Timeline of Orthodoxy in America

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(Early Visits and Missions (530-1900))
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==Early Visits and Missions (530-1900)==
 
==Early Visits and Missions (530-1900)==
 
*530 St. [[Brendan the Voyager|Brendan the Navigator]] lands in Newfoundland, Canada, establishing a short-lived community of Irish monks.
 
*530 St. [[Brendan the Voyager|Brendan the Navigator]] lands in Newfoundland, Canada, establishing a short-lived community of Irish monks.
*1738 Conversion of Col. [[Philip Ludwell III]] of Virginia at Russian embassy chapel in London.
+
*1738 Conversion of Col. [[Philip Ludwell III]] of Virginia at Russian church in London.
 
*1741 [[Divine Liturgy]] celebrated on a Russian ship off the coast of Alaska.
 
*1741 [[Divine Liturgy]] celebrated on a Russian ship off the coast of Alaska.
 
*1767 Community of Orthodox Greeks establishes itself in New Smyrna, Spanish Florida.
 
*1767 Community of Orthodox Greeks establishes itself in New Smyrna, Spanish Florida.
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*1825 First native priest, [[Jacob Netsvetov]].
 
*1825 First native priest, [[Jacob Netsvetov]].
 
*1834 Fr. [[Innocent of Alaska|John Veniaminov]] moves to Sitka, Alaska; liturgy and catechism translated into Aleut.
 
*1834 Fr. [[Innocent of Alaska|John Veniaminov]] moves to Sitka, Alaska; liturgy and catechism translated into Aleut.
 +
*1830 Saints Peter and Paul Russian Orthodox Church is founded on [[w:Saint Paul Island (Alaska)|Saint Paul Island (Alaska)]], in the Bering Sea.
 
*1836 Imperial ''[[ukaz]]'' regarding Alaskan education issued from Czar Nicholas I that students were to become faithful members of the Orthodox Church, loyal subjects of the Czar, and loyal citizens; Fr. John Veniaminov returns to Russia.
 
*1836 Imperial ''[[ukaz]]'' regarding Alaskan education issued from Czar Nicholas I that students were to become faithful members of the Orthodox Church, loyal subjects of the Czar, and loyal citizens; Fr. John Veniaminov returns to Russia.
 
*1837 Death of [[Herman of Alaska]] on Spruce Island.  
 
*1837 Death of [[Herman of Alaska]] on Spruce Island.  
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*1848 [[Consecration]] of St. Michael Cathedral in Sitka; Pacific Southwest won from Mexico by United States.
 
*1848 [[Consecration]] of St. Michael Cathedral in Sitka; Pacific Southwest won from Mexico by United States.
 
*1850 Alaskan episcopal see and seminary moved to Yakutsk, Russia.
 
*1850 Alaskan episcopal see and seminary moved to Yakutsk, Russia.
*1858 [[Peter (Sysakoff) of Sitka|Peter (Sysakoff)]] consecrated as [[auxiliary bishop]] for Alaska with Innocent's primary see moved to Yakutsk.
+
*1858 [[Peter (Ekaterinovsky) of Novoarkhangelsk|Peter (Lysakov)]] consecrated as [[auxiliary bishop]] for Alaska with Innocent's primary see moved to Yakutsk.
 
*1864 [http://holytrinitycathedral.org/history.html Holy Trinity Church], first Orthodox [[parish]] established on United States soil in New Orleans, Louisiana, by Greeks.
 
*1864 [http://holytrinitycathedral.org/history.html Holy Trinity Church], first Orthodox [[parish]] established on United States soil in New Orleans, Louisiana, by Greeks.
 
*1865 First [[Divine Liturgy]] celebrated in New York City, by Fr. [[Agapius Honcharenko]].
 
*1865 First [[Divine Liturgy]] celebrated in New York City, by Fr. [[Agapius Honcharenko]].
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*1891 Fr. [[Alexis of Wilkes-Barre|Alexis Toth]], a [[Uniate]] priest, petitions to be received along with his parish in Minneapolis into the Russian church; Bp. Nicholas (Adoratsky) assigned as Bishop of Alaska but is transferred before taking up his post; [[Nicholas (Ziorov) of Warsaw|Nicholas (Ziorov)]] becomes ruling bishop of the Alaskan diocese.
 
*1891 Fr. [[Alexis of Wilkes-Barre|Alexis Toth]], a [[Uniate]] priest, petitions to be received along with his parish in Minneapolis into the Russian church; Bp. Nicholas (Adoratsky) assigned as Bishop of Alaska but is transferred before taking up his post; [[Nicholas (Ziorov) of Warsaw|Nicholas (Ziorov)]] becomes ruling bishop of the Alaskan diocese.
 
*1892 Fr. [[Alexis of Wilkes-Barre|Alexis Toth]] and his parish in Minneapolis received into Russian church; Carpatho-Russian [[Uniate]] parishes in Illinois, Connecticut, and several in Pennsylvania soon follow; first Serbian parish established in Jackson, California; Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox parish founded in New York City; Greek and Russian parishes founded in Chicago; first American-born person ordained, Fr. [[Sebastian Dabovich]].
 
