susan (Ed.). "The Work of Angels", Masterpieces of Celtic Metalwork, 6th–9th centuries AD. London: British Museum Press, 1989. ISBN 0714105546

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