Timeline of Orthodoxy in America

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*1799 Ioasaph (Bolotov) [[consecration of a bishop|consecrated]] in Irkutsk as first [[bishop]] for Alaska, but dies in a shipwreck during his return.
 
*1799 Ioasaph (Bolotov) [[consecration of a bishop|consecrated]] in Irkutsk as first [[bishop]] for Alaska, but dies in a shipwreck during his return.
 
*1803 Louisiana Purchase expands American territory beyond Mississippi River.
 
*1803 Louisiana Purchase expands American territory beyond Mississippi River.
 +
* 1804 The [[double-headed eagle]] became a motif widely used in [[w:Tlingit people|Tlingit]] art, after the [[w:Battle of Sitka|Russian-Tlingit Battle of Sitka]] in 1804, when [[w:Alexander Andreyevich Baranov|Aleksandr Baranov]], the first governor of colonial Russian Alaska and manager of the Russian-America Company, presented the ''[[w:Tlingit clans|Kiks.adi]]'' Sitka Tlingit leaders with a large medallion on which was found the Russian imperial symbol.<ref>''[http://qmackie.wordpress.com/2010/03/01/double-headed-eagles/ Two Views of Double-Headed Eagles].'' Northwest Coast Archaeology. Posted on March 1, 2010. Retrieved: 2013-10-06.</ref>
 
*1816 Martyrdom of [[Peter the Aleut]] near San Francisco.
 
*1816 Martyrdom of [[Peter the Aleut]] near San Francisco.
 
*1817 Russian colony of Fort Ross established 60 miles from San Francisco.
 
*1817 Russian colony of Fort Ross established 60 miles from San Francisco.
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*1825 First native priest, [[Jacob Netsvetov]].
 
*1825 First native priest, [[Jacob Netsvetov]].
 
*1834 Fr. [[Innocent of Alaska|John Veniaminov]] moves to Sitka, Alaska; liturgy and catechism translated into Aleut.
 
*1834 Fr. [[Innocent of Alaska|John Veniaminov]] moves to Sitka, Alaska; liturgy and catechism translated into Aleut.
*1830 Saints Peter and Paul Russian Orthodox Church is founded on [[w:Saint Paul Island (Alaska)|Saint Paul Island (Alaska)]], in the Bering Sea.
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*1830 Saints Peter and Paul Russian Orthodox Church is founded on [[w:Saint Paul Island (Alaska)|Saint Paul Island (Alaska)]], in the Bering Sea.<ref>''[http://oca.org/parishes/oca-ak-stpspp SS. Peter and Paul Church].'' Orthodox Church in America (OCA) - Parishes. Retrieved: 2013-10-06.</ref>
 
*1836 Imperial ''[[ukaz]]'' regarding Alaskan education issued from Czar Nicholas I that students were to become faithful members of the Orthodox Church, loyal subjects of the Czar, and loyal citizens; Fr. John Veniaminov returns to Russia.
 
*1836 Imperial ''[[ukaz]]'' regarding Alaskan education issued from Czar Nicholas I that students were to become faithful members of the Orthodox Church, loyal subjects of the Czar, and loyal citizens; Fr. John Veniaminov returns to Russia.
 
*1837 Death of [[Herman of Alaska]] on Spruce Island.  
 
*1837 Death of [[Herman of Alaska]] on Spruce Island.  
 
*1840 Consecration of Fr. [[Innocent of Alaska|John Veniaminov]] as [[bishop]] with the name Innocent.
 
*1840 Consecration of Fr. [[Innocent of Alaska|John Veniaminov]] as [[bishop]] with the name Innocent.
 
*1841 Return of [[Innocent of Alaska]] to Sitka; sale of Fort Ross property to an American citizen; pastoral school established in Sitka.
 
*1841 Return of [[Innocent of Alaska]] to Sitka; sale of Fort Ross property to an American citizen; pastoral school established in Sitka.
*1844 Formation of [[seminary]] in Sitka.
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* 1843 First mission school for the [[w:Eskimos|Eskimos]] was established at [[w:Nushagak, Alaska|Nushagak]] by Russian-Greek Orthodox Church.<ref name=Alaskool>''[http://www.alaskool.org/cgi-bin/java/interactive/timelineframe.html Alaska Native History - Timeline - Alaskool].'' Alaskool (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage). Retreived: 2013-10-06.</ref>
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*1844 Formation of [[seminary]] in Sitka.<ref group="note">In 1844, St. Innocent (Veniaminov) organized the first Orthodox theological school in North America at Sitka, inaugurating a golden age of Orthodox educational ministry and mission in Alaska. This lasted until the catastrophe of the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, when the last Russian-sponsored parochial school in Alaska closed.<br>
 +
:* ''[https://oca.org/parishes/oca-ak-kodshs St. Herman's Seminary, Kodiak, Alaska].'' Orthodox Church in America (OCA) - Parishes. Retrieved: 2013-10-06.</ref>
 
*1845 Former Republic of Texas joins United States.
 