*1892 Fr. [[Alexis of Wilkes-Barre|Alexis Toth]] and his parish in Minneapolis received into Russian church; Carpatho-Russian [[Uniate]] parishes in Illinois, Connecticut, and several in Pennsylvania soon follow; first Serbian parish established in Jackson, California; Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox parish founded in New York City; Greek and Russian parishes founded in Chicago; first American-born person ordained, Fr. [[Sebastian Dabovich]].
*1895 Archim. [[Raphael of Brooklyn|Raphael (Hawaweeny)]] arrives in America; Fr. [[John Kochurov]] arrives in America and becomes priest of the Russian parish in Chicago; Fr. [[Anatolii Kamenskii]] arrives in Alaska; first Syrian parish in Brooklyn, New York, founded by [[Raphael of Brooklyn]]; first clergy conference, in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania.
+
*1895 Archim. [[Raphael of Brooklyn|Raphael (Hawaweeny)]] arrives in America; Fr. [[John Kochurov]] arrives in America and becomes priest of the Russian parish in Chicago; Fr. [[Anatole (Kamensky) of Irkutsk|Anatole (Kamensky)]] arrives in Alaska; first Syrian parish in Brooklyn, New York, founded by [[Raphael of Brooklyn]]; first clergy conference, in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania.
*1896 Bp. [[Nicholas (Ziorov) of Warsaw|Nicholas (Ziorov)]] reports to the [[Church of Russia#The Synodical Church (1700-1917)|Holy Synod of Russia]] that "the commemoration of the Emperor and the Reigning House during the divine services brings forth dismay and apprehension among Orthodox in America of non-Russian background"; [[Alexander Hotovitsky]] appointed as [[rector]] in New York.
+
*1896 Bp. [[Nicholas (Ziorov) of Warsaw|Nicholas (Ziorov)]] reports to the [[Church of Russia#The Synodical Church (1700-1917)|Holy Synod of Russia]] that "the commemoration of the Emperor and the Reigning House during the divine services brings forth dismay and apprehension among Orthodox in America of non-Russian background"; [[Alexander Hotovitsky]] appointed as [[rector]] in New York; [http://www.thecathedralnyc.org/cathedral-history Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church] is chartered by a special act of the New York State Legislature, being the first Greek Church founded in New York.
 
*1897 Bp. [[Nicholas (Ziorov) of Warsaw|Nicholas (Ziorov)]] and Fr. [[Sebastian Dabovich]] petition [[Church of Serbia]] to oversee Serbian parishes in America, but are rebuffed due to an inability to support the infrastructure.
 
*1897 Bp. [[Nicholas (Ziorov) of Warsaw|Nicholas (Ziorov)]] and Fr. [[Sebastian Dabovich]] petition [[Church of Serbia]] to oversee Serbian parishes in America, but are rebuffed due to an inability to support the infrastructure.
 
*1898 Bp. [[Nicholas (Ziorov) of Warsaw|Nicholas (Ziorov)]] returns to Russia; [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon (Belavin)]] becomes Bishop of the Aleutians and Alaska; American annexation of Hawaii.
 
*1898 Bp. [[Nicholas (Ziorov) of Warsaw|Nicholas (Ziorov)]] returns to Russia; [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon (Belavin)]] becomes Bishop of the Aleutians and Alaska; American annexation of Hawaii.
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*1901 First Orthodox church in Canada, in Vostok, Alberta.
 
*1901 First Orthodox church in Canada, in Vostok, Alberta.
 
*1902 Building of St. Nicholas Cathedral in [[Diocese of New York and New Jersey (OCA)|New York]]; first Romanian parish in North America founded in Regina, Saskatchewan.
 
*1902 Building of St. Nicholas Cathedral in [[Diocese of New York and New Jersey (OCA)|New York]]; first Romanian parish in North America founded in Regina, Saskatchewan.
*1904 [[Innocent (Pustinsky) of Sitka|Innocent (Pustinsky)]] consecrated as Bishop of Alaska; [[Raphael of Brooklyn|Raphael (Hawaweeny)]] consecrated as Bishop of Brooklyn, becoming the first Orthodox bishop to be consecrated in America; first Romanian-American parish founded in Cleveland, Ohio.
+
*1904 [[Innocent (Pustynsky) of Alaska|Innocent (Pustynsky)]] consecrated as Bishop of Alaska; [[Raphael of Brooklyn|Raphael (Hawaweeny)]] consecrated as Bishop of Brooklyn, becoming the first Orthodox bishop to be consecrated in America; first Romanian-American parish founded in Cleveland, Ohio.
 
*1905 [[St. Tikhon's Orthodox Monastery (South Canaan, Pennsylvania)]] founded; Bp. [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon (Belavin)]] raised to rank of archbishop; seminary opened in Minneapolis; Russian see transferred to [[Diocese of New York and New Jersey (OCA)|New York]]; Fr. [[Sebastian Dabovich]] elevated to [[archimandrite]] and given charge over Serbian parishes by Tikhon; Episcopal priest of nearly 30 years Dr. [[Ingram Irvine]] converted to Orthodoxy, assigned to "English work."
 
*1905 [[St. Tikhon's Orthodox Monastery (South Canaan, Pennsylvania)]] founded; Bp. [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon (Belavin)]] raised to rank of archbishop; seminary opened in Minneapolis; Russian see transferred to [[Diocese of New York and New Jersey (OCA)|New York]]; Fr. [[Sebastian Dabovich]] elevated to [[archimandrite]] and given charge over Serbian parishes by Tikhon; Episcopal priest of nearly 30 years Dr. [[Ingram Irvine]] converted to Orthodoxy, assigned to "English work."
 
*1906 Holy Synod of Russia confirms practice of commemorating the American president by name, and not the Russian Tsar, during divine services; blessing of [[St. Tikhon's Orthodox Monastery (South Canaan, Pennsylvania)|St. Tikhon's Orthodox Monastery]] by hierarchs Tikhon, Raphael and Innocent; translation of ''Service Book'' by [[Isabel Hapgood]].
 
*1906 Holy Synod of Russia confirms practice of commemorating the American president by name, and not the Russian Tsar, during divine services; blessing of [[St. Tikhon's Orthodox Monastery (South Canaan, Pennsylvania)|St. Tikhon's Orthodox Monastery]] by hierarchs Tikhon, Raphael and Innocent; translation of ''Service Book'' by [[Isabel Hapgood]].
*1907 [[All-American_Sobor#First_All-American_Sobor|1st All-American Sobor]] held in Mayfield, PA, at which name of the Russian mission was declared to be ''The Russian Orthodox Greek-Catholic Church in North America under the Hierarchy of the Russian Church''; Abp. [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon (Belavin)]] returns to Russia and is succeeded by [[Platon (Rozhdestvensky) of New York|Platon (Rozhdestvensky)]]; Uniate Bp. Stephen Ortinsky sent to the US by Rome to stem the tide of Uniate returns to Orthodoxy; Papal decree ''Ea Semper'' issued, mandating all Uniate priests in American be celibate; first [[Sunday of Orthodoxy]] service in New York; first Bulgarian parish in Madison, Illinois; ordination in Constantinople of first Black American Orthodox priest, the Very Rev. Fr. [[Raphael Morgan]], ''Priest-Apostol''ic to America and the West Indies.
+
*1907 [[All-American_Sobor#First_All-American_Sobor|1st All-American Sobor]] held in Mayfield, PA, at which name of the Russian mission was declared to be ''The Russian Orthodox Greek-Catholic Church in North America under the Hierarchy of the Russian Church''; Abp. [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon (Belavin)]] returns to Russia and is succeeded by [[Platon (Rozhdestvensky) of New York|Platon (Rozhdestvensky)]]; Uniate Bp. Stephen Ortinsky sent to the US by Rome to stem the tide of Uniate returns to Orthodoxy; Papal decree ''Ea Semper'' issued, mandating all Uniate priests in American be celibate; first [[Sunday of Orthodoxy]] service in New York; first Bulgarian parish in Madison, Illinois; ordination in Constantinople of first Black American Orthodox priest, the Very Rev. Fr. [[Raphael Morgan]], ''[[Missionary|Priest-Apostolic]] to America and the West Indies.''
 
*1908 [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]] gives temporary care of American Greek parishes to [[Church of Greece|Greece]]; Fr. [[Theophan Noli]] celebrates first [[Divine Liturgy]] in the Albanian language; first Albanian parish founded in Boston.
 
*1908 [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]] gives temporary care of American Greek parishes to [[Church of Greece|Greece]]; Fr. [[Theophan Noli]] celebrates first [[Divine Liturgy]] in the Albanian language; first Albanian parish founded in Boston.
*1909 Bp. [[Innocent (Pustinsky) of Sitka|Innocent (Pustinsky)]] transferred to Russia, succeeded by [[Alexander (Nemolovsky) of the Aleutians|Alexander (Nemolovsky)]] as Bishop of Alaska; death of Fr. [[Alexis of Wilkes-Barre|Alexis Toth]].
+
*1909 Bp. [[Innocent (Pustynsky) of Alaska|Innocent (Pustynsky)]] transferred to Russia, succeeded by [[Alexander (Nemolovsky) of the Aleutians|Alexander (Nemolovsky)]] as Bishop of Alaska; death of Fr. [[Alexis of Wilkes-Barre|Alexis Toth]].
 
*1911 Minneapolis seminary transferred to Tenafly, New Jersey.
 
*1911 Minneapolis seminary transferred to Tenafly, New Jersey.
 +
*1912 Formation of first Serbian Orthodox Church congregation in Canada, in Regina (Holy Trinity Serbian Orthodox Church).
 
*1913 Serbian clergy vote to come under [[Church of Serbia]] but meet with no response.
 
*1913 Serbian clergy vote to come under [[Church of Serbia]] but meet with no response.
 
*1914 Abp. [[Platon (Rozhdestvensky) of New York|Platon (Rozhdestvensky)]] recalled to Russia and made bishop of Kishinev, after having received 72 communities (mainly ex-Uniate Carpatho-Russians) into Orthodoxy during his rule; [[Church of Antioch|Antiochian]] Metr. [[Germanos (Shehadi) of Zahle]] comes to US to raise funds for an agricultural school in Syria.
 
*1914 Abp. [[Platon (Rozhdestvensky) of New York|Platon (Rozhdestvensky)]] recalled to Russia and made bishop of Kishinev, after having received 72 communities (mainly ex-Uniate Carpatho-Russians) into Orthodoxy during his rule; [[Church of Antioch|Antiochian]] Metr. [[Germanos (Shehadi) of Zahle]] comes to US to raise funds for an agricultural school in Syria.
 
*1915 Death of [[Raphael of Brooklyn]]; Abp. [[Evdokim (Meschersky) of the Aleutians|Evdokim (Meschersky)]] succeeds Platon; first [[monastery]] for women in Springfield, Vermont.
 
*1915 Death of [[Raphael of Brooklyn]]; Abp. [[Evdokim (Meschersky) of the Aleutians|Evdokim (Meschersky)]] succeeds Platon; first [[monastery]] for women in Springfield, Vermont.
*1916 Consecration of [[Philip (Stavitsky) of Sitka]]; [[Alexander (Nemolovsky) of the Aleutians|Alexander (Nemolovsky)]] appointed Bishop of Canada with his see in Winnipeg; organization of [[Syrian Holy Orthodox Greek Catholic Mission in North America]] by [[Germanos (Shehadi) of Zahle|Germanos (Shehadi)]] with founding of St. Mary's Cathedral in Brooklyn, New York; death of Rev. [[Agapius Honcharenko]].
+
*1916 Consecration of [[Philip (Stavitsky) of Alaska]]; [[Alexander (Nemolovsky) of the Aleutians|Alexander (Nemolovsky)]] appointed Bishop of Canada with his see in Winnipeg; organization of [[Syrian Holy Orthodox Greek Catholic Mission in North America]] by [[Germanos (Shehadi) of Zahle|Germanos (Shehadi)]] with founding of St. Mary's Cathedral in Brooklyn, New York; death of Rev. [[Agapius Honcharenko]].
 