*1845 Former Republic of Texas joins United States.
 
*1846 Pacific Northwest received by United States via treaty with United Kingdom.
 
*1846 Pacific Northwest received by United States via treaty with United Kingdom.
 
*1848 [[Consecration]] of St. Michael Cathedral in Sitka; Pacific Southwest won from Mexico by United States.
 
*1848 [[Consecration]] of St. Michael Cathedral in Sitka; Pacific Southwest won from Mexico by United States.
 
*1850 Alaskan episcopal see and seminary moved to Yakutsk, Russia.
 
*1850 Alaskan episcopal see and seminary moved to Yakutsk, Russia.
*1858 [[Peter (Sysakoff) of Sitka|Peter (Sysakoff)]] consecrated as [[auxiliary bishop]] for Alaska with Innocent's primary see moved to Yakutsk.
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*1858 [[Peter (Ekaterinovsky) of Novoarkhangelsk|Peter (Lysakov)]] consecrated as [[auxiliary bishop]] for Alaska with Innocent's primary see moved to Yakutsk.
 
*1864 [http://holytrinitycathedral.org/history.html Holy Trinity Church], first Orthodox [[parish]] established on United States soil in New Orleans, Louisiana, by Greeks.
 
*1864 [http://holytrinitycathedral.org/history.html Holy Trinity Church], first Orthodox [[parish]] established on United States soil in New Orleans, Louisiana, by Greeks.
 
*1865 First [[Divine Liturgy]] celebrated in New York City, by Fr. [[Agapius Honcharenko]].
 
*1865 First [[Divine Liturgy]] celebrated in New York City, by Fr. [[Agapius Honcharenko]].
*1867 Alaska purchased by United States from Russia; Bp. [[Paul (Popov) of Novoarkhangelsk|Paul (Popov)]] succeeds Bp. Peter.
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*1867 Alaska purchased by United States from Russia;<ref group="note">[[October 18]] is now celebrated as "[[Alaska Day]]."</ref> Bp. [[Paul (Popov) of Novoarkhangelsk|Paul (Popov)]] succeeds Bp. Peter.
 
*1868 First Russian parish established in US territory in San Francisco, California; [[Innocent of Alaska]] becomes Metropolitan of Moscow.
 
*1868 First Russian parish established in US territory in San Francisco, California; [[Innocent of Alaska]] becomes Metropolitan of Moscow.
 
*1870 Diocese of the Aleutian Islands and Alaska formed by the [[Church of Russia]] with Bp. [[John (Mitropolsky) of the Aleutians|John (Mitropolsky)]] as ruling hierarch; [[Nicholas Bjerring]], a Roman Catholic layman, converts to Orthodoxy and becomes priest of a Russian chapel in New York City.
 
*1870 Diocese of the Aleutian Islands and Alaska formed by the [[Church of Russia]] with Bp. [[John (Mitropolsky) of the Aleutians|John (Mitropolsky)]] as ruling hierarch; [[Nicholas Bjerring]], a Roman Catholic layman, converts to Orthodoxy and becomes priest of a Russian chapel in New York City.
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*1882 Bp. [[Nestor (Zass) of the Aleutians|Nestor (Zass)]] drowns in Bering Sea.
 
*1882 Bp. [[Nestor (Zass) of the Aleutians|Nestor (Zass)]] drowns in Bering Sea.
 
*1883 Fr. [[Nicholas Bjerring]], priest of the Russian chapel in New York City, converts to Presbyterianism.
 