*1917 Ex-Uniate priest [[Stephen (Dzubay) of Pittsburgh|Alexander Dzubay]] consecrated with the name ''Stephen'' as Bishop of Pittsburgh; Archim. [[Aftimios Ofiesh|Aftimios (Ofiesh)]] consecrated as Bishop of Brooklyn; Abp. [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon (Belavin)]] elected Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia at the [[All-Russian Church Council of 1917-1918|All Russian Sobor of 1917-1918]].
 
*1917 Ex-Uniate priest [[Stephen (Dzubay) of Pittsburgh|Alexander Dzubay]] consecrated with the name ''Stephen'' as Bishop of Pittsburgh; Archim. [[Aftimios Ofiesh|Aftimios (Ofiesh)]] consecrated as Bishop of Brooklyn; Abp. [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon (Belavin)]] elected Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia at the [[All-Russian Church Council of 1917-1918|All Russian Sobor of 1917-1918]].
 
*1918-24 Emigration of 70,000 Greeks to the United States.
 
*1918-24 Emigration of 70,000 Greeks to the United States.
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*1927 ROCOR synod sends epistle to American parishes [[suspension|suspending]] Platon and his [[clergy]]; founding of [[American Orthodox Catholic Church]] by the [[Orthodox Church in America|Russian Metropolia]] under [[Aftimios Ofiesh]]; founding of [[Federated Russian Orthodox Clubs]] (FROC) in Pittsburgh; consecration of [[Emmanuel (Abo-Hatab) of Brooklyn|Emmanuel (Abo-Hatab)]].
 
*1927 ROCOR synod sends epistle to American parishes [[suspension|suspending]] Platon and his [[clergy]]; founding of [[American Orthodox Catholic Church]] by the [[Orthodox Church in America|Russian Metropolia]] under [[Aftimios Ofiesh]]; founding of [[Federated Russian Orthodox Clubs]] (FROC) in Pittsburgh; consecration of [[Emmanuel (Abo-Hatab) of Brooklyn|Emmanuel (Abo-Hatab)]].
 
*1928 Ukrainian diocese established; consecration of [[Sophronios (Beshara) of Los Angeles|Sophronios (Beshara)]].
 
*1928 Ukrainian diocese established; consecration of [[Sophronios (Beshara) of Los Angeles|Sophronios (Beshara)]].
*1929 [[Romanian Orthodox Episcopate (OCA)|Romanian Orthodox Episcopate]] established.
+
*1929 [[Romanian Orthodox Episcopate of America (OCA)|Romanian Orthodox Episcopate]] established.
*1930 [[Emmanuel (Abo-Hatab) of Brooklyn|Emmanuel (Abo-Hatab)]] leaves [[American Orthodox Catholic Church|AOCC]] and returns to [[OCA|Metropolia]], re-establishing Brooklyn diocese.
+
*1930 Abp. [[Joasaph (Skorodumov) of Canada and Argentina|Joasaph (Skorodumov)]] ("The Enlightener of Canada") becomes the founding bishop of the Canadian Diocese of [[ROCOR]]; [[Emmanuel (Abo-Hatab) of Brooklyn|Emmanuel (Abo-Hatab)]] leaves [[American Orthodox Catholic Church|AOCC]] and returns to [[OCA|Metropolia]], re-establishing Brooklyn diocese.
 
*1931 [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople|Athenagoras (Spyrou)]] becomes primate of [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek Archdiocese]].
 
*1931 [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople|Athenagoras (Spyrou)]] becomes primate of [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek Archdiocese]].
 
*1932 Consecration of [[Joseph (Zuk) of New Jersey|Joseph (Zuk)]] and [[Ignatius (Nichols) of Washington|Ignatius (Nichols)]] (first American convert bishop).
 
*1932 Consecration of [[Joseph (Zuk) of New Jersey|Joseph (Zuk)]] and [[Ignatius (Nichols) of Washington|Ignatius (Nichols)]] (first American convert bishop).
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==Emergence of American Orthodoxy (1943-1970)==
 
==Emergence of American Orthodoxy (1943-1970)==
 
*1943 Founding of [[Federated Orthodox Greek Catholic Primary Jurisdictions in America]], a proto-[[SCOBA]] body.
 
*1943 Founding of [[Federated Orthodox Greek Catholic Primary Jurisdictions in America]], a proto-[[SCOBA]] body.
*1946 [[All-American_Sobor#Seventh_All-American_Sobor|7th All-American Sobor]] of [[OCA|Russian Metropolia]] breaks ties with [[ROCOR]]; [[Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology (Brookline, Massachusetts)|Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology]] moved to Brookline, Massachusetts.
+
*1946 [[All-American_Sobor#Seventh_All-American_Sobor|7th All-American Sobor]] of [[OCA|Russian Metropolia]] breaks ties with [[ROCOR]]; [[Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology (Brookline, Massachusetts)|Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology]] moved to Brookline, Massachusetts; the [[Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada]] (UOCC) opened [[St. Andrew's College (Winnipeg, Manitoba)|St. Andrew’s College]] in Winnipeg.  
 
*1947 Death of [[Ignatius (Nichols) of Washington|Ignatius (Nichols)]].
 
*1947 Death of [[Ignatius (Nichols) of Washington|Ignatius (Nichols)]].
*1950 [[ROCOR]] moves headquarters to New York; [[Leonty (Turkevich) of New York|Leonty (Turkevitch)]] becomes primate of Metropolia at [[All-American_Sobor#Eighth_All-American_Sobor|8th All-American Sobor]] in New York City.
+
*1950 [[ROCOR]] moves headquarters to New York; [[Leonty (Turkevich) of New York|Leonty (Turkevitch)]] becomes primate of Metropolia at [[All-American_Sobor#Eighth_All-American_Sobor|8th All-American Sobor]] in New York City; [[w:National Council of Churches|National Council of Churches]], USA, is organized.
 
*1951 [[Michael (Konstantinides) of America|Michael (Konstantinides)]] heads [[GOA]]; independent Romanian diocese established; arrival of Fr. [[Alexander Schmemann]] in the United States from Paris, taking up teaching duties at [[St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary (Crestwood, New York)]].
 
*1951 [[Michael (Konstantinides) of America|Michael (Konstantinides)]] heads [[GOA]]; independent Romanian diocese established; arrival of Fr. [[Alexander Schmemann]] in the United States from Paris, taking up teaching duties at [[St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary (Crestwood, New York)]].
 
*1954 Recognition of Toledo archdiocese by [[Church of Antioch]].
 
*1954 Recognition of Toledo archdiocese by [[Church of Antioch]].
*1955 Founding of [[Council of Eastern Orthodox Churches of Central Massachusetts]]; [[All-American_Sobor#Ninth_All-American_Sobor|9th All-American Sobor]] of Metropolia held in New York City.
+
*1955 Orthodoxy officially recognized as major faith by U.S. government;<ref>''[http://www.goarch.org/archbishop/michael/timeline Timeline of Archbishop Michael].'' Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America.</ref> founding of [[Council of Eastern Orthodox Churches of Central Massachusetts]]; [[All-American_Sobor#Ninth_All-American_Sobor|9th All-American Sobor]] of Metropolia held in New York City.
 
*1956 Dr. Constantine Cavarnos founds the [http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ibmgs/index.html  Institute for Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies] in Belmont, Massachusetts.
 
*1956 Dr. Constantine Cavarnos founds the [http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ibmgs/index.html  Institute for Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies] in Belmont, Massachusetts.
 +
*1957 Abp. [[Michael (Konstantinides) of America|Michael (Konstantinides)]] offered the first Orthodox prayer at a U. S. Presidential inauguration in January 20, 1957.
 
*1958 Death of [[Samuel (David) of Toledo]]; reception of [[Society of Clerks Secular of St. Basil]] into Antiochian New York Archdiocese, forming [[Antiochian Western Rite Vicariate]].
 
*1958 Death of [[Samuel (David) of Toledo]]; reception of [[Society of Clerks Secular of St. Basil]] into Antiochian New York Archdiocese, forming [[Antiochian Western Rite Vicariate]].
*1959 [[All-American_Sobor#Tenth_All-American_Sobor|10th All-American Sobor]] of the Metropolia was held in New York City; Abp. [[Iakovos (Coucouzis) of America|Iakovos]] is elected and enthroned as Primate of the [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek Archdiocese of North and South America]].
+
*1959 [[All-American_Sobor#Tenth_All-American_Sobor|10th All-American Sobor]] of the Metropolia was held in New York City; Abp. [[Iakovos (Coucouzis) of America|Iakovos (Coucouzis)]] is elected and enthroned as Primate of the [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek Archdiocese of North and South America]].
 
*1960 Founding of [[Standing Conference of the Canonical Orthodox Bishops in the Americas]] (SCOBA); [[Romanian Orthodox Episcopate of America (OCA)|Romanian Orthodox Episcopate]] received into the Metropolia.
 
*1960 Founding of [[Standing Conference of the Canonical Orthodox Bishops in the Americas]] (SCOBA); [[Romanian Orthodox Episcopate of America (OCA)|Romanian Orthodox Episcopate]] received into the Metropolia.
*1961 Consecration of [[Michael (Shaheen) of Toledo]].
+
*1961 Consecration of [[Michael (Shaheen) of Toledo]]; first ever visit of a Greek Orthodox Patriarch to Canada, as Patr. [[Benedict of Jerusalem]] begins a North-American tour to raise funds for the restoration of the shrines in the [[Holy Land]].
 
*1962 Antiochian Toledo archdiocese recognized by the [[Church of Antioch]] as equal to the New York archdiocese.  
 
*1962 Antiochian Toledo archdiocese recognized by the [[Church of Antioch]] as equal to the New York archdiocese.  
*1963 Autonomous Serbian diocese created; [[All-American_Sobor#Eleventh_All-America_Sobor|11th All-American Sobor]] held in New York City; beginning of [[rapprochement]] between Metropolia and Moscow Patriarchate; arguing that the Metropolia's 1924 declaration of "temporary self-government" amounted to a canonical declaration of [[autocephaly]], ''Toward an American Orthodox Church'' published by St. Vladimir's professor Alexander Bogolepov, galvanizing the Metropolia to seek autocephaly.
+
*1963 Autonomous Serbian diocese created; [[All-American_Sobor#Eleventh_All-America_Sobor|11th All-American Sobor]] held in New York City; beginning of rapprochement between Metropolia and Moscow Patriarchate; arguing that the Metropolia's 1924 declaration of "temporary self-government" amounted to a canonical declaration of [[autocephaly]], ''Toward an American Orthodox Church'' published by St. Vladimir's professor Alexander Bogolepov, galvanizing the Metropolia to seek autocephaly; Abp. [[Iakovos (Coucouzis) of America|Iakovos (Coucouzis)]] vigorously supported the passage of the [[w:Civil Rights Act of 1964|Civil Rights Act of 1964]] that was introduced by President John F. Kennedy in his civil rights speech of June 11, 1963; the United States Supreme Court handed down a landmark ruling that ended government-sponsored prayer in American public schools (Abington School District v. Schempp).
 
*1964 [[Bulgarian Diocese in Exile]] established under the [[ROCOR]].
 