*1883 Fr. [[Nicholas Bjerring]], priest of the Russian chapel in New York City, converts to Presbyterianism.
 +
*1886-1895 In the face of their shamans' inability to treat Old World diseases including smallpox, many [[w:Tlingit people|Tlingit people]] (an indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America), converted to Orthodox Christianity.<ref>Boyd, Robert Thomas. ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=P_FdUPbmwCgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22spirit+of+pestilence%22&ei=sWgQS8bGAqOykAT1pOXcCw#v=onepage&q=&f=false The Coming of the Spirit of Pestilence: Introduced Infectious Diseases and Population Decline among Northwest Coast Indians, 1774-1874].'' Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999. p. 241.</ref><ref group="note">Russian Orthodox missionaries had translated their liturgy into the Tlingit language. It has been argued that they saw Eastern Orthodox Christianity as a way of resisting assimilation to the "American way of life," which was associated with Presbyterianism.<br>
 +
:*Kan, Sergei. ''Memory Eternal: Tlingit Culture and Russian Orthodox Christianity Through Two Centuries.'' Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1999. pp.xix-xxii.</ref>
 
*1888 Bp. [[Vladimir (Sokolovsky-Avtonomov) of the Aleutians|Vladimir (Sokolovsky)]] becomes Bishop of the Aleutians and Alaska.
 
*1888 Bp. [[Vladimir (Sokolovsky-Avtonomov) of the Aleutians|Vladimir (Sokolovsky)]] becomes Bishop of the Aleutians and Alaska.
 
*1890-1917 Greek Immigration to USA: widespread unemployment and economic problems led to migrations to the US of 450,000 Greeks, one-fifth of the total population.
 
*1890-1917 Greek Immigration to USA: widespread unemployment and economic problems led to migrations to the US of 450,000 Greeks, one-fifth of the total population.
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*1951 [[Michael (Konstantinides) of America|Michael (Konstantinides)]] heads [[GOA]]; independent Romanian diocese established; arrival of Fr. [[Alexander Schmemann]] in the United States from Paris, taking up teaching duties at [[St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary (Crestwood, New York)]].
 
*1951 [[Michael (Konstantinides) of America|Michael (Konstantinides)]] heads [[GOA]]; independent Romanian diocese established; arrival of Fr. [[Alexander Schmemann]] in the United States from Paris, taking up teaching duties at [[St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary (Crestwood, New York)]].
 
*1954 Recognition of Toledo archdiocese by [[Church of Antioch]].
 
*1954 Recognition of Toledo archdiocese by [[Church of Antioch]].
*1955 Founding of [[Council of Eastern Orthodox Churches of Central Massachusetts]]; [[All-American_Sobor#Ninth_All-American_Sobor|9th All-American Sobor]] of Metropolia held in New York City.
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*1955 Orthodoxy officially recognized as major faith by U.S. government;<ref>''[http://www.goarch.org/archbishop/michael/timeline Timeline of Archbishop Michael].'' Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America.</ref> founding of [[Council of Eastern Orthodox Churches of Central Massachusetts]]; [[All-American_Sobor#Ninth_All-American_Sobor|9th All-American Sobor]] of Metropolia held in New York City.
 
*1956 Dr. Constantine Cavarnos founds the [http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ibmgs/index.html  Institute for Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies] in Belmont, Massachusetts.
 
*1956 Dr. Constantine Cavarnos founds the [http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ibmgs/index.html  Institute for Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies] in Belmont, Massachusetts.
 
*1957 Abp. [[Michael (Konstantinides) of America|Michael (Konstantinides)]] offered the first Orthodox prayer at a U. S. Presidential inauguration in January 20, 1957.
 
*1957 Abp. [[Michael (Konstantinides) of America|Michael (Konstantinides)]] offered the first Orthodox prayer at a U. S. Presidential inauguration in January 20, 1957.
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*1961 Consecration of [[Michael (Shaheen) of Toledo]]; first ever visit of a Greek Orthodox Patriarch to Canada, as Patr. [[Benedict of Jerusalem]] begins a North-American tour to raise funds for the restoration of the shrines in the [[Holy Land]].
 
*1961 Consecration of [[Michael (Shaheen) of Toledo]]; first ever visit of a Greek Orthodox Patriarch to Canada, as Patr. [[Benedict of Jerusalem]] begins a North-American tour to raise funds for the restoration of the shrines in the [[Holy Land]].
 
*1962 Antiochian Toledo archdiocese recognized by the [[Church of Antioch]] as equal to the New York archdiocese.  
 
*1962 Antiochian Toledo archdiocese recognized by the [[Church of Antioch]] as equal to the New York archdiocese.  
*1963 Autonomous Serbian diocese created; [[All-American_Sobor#Eleventh_All-America_Sobor|11th All-American Sobor]] held in New York City; beginning of rapprochement between Metropolia and Moscow Patriarchate; arguing that the Metropolia's 1924 declaration of "temporary self-government" amounted to a canonical declaration of [[autocephaly]], ''Toward an American Orthodox Church'' published by St. Vladimir's professor Alexander Bogolepov, galvanizing the Metropolia to seek autocephaly; Abp. [[Iakovos (Coucouzis) of America|Iakovos (Coucouzis)]] vigorously supported the passage of the [[w:Civil Rights Act of 1964|Civil Rights Act of 1964]] that was introduced by President John F. Kennedy in his civil rights speech of June 11, 1963.  
+
*1963 Autonomous Serbian diocese created; [[All-American_Sobor#Eleventh_All-America_Sobor|11th All-American Sobor]] held in New York City; beginning of rapprochement between Metropolia and Moscow Patriarchate; arguing that the Metropolia's 1924 declaration of "temporary self-government" amounted to a canonical declaration of [[autocephaly]], ''Toward an American Orthodox Church'' published by St. Vladimir's professor Alexander Bogolepov, galvanizing the Metropolia to seek autocephaly; Abp. [[Iakovos (Coucouzis) of America|Iakovos (Coucouzis)]] vigorously supported the passage of the [[w:Civil Rights Act of 1964|Civil Rights Act of 1964]] that was introduced by President John F. Kennedy in his civil rights speech of June 11, 1963; the United States Supreme Court handed down a landmark ruling that ended government-sponsored prayer in American public schools (Abington School District v. Schempp).
 
*1964 [[Bulgarian Diocese in Exile]] established under the [[ROCOR]].
 
*1964 [[Bulgarian Diocese in Exile]] established under the [[ROCOR]].
 
*1965 [[SCOBA]] appeals to mother churches to allow concrete steps to be taken toward American Orthodox unity; at [[All-American_Sobor#Twelfth_All-American_Sobor|12th All-American Sobor]], [[Ireney (Bekish) of New York|Ireney (Bekish)]] chosen to succeed [[Leonty (Turkevich) of New York|Leonty (Turkevich)]] as [[primate]] of [[OCA|Metropolia]]; North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation founded; Abp. [[Iakovos (Coucouzis) of America|Iakovos (Coucouzis)]] marched next to Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in the [[w:Selma to Montgomery marches |Selma to Montgomery marches]], captured on the cover of LIFE Magazine, March 26, 1965.
 
*1965 [[SCOBA]] appeals to mother churches to allow concrete steps to be taken toward American Orthodox unity; at [[All-American_Sobor#Twelfth_All-American_Sobor|12th All-American Sobor]], [[Ireney (Bekish) of New York|Ireney (Bekish)]] chosen to succeed [[Leonty (Turkevich) of New York|Leonty (Turkevich)]] as [[primate]] of [[OCA|Metropolia]]; North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation founded; Abp. [[Iakovos (Coucouzis) of America|Iakovos (Coucouzis)]] marched next to Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in the [[w:Selma to Montgomery marches |Selma to Montgomery marches]], captured on the cover of LIFE Magazine, March 26, 1965.
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*1989 [[Glorification]] in Russia of [[Tikhon of Moscow]]; [[Ephraim of Philotheou|Elder Ephraim]] begins founding [[Mount Athos|Athonite]]-style monasteries in North America; [[All-American_Council#Ninth_All-American_Council|9th All-American Council]] of OCA held in Saint Louis, Missouri.   
 
*1989 [[Glorification]] in Russia of [[Tikhon of Moscow]]; [[Ephraim of Philotheou|Elder Ephraim]] begins founding [[Mount Athos|Athonite]]-style monasteries in North America; [[All-American_Council#Ninth_All-American_Council|9th All-American Council]] of OCA held in Saint Louis, Missouri.   
 
*1990 Contact between [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]] and [[OCA]] resumes.
 
*1990 Contact between [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]] and [[OCA]] resumes.
*1992 Founding of [[International Orthodox Christian Charities]] (IOCC); [[All-American_Council#Tenth_All-American_Council|10th All-American Council]] of OCA held in Miami, Florida.
+
*1992 Founding of [[International Orthodox Christian Charities]] (IOCC); [[All-American_Council#Tenth_All-American_Council|10th All-American Council]] of OCA held in Miami, Florida; about 60 theologians from the Eastern Orthodox Church and Evangelical groups met at Wheaton college to discuss differences and similarities between their Christian groups, as speakers from both sides sketched their views of Scripture, tradition, and authority in church life.<ref>Loconte, Joe. ''"Peering over the Orthodox-evangelical crevasse."'' '''Christianity Today'''. 9 Nov. 1992: 63.</ref>
  
 
==Ligonier and Beyond (1994-present)==
 
==Ligonier and Beyond (1994-present)==
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*2008 [[Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem in North and South America|Jerusalem jurisdiction]] transferred to [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek Archdiocese]], forming [[Vicariate for Palestinian-Jordanian Communities in the USA|Vicariate for Palestinian/Jordanian Communities in the USA]]; Metr. [[Herman (Swaiko) of Washington and New York|Herman (Swaiko)]] retired by OCA amidst financial scandal; [[Jonah (Paffhausen) of Washington and New York|Jonah (Paffhausen)]] elected primate of OCA; [[All-American Council#Fifteenth All-American Council|Fifteenth All-American Council]] held in Pittsburgh, PA.
 
*2008 [[Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem in North and South America|Jerusalem jurisdiction]] transferred to [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek Archdiocese]], forming [[Vicariate for Palestinian-Jordanian Communities in the USA|Vicariate for Palestinian/Jordanian Communities in the USA]]; Metr. [[Herman (Swaiko) of Washington and New York|Herman (Swaiko)]] retired by OCA amidst financial scandal; [[Jonah (Paffhausen) of Washington and New York|Jonah (Paffhausen)]] elected primate of OCA; [[All-American Council#Fifteenth All-American Council|Fifteenth All-American Council]] held in Pittsburgh, PA.
 
*2009 [[Church of Georgia]] names Metr. [[Dimitri (Shiolashvili) of Batumi and Lazeti]] as bishop for North America; visit of Abp. [[Demetrios (Trakatellis) of America|Demetios (Trakatellis)]] to [[ROCOR]] headquarters, the first visit of a Greek archbishop in more than 40 years; [[Orthodox Christian Mission Center|OCMC]] opens training center; Fourth Pre-Conciliar Pan-Orthodox Conference in Chambesy, Switzerland mandates "Episcopal Assemblies" for various regions of the world, including North America; OCA reestablishes dioceses for [[Diocese of Washington (OCA)|Washington]] and [[Diocese of New York and New Jersey (OCA)|New York and New Jersey]]; visit to US of Ecumenical Patr. [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople|Batholomew I (Archontonis)]].
 
*2009 [[Church of Georgia]] names Metr. [[Dimitri (Shiolashvili) of Batumi and Lazeti]] as bishop for North America; visit of Abp. [[Demetrios (Trakatellis) of America|Demetios (Trakatellis)]] to [[ROCOR]] headquarters, the first visit of a Greek archbishop in more than 40 years; [[Orthodox Christian Mission Center|OCMC]] opens training center; Fourth Pre-Conciliar Pan-Orthodox Conference in Chambesy, Switzerland mandates "Episcopal Assemblies" for various regions of the world, including North America; OCA reestablishes dioceses for [[Diocese of Washington (OCA)|Washington]] and [[Diocese of New York and New Jersey (OCA)|New York and New Jersey]]; visit to US of Ecumenical Patr. [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople|Batholomew I (Archontonis)]].
*2010 Consecration of Bp. [[Michael (Dahulich) of New York]]; formation of [[Episcopal Assembly of North and Central America]]; [[ROCOR]] marks its 90th anniversary; the Ministry of Education of the Hellenic Republic formally recognized [[St. Tikhon's Orthodox Theological Seminary (South Canaan, Pennsylvania)]] as an accredited institution of Higher Education, equal in standing to the schools of theology in the universities of Greece and the EU’s member states; [[Toronto Orthodox Theological Academy (Toronto, Ontario)]] and [[w:Saint Paul University|Saint Paul Catholic Pontifical University]] in Ottawa sign cooperation agreement as twin institutions within the Province of Ontario.<ref>Pravoslavie.ru. ''[http://www.pravoslavie.ru/english/43542.htm Toronto Orthodox Theological Academy & Saint Paul University sign cooperation agreement].'' 16/12/2010.</ref><ref group="note">[[w:Saint Paul University|Saint Paul University]] in Ottawa is the home of the the ''"[http://www.sheptytskyinstitute.ca/?page_id=2 Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky Institute of Eastern Christian Studies]",'' named after the primate of the Ukrainian Catholic Church, [[w:Andrey Sheptytsky|Andrey Sheptytsky]] (1865-1944); it specializes in Eastern Christian Studies with special but not exclusive emphasis on the tradition of the [[Christianization of Kievan Rus'|Church of Kyiv]].</ref>
+
*2010 Consecration of Bp. [[Michael (Dahulich) of New York]]; formation of [[Episcopal Assembly of North and Central America]], with 55 Bishops in attendance; [[ROCOR]] marks its 90th anniversary; the Ministry of Education of the Hellenic Republic formally recognized [[St. Tikhon's Orthodox Theological Seminary (South Canaan, Pennsylvania)]] as an accredited institution of Higher Education, equal in standing to the schools of theology in the universities of Greece and the EU’s member states; [[Toronto Orthodox Theological Academy (Toronto, Ontario)]] and [[w:Saint Paul University|Saint Paul Catholic Pontifical University]] in Ottawa sign cooperation agreement as twin institutions within the Province of Ontario.<ref>Pravoslavie.ru. ''[http://www.pravoslavie.ru/english/43542.htm Toronto Orthodox Theological Academy & Saint Paul University sign cooperation agreement].'' 16/12/2010.</ref><ref group="note">[[w:Saint Paul University|Saint Paul University]] in Ottawa is the home of the the ''"[http://www.sheptytskyinstitute.ca/?page_id=2 Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky Institute of Eastern Christian Studies]",'' named after the primate of the Ukrainian Catholic Church, [[w:Andrey Sheptytsky|Andrey Sheptytsky]] (1865-1944); it specializes in Eastern Christian Studies with special but not exclusive emphasis on the tradition of the [[Christianization of Kievan Rus'|Church of Kyiv]].</ref>
*2011 Second gathering of the [[Episcopal Assembly of North and Central America]], convened May 25-27 in Chicago; The [[All-American Council|Sixteenth All-American Council]] of the OCA was held in Bellevue, Washington; For the first time in nearly 70 years, the primates and hierarchs of the [[ROCOR and OCA|OCA and ROCOR]] concelebrate the Divine Liturgy.
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*2011 Second gathering of the [[Episcopal Assembly of North and Central America]], convened May 25-27 in Chicago, with 45 Bishops in attendance; [[All-American Council|Sixteenth All-American Council]] of the OCA was held in Bellevue, Washington; For the first time in nearly 70 years, the primates and hierarchs of the [[ROCOR and OCA|OCA and ROCOR]] concelebrate the Divine Liturgy.
 +
*2012  [[Jonah (Paffhausen) of Washington and New York|Jonah (Paffhausen)]] primate of [[OCA]] requests retirement; [[Tikhon (Mollard) of Washington|Tikhon (Mollard)]] elected primate of OCA at the [[All-American_Council#Seventeenth_All-American_Council|17th All-American Council]] held in Parma, Ohio; Third Annual Meeting of the [[Episcopal Assembly of North and Central America]], from September 10-12, in Chicago, with 43 Bishops in attendance.
  
 
==See also==  
 
==See also==  

Revision as of 08:05, October 6, 2013

This article forms part of the series
Orthodoxy in America
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History
American Orthodox Timeline
American Orthodox Bibliography
Byzantines on OCA autocephaly
Ligonier Meeting
ROCOR and OCA
People
Saints - Bishops - Writers
Jurisdictions
Antiochian - Bulgarian
OCA - Romanian - Moscow
ROCOR - Serbian

Ecumenical Patriarchate:
Albanian - Carpatho-Russian
Belarusian - Greek - Ukrainian
Palestinian/Jordanian

Monasteries
Seminaries
Christ the Saviour
Holy Cross
Holy Trinity
St. Herman's
St. Tikhon's
St. Sava's
St. Sophia's
St. Vladimir's
Organizations
Episcopal Assembly
AOI - EOCS - IOCC - OCEC
OCF - OCL - OCMC - OCPM - OCLife
OISM - OTSA - SCOBA - SOCHA
Groups
Amer. Orthodox Catholic Church
Brotherhood of St. Moses the Black
Evangelical Orthodox Church
Holy Order of MANS/CSB
Society of Clerks Secular of St. Basil
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The History of Orthodoxy in America is complex and resists any easy categorizations or explanations.

Contents

Early Visits and Missions (530-1900)

  • 530 St. Brendan the Navigator lands in Newfoundland, Canada, establishing a short-lived community of Irish monks.
  • 1738 Conversion of Col. Philip Ludwell III of Virginia at Russian church in London.
  • 1741 Divine Liturgy celebrated on a Russian ship off the coast of Alaska.
  • 1767 Community of Orthodox Greeks establishes itself in New Smyrna, Spanish Florida.
  • 1787 The US Constitution is drafted in Philadelphia, embodying the ideal of secular government with deliberate separation of "church and state" (First Amendment).
  • 1794 Missionaries, including Herman of Alaska, arrive at Kodiak Island, bringing Orthodoxy to Russian Alaska.
  • 1796 Martyrdom of Juvenaly of Alaska.
  • 1799 Ioasaph (Bolotov) consecrated in Irkutsk as first bishop for Alaska, but dies in a shipwreck during his return.
  • 1803 Louisiana Purchase expands American territory beyond Mississippi River.
  • 1804 The double-headed eagle became a motif widely used in Tlingit art, after the Russian-Tlingit Battle of Sitka in 1804, when Aleksandr Baranov, the first governor of colonial Russian Alaska and manager of the Russian-America Company, presented the Kiks.adi Sitka Tlingit leaders with a large medallion on which was found the Russian imperial symbol.[1]
  • 1816 Martyrdom of Peter the Aleut near San Francisco.
  • 1817 Russian colony of Fort Ross established 60 miles from San Francisco.
  • 1819 Various Spanish territories ceded to United States, including Florida.
  • 1824 Fr. John Veniaminov comes to Unalaska, Alaska.
  • 1825 First native priest, Jacob Netsvetov.
  • 1834 Fr. John Veniaminov moves to Sitka, Alaska; liturgy and catechism translated into Aleut.
  • 1830 Saints Peter and Paul Russian Orthodox Church is founded on Saint Paul Island (Alaska), in the Bering Sea.[2]
  • 1836 Imperial ukaz regarding Alaskan education issued from Czar Nicholas I that students were to become faithful members of the Orthodox Church, loyal subjects of the Czar, and loyal citizens; Fr. John Veniaminov returns to Russia.
  • 1837 Death of Herman of Alaska on Spruce Island.
  • 1840 Consecration of Fr. John Veniaminov as bishop with the name Innocent.
  • 1841 Return of Innocent of Alaska to Sitka; sale of Fort Ross property to an American citizen; pastoral school established in Sitka.
  • 1843 First mission school for the Eskimos was established at Nushagak by Russian-Greek Orthodox Church.[3]
  • 1844 Formation of seminary in Sitka.[note 1]
  • 1845 Former Republic of Texas joins United States.
  • 1846 Pacific Northwest received by United States via treaty with United Kingdom.
  • 1848 Consecration of St. Michael Cathedral in Sitka; Pacific Southwest won from Mexico by United States.
  • 1850 Alaskan episcopal see and seminary moved to Yakutsk, Russia.
  • 1858 Peter (Lysakov) consecrated as auxiliary bishop for Alaska with Innocent's primary see moved to Yakutsk.
  • 1864 Holy Trinity Church, first Orthodox parish established on United States soil in New Orleans, Louisiana, by Greeks.
  • 1865 First Divine Liturgy celebrated in New York City, by Fr. Agapius Honcharenko.
  • 1867 Alaska purchased by United States from Russia;[note 2] Bp. Paul (Popov) succeeds Bp. Peter.
  • 1868 First Russian parish established in US territory in San Francisco, California; Innocent of Alaska becomes Metropolitan of Moscow.
  • 1870 Diocese of the Aleutian Islands and Alaska formed by the Church of Russia with Bp. John (Mitropolsky) as ruling hierarch; Nicholas Bjerring, a Roman Catholic layman, converts to Orthodoxy and becomes priest of a Russian chapel in New York City.
  • 1871-72 Visit of Russian Grand Duke Alexis to the United States.
  • 1872 See of the Aleutians diocese moved to San Francisco, placing it outside the defined boundaries of the diocese (i.e., Alaska).
  • 1876 Bp. John (Mitropolsky) recalled to Russia.
  • 1879 Bp. Nestor (Zass) succeeds John (Metropolsky).
  • 1882 Bp. Nestor (Zass) drowns in Bering Sea.
  • 1883 Fr. Nicholas Bjerring, priest of the Russian chapel in New York City, converts to Presbyterianism.
  • 1886-1895 In the face of their shamans' inability to treat Old World diseases including smallpox, many Tlingit people (an indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America), converted to Orthodox Christianity.[4][note 3]
  • 1888 Bp. Vladimir (Sokolovsky) becomes Bishop of the Aleutians and Alaska.
  • 1890-1917 Greek Immigration to USA: widespread unemployment and economic problems led to migrations to the US of 450,000 Greeks, one-fifth of the total population.
  • 1891 Fr. Alexis Toth, a Uniate priest, petitions to be received along with his parish in Minneapolis into the Russian church; Bp. Nicholas (Adoratsky) assigned as Bishop of Alaska but is transferred before taking up his post; Nicholas (Ziorov) becomes ruling bishop of the Alaskan diocese.
  • 1892 Fr. Alexis Toth and his parish in Minneapolis received into Russian church; Carpatho-Russian Uniate parishes in Illinois, Connecticut, and several in Pennsylvania soon follow; first Serbian parish established in Jackson, California; Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox parish founded in New York City; Greek and Russian parishes founded in Chicago; first American-born person ordained, Fr. Sebastian Dabovich.
  • 1895 Archim. Raphael (Hawaweeny) arrives in America; Fr. John Kochurov arrives in America and becomes priest of the Russian parish in Chicago; Fr. Anatole (Kamensky) arrives in Alaska; first Syrian parish in Brooklyn, New York, founded by Raphael of Brooklyn; first clergy conference, in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania.
  • 1896 Bp. Nicholas (Ziorov) reports to the Holy Synod of Russia that "the commemoration of the Emperor and the Reigning House during the divine services brings forth dismay and apprehension among Orthodox in America of non-Russian background"; Alexander Hotovitsky appointed as rector in New York; Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church is chartered by a special act of the New York State Legislature, being the first Greek Church founded in New York.
  • 1897 Bp. Nicholas (Ziorov) and Fr. Sebastian Dabovich petition Church of Serbia to oversee Serbian parishes in America, but are rebuffed due to an inability to support the infrastructure.
  • 1898 Bp. Nicholas (Ziorov) returns to Russia; Tikhon (Belavin) becomes Bishop of the Aleutians and Alaska; American annexation of Hawaii.

Beyond Alaska (1900-1918)

Revolution and Rivalry (1918-1943)

Emergence of American Orthodoxy (1943-1970)

Union and Division (1970-1994)

Ligonier and Beyond (1994-present)

See also

Notes

  1. In 1844, St. Innocent (Veniaminov) organized the first Orthodox theological school in North America at Sitka, inaugurating a golden age of Orthodox educational ministry and mission in Alaska. This lasted until the catastrophe of the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, when the last Russian-sponsored parochial school in Alaska closed.
  2. October 18 is now celebrated as "Alaska Day."
  3. Russian Orthodox missionaries had translated their liturgy into the Tlingit language. It has been argued that they saw Eastern Orthodox Christianity as a way of resisting assimilation to the "American way of life," which was associated with Presbyterianism.
    • Kan, Sergei. Memory Eternal: Tlingit Culture and Russian Orthodox Christianity Through Two Centuries. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1999. pp.xix-xxii.
  4. Saint Paul University in Ottawa is the home of the the "Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky Institute of Eastern Christian Studies", named after the primate of the Ukrainian Catholic Church, Andrey Sheptytsky (1865-1944); it specializes in Eastern Christian Studies with special but not exclusive emphasis on the tradition of the Church of Kyiv.

References

  1. Two Views of Double-Headed Eagles. Northwest Coast Archaeology. Posted on March 1, 2010. Retrieved: 2013-10-06.
  2. SS. Peter and Paul Church. Orthodox Church in America (OCA) - Parishes. Retrieved: 2013-10-06.
  3. Alaska Native History - Timeline - Alaskool. Alaskool (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage). Retreived: 2013-10-06.
  4. Boyd, Robert Thomas. The Coming of the Spirit of Pestilence: Introduced Infectious Diseases and Population Decline among Northwest Coast Indians, 1774-1874. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999. p. 241.
  5. Timeline of Archbishop Michael. Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America.
  6. Loconte, Joe. "Peering over the Orthodox-evangelical crevasse." Christianity Today. 9 Nov. 1992: 63.
  7. Subdeacon Kevin Wigglesworth. Statistics of Orthodox Christianity in Canada. The Canadian Journal of Orthodox Christianity. Volume V, No 1, Winter 2010. p.33.
  8. Pravoslavie.ru. Toronto Orthodox Theological Academy & Saint Paul University sign cooperation agreement. 16/12/2010.

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