*1964 [[Bulgarian Diocese in Exile]] established under the [[ROCOR]].
*1965 [[SCOBA]] appeals to mother churches to allow concrete steps to be taken toward American Orthodox unity; at [[All-American_Sobor#Twelfth_All-American_Sobor|12th All-American Sobor]], [[Ireney (Bekish) of New York|Ireney (Bekish)]] chosen to succeed [[Leonty (Turkevich) of New York|Leonty (Turkevich)]] as [[primate]] of [[OCA|Metropolia]]; North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation founded.
+
*1965 [[SCOBA]] appeals to mother churches to allow concrete steps to be taken toward American Orthodox unity; at [[All-American_Sobor#Twelfth_All-American_Sobor|12th All-American Sobor]], [[Ireney (Bekish) of New York|Ireney (Bekish)]] chosen to succeed [[Leonty (Turkevich) of New York|Leonty (Turkevich)]] as [[primate]] of [[OCA|Metropolia]]; North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation founded; Abp. [[Iakovos (Coucouzis) of America|Iakovos (Coucouzis)]] marched next to Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in the [[w:Selma to Montgomery marches |Selma to Montgomery marches]], captured on the cover of LIFE Magazine, March 26, 1965.
 
*1966-80 About 160,000 more Greeks emigrated to the US, tapering off considerably from the 1980s onwards.
 
*1966-80 About 160,000 more Greeks emigrated to the US, tapering off considerably from the 1980s onwards.
 
*1966 Death of Metr. [[Antony (Bashir) of New York|Antony (Bashir)]]; election and consecration of [[Philip (Saliba) of New York|Philip (Saliba)]] as Metropolitan of [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America|Syrian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of New York]]; founding of [[Hellenic College (Brookline, Massachusetts)]]; death of [[John Maximovitch]]; death of [[Aftimios Ofiesh]]; Fr. [[Alexander Schmemann]] travels to Constantinople to intercede for Metropolia but is rebuffed; first founding of [[OISM]].
 
*1966 Death of Metr. [[Antony (Bashir) of New York|Antony (Bashir)]]; election and consecration of [[Philip (Saliba) of New York|Philip (Saliba)]] as Metropolitan of [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America|Syrian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of New York]]; founding of [[Hellenic College (Brookline, Massachusetts)]]; death of [[John Maximovitch]]; death of [[Aftimios Ofiesh]]; Fr. [[Alexander Schmemann]] travels to Constantinople to intercede for Metropolia but is rebuffed; first founding of [[OISM]].
 
*1967 Consecration of [[Theodosius (Lazor) of Washington|Theodosius (Lazor) of Sitka]]; [[Church of Constantinople]] orders [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek Archdiocese]] to suspend communion with [[OCA|Metropolia]]; [[All-American_Sobor#Thirteenth_All-American_Sobor|13th All-American Sobor]] of Metropolia held in New York City.
 
*1967 Consecration of [[Theodosius (Lazor) of Washington|Theodosius (Lazor) of Sitka]]; [[Church of Constantinople]] orders [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek Archdiocese]] to suspend communion with [[OCA|Metropolia]]; [[All-American_Sobor#Thirteenth_All-American_Sobor|13th All-American Sobor]] of Metropolia held in New York City.
 
*1968 Meeting between Metropolia representatives and Moscow Patriarchate in Upsala, Sweden, discussing [[autocephaly]] for the Metropolia; Synod of Bishops of Metropolia decides to start official exploratory negotiations with MP.  
 
*1968 Meeting between Metropolia representatives and Moscow Patriarchate in Upsala, Sweden, discussing [[autocephaly]] for the Metropolia; Synod of Bishops of Metropolia decides to start official exploratory negotiations with MP.  
*1969 Consecration of [[Dmitri (Royster) of Dallas|Dmitri (Royster)]] (seen by many to be first convert bishop); official autocephaly meetings of Metropolia with Moscow Patriarchate take place in New York City, Tokyo and Geneva.
+
*1969 Consecration of [[Dmitri (Royster) of Dallas|Dmitri (Royster)]] (seen by many to be first convert bishop); official autocephaly meetings of Metropolia with Moscow Patriarchate take place in New York City, Tokyo and Geneva; Metr. [[Philaret (Voznesensky) of New York]] issues the first of a series of "Sorrowful Epistles" (1969,1971,1975) to the primates of the local Orthodox Churches, condemning forays into [[ecumenism]].
  
 
==Union and Division (1970-1994)==
 
==Union and Division (1970-1994)==
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*1982 Calendar [[schism]] in [[Diocese of Eastern Pennsylvania (OCA)|OCA Diocese of E. Pennsylvania]], [[ROCOR]] receiving multiple parishes in the area.
 
*1982 Calendar [[schism]] in [[Diocese of Eastern Pennsylvania (OCA)|OCA Diocese of E. Pennsylvania]], [[ROCOR]] receiving multiple parishes in the area.
 
*1983 [[All-American_Council#Seventh_All-American_Council|7th All-American Council]] of OCA was held Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
 
*1983 [[All-American_Council#Seventh_All-American_Council|7th All-American Council]] of OCA was held Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
*1985 Founding of [[Orthodox Christian Mission Center]] (OCMC) as Greek Archdiocesan Mission Center.
+
*1985 Founding of [[Orthodox Christian Mission Center]] (OCMC) as Greek Archdiocesan Mission Center; [[Martyr|martyrdom]] of Father [[John (Karastamatis) of Santa Cruz]].
 
*1986 [[All-American_Council#Eighth_All-American_Council|8th All-American Council]] of OCA held in Washington, D.C.
 
*1986 [[All-American_Council#Eighth_All-American_Council|8th All-American Council]] of OCA held in Washington, D.C.
 
*1987 Majority of [[parish]]es of the [[Evangelical Orthodox Church]] received into [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America|Antiochian Archdiocese]] by Metr. [[Philip (Saliba) of New York|Philip (Saliba)]], becoming the Antiochian Evangelical Orthodox Mission (AEOM).
 
*1987 Majority of [[parish]]es of the [[Evangelical Orthodox Church]] received into [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America|Antiochian Archdiocese]] by Metr. [[Philip (Saliba) of New York|Philip (Saliba)]], becoming the Antiochian Evangelical Orthodox Mission (AEOM).
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*1989 [[Glorification]] in Russia of [[Tikhon of Moscow]]; [[Ephraim of Philotheou|Elder Ephraim]] begins founding [[Mount Athos|Athonite]]-style monasteries in North America; [[All-American_Council#Ninth_All-American_Council|9th All-American Council]] of OCA held in Saint Louis, Missouri.   
 
*1989 [[Glorification]] in Russia of [[Tikhon of Moscow]]; [[Ephraim of Philotheou|Elder Ephraim]] begins founding [[Mount Athos|Athonite]]-style monasteries in North America; [[All-American_Council#Ninth_All-American_Council|9th All-American Council]] of OCA held in Saint Louis, Missouri.   
 
*1990 Contact between [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]] and [[OCA]] resumes.
 
*1990 Contact between [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]] and [[OCA]] resumes.
*1992 Founding of [[International Orthodox Christian Charities]] (IOCC); [[All-American_Council#Tenth_All-American_Council|10th All-American Council]] of OCA held in Miami, Florida.
+
*1992 Founding of [[International Orthodox Christian Charities]] (IOCC); [[All-American_Council#Tenth_All-American_Council|10th All-American Council]] of OCA held in Miami, Florida; about 60 theologians from the Eastern Orthodox Church and Evangelical groups met at Wheaton college to discuss differences and similarities between their Christian groups, as speakers from both sides sketched their views of Scripture, tradition, and authority in church life.<ref>Loconte, Joe. ''"Peering over the Orthodox-evangelical crevasse."'' '''Christianity Today'''. 9 Nov. 1992: 63.</ref>
  
 
==Ligonier and Beyond (1994-present)==
 
==Ligonier and Beyond (1994-present)==
*1994 [[Ligonier Meeting]] in Western Pennsylvania at [[Antiochian Village]] held by the majority of Orthodox hierarchs in North America votes to do away with notion of Orthodox Christians in America being a "[[diaspora]]" and pledges to work together in missions; [[glorification]] of [[Alexis of Wilkes-Barre]] by OCA; [[Orthodox Christian Mission Center|OCMC]] becomes [[SCOBA]] agency and changes to its current name; glorification in Russia of [[John Kochurov]] and [[Alexander Hotovitsky]]; glorification by [[ROCOR]] of [[John Maximovitch]].
+
*1994 Bicentennial of Orthodox Christianity in North America (1794-1994); [[Ligonier Meeting]] held; [[glorification]] of [[Alexis of Wilkes-Barre]] by OCA; [[Orthodox Christian Mission Center|OCMC]] becomes [[SCOBA]] agency and changes to its current name; glorification in Russia of [[John Kochurov]] and [[Alexander Hotovitsky]]; glorification by [[ROCOR]] of [[John Maximovitch]]; ''[http://www.orthodoxwomensnetwork.org/index.cfm Women's Orthodox Ministries and Education Network]'' (WOMEN) incorporated.
 
*1995 Death of Bp. [[Gerasimos (Papadopoulos) of Abydos]]; [[All-American_Council#Eleventh_All-American_Council|11th All-American Council]] of OCA held in Chicago, Illinois.
 
*1995 Death of Bp. [[Gerasimos (Papadopoulos) of Abydos]]; [[All-American_Council#Eleventh_All-American_Council|11th All-American Council]] of OCA held in Chicago, Illinois.
*1996 Allegedly forced retirement of Greek Archbishop [[Iakovos (Coucouzis) of America]], being replaced by [[Spyridon (Papageorge) of Chaldea|Spyridon (Papageorge)]]; [[Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America]] joins [[Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the USA]], coming under [[Constantinople]].
+
*1996 Retirement of Greek Abp. [[Iakovos (Coucouzis) of America]], being replaced by [[Spyridon (Papageorge) of Chaldea|Spyridon (Papageorge)]]; [[Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America]] joins [[Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the USA]], coming under [[Constantinople]].
*1997 Visit by [[Ecumenical Patriarch]] [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople]] to US, heralded as a Bridge Builder and Peacemaker and awarded the Congressional Gold Medal by the U.S. Congress.
+
*1997 Visit by [[Ecumenical Patriarch]] [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople]] to US.
*1998 Ben Lomond crisis in (formerly [[Evangelical Orthodox Church|EOC]]) [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America|Antiochian]] parish of Ss. Peter and Paul (Ben Lomond, California) gains national attention; multiple [[clergy]] are [[deposition|deposed]] and/or [[excommunication|excommunicated]]; SCOBA's Social & Moral Issues Commission (SMIC) is established; the ''[[w:International Religious Freedom Act of 1998|International Religious Freedom Act]]'' is passed in the US to promote religious freedom as a foreign policy of the United States, and to advocate on the behalf of the individuals viewed as persecuted in foreign countries on the account of religion.  
+
*1998 Ben Lomond crisis in (formerly [[Evangelical Orthodox Church|EOC]]) [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America|Antiochian]] parish of Ss. Peter and Paul (Ben Lomond, California); SCOBA's Social & Moral Issues Commission (SMIC) established; the Holy Synod of the [[Ecumenical Patriarchate]] formally accepted the [http://www.stirene.org/contact-us.html Monastery of St. Irene Chrysovalantou] in Astoria NY as a Sacred Patriarchal and Stavropegial Institution, as well as its founders Metr. [[Paisios (Loulourgas) of Tyana]] and Bp. [[Vikentios (Malamatenios) of Apameia]] (formerly of the [[Church of the Genuine Orthodox Christians of Greece]]).
 
*1999 Retirement of [[Spyridon (Papageorge) of Chaldea|Spyridon (Papageorge)]], Greek Archbishop of America, being replaced by [[Demetrios (Trakatellis) of America|Demetrios (Trakatellis)]]; reception of dissident group from Ben Lomond crisis by the [[Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem in North and South America|Jerusalem Patriarchate]], including re-ordination of some of the excommunicated and/or deposed clergy; [[All-American_Council#Twelfth_All-American_Council|12th All-American Council]] of OCA held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
 
*1999 Retirement of [[Spyridon (Papageorge) of Chaldea|Spyridon (Papageorge)]], Greek Archbishop of America, being replaced by [[Demetrios (Trakatellis) of America|Demetrios (Trakatellis)]]; reception of dissident group from Ben Lomond crisis by the [[Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem in North and South America|Jerusalem Patriarchate]], including re-ordination of some of the excommunicated and/or deposed clergy; [[All-American_Council#Twelfth_All-American_Council|12th All-American Council]] of OCA held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
 
*2000 [[Glorification]] of [[Raphael of Brooklyn]] at [[St. Tikhon's Orthodox Monastery (South Canaan, Pennsylvania)]] by the [[OCA]] jointly with Antiochian hierarchs; reception of multiple former parishes of the [[Holy Order of MANS|Holy Order of MANS/Christ the Saviour Brotherhood]] into the patriarchal [[Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Diocese of the USA, Canada and Australia|Bulgarian diocese]].
 
*2000 [[Glorification]] of [[Raphael of Brooklyn]] at [[St. Tikhon's Orthodox Monastery (South Canaan, Pennsylvania)]] by the [[OCA]] jointly with Antiochian hierarchs; reception of multiple former parishes of the [[Holy Order of MANS|Holy Order of MANS/Christ the Saviour Brotherhood]] into the patriarchal [[Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Diocese of the USA, Canada and Australia|Bulgarian diocese]].
*2001 Second meeting of most bishops associated with [[SCOBA]].
+
*2001 Second meeting of most bishops associated with [[SCOBA]]; the 2001 data from Statistics Canada gives a total of 433,815 Orthodox in Canada.<ref>Subdeacon Kevin Wigglesworth. ''[http://www.cjoc.ca/pdf/Vol5-W-2Stats.pdf Statistics of Orthodox Christianity in Canada].'' The Canadian Journal of Orthodox Christianity. Volume V, No 1, Winter 2010. p.33.</ref>
 
*2002 Retirement of [[Theodosius (Lazor) of Washington|Theodosius (Lazor)]] and election of [[Herman (Swaiko) of Washington and New York|Herman (Swaiko)]] as Metropolitan of the [[OCA]] at [[All-American_Council#Thirteenth_All-American_Council|13th All-American Council]] held in Orlando, Florida.
 
*2002 Retirement of [[Theodosius (Lazor) of Washington|Theodosius (Lazor)]] and election of [[Herman (Swaiko) of Washington and New York|Herman (Swaiko)]] as Metropolitan of the [[OCA]] at [[All-American_Council#Thirteenth_All-American_Council|13th All-American Council]] held in Orlando, Florida.
 
*2003 [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America]] is granted "self-rule" (similar but not identical to [[autonomy]]) by [[Church of Antioch|Antioch]], establishing 9 new [[diocese]]s in North America and promoting its [[titular bishop]]s to diocesan ones; after years of inactivity, refounding of [[OISM]].
 
*2003 [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America]] is granted "self-rule" (similar but not identical to [[autonomy]]) by [[Church of Antioch|Antioch]], establishing 9 new [[diocese]]s in North America and promoting its [[titular bishop]]s to diocesan ones; after years of inactivity, refounding of [[OISM]].
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*2005 Death of Abp. [[Iakovos (Coucouzis) of America|Iakovos (Coucouzis)]]; consecration of [[Alejo (Pacheco y Vera) of Mexico City ]], [[auxiliary bishop]] of the [[OCA]] Exarchate of Mexico; OCA's New York [[diocese]] subsumed into its Diocese of Washington, creating [[Diocese of Washington and New York (OCA)|Diocese of Washington and New York]] at [[All-American_Council#Fourteenth_All-American_Council|14th All-American Council]] held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.  
 
*2005 Death of Abp. [[Iakovos (Coucouzis) of America|Iakovos (Coucouzis)]]; consecration of [[Alejo (Pacheco y Vera) of Mexico City ]], [[auxiliary bishop]] of the [[OCA]] Exarchate of Mexico; OCA's New York [[diocese]] subsumed into its Diocese of Washington, creating [[Diocese of Washington and New York (OCA)|Diocese of Washington and New York]] at [[All-American_Council#Fourteenth_All-American_Council|14th All-American Council]] held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.  
 
*2006 [[Fourth All-Diaspora Council]] of the [[ROCOR]] votes to restore [[full communion]] with [[Moscow Patriarchate]]; four priests and one deacon who departed the Antiochian Archdiocese during the Ben Lomond crisis return to Antioch; major financial scandal made public in the [[OCA]]; third meeting of most [[SCOBA]] bishops agrees to work together on canonical and pastoral questions.
 
*2006 [[Fourth All-Diaspora Council]] of the [[ROCOR]] votes to restore [[full communion]] with [[Moscow Patriarchate]]; four priests and one deacon who departed the Antiochian Archdiocese during the Ben Lomond crisis return to Antioch; major financial scandal made public in the [[OCA]]; third meeting of most [[SCOBA]] bishops agrees to work together on canonical and pastoral questions.
*2007 [[OISM]] holds first meeting at a [[ROCOR]] seminary, [[Holy Trinity Orthodox Seminary (Jordanville, New York)|Holy Trinity Orthodox Seminary]]; restoration of [[full communion]] between [[ROCOR]] and [[Moscow Patriarchate]] with incorporation of the ROCOR as a semi-autonomous entity of the patriarchate.
+
*2007 [[OISM]] holds first meeting at a [[ROCOR]] seminary, [[Holy Trinity Orthodox Seminary (Jordanville, New York)|Holy Trinity Orthodox Seminary]]; restoration of [[full communion]] between [[ROCOR]] and [[Moscow Patriarchate]] with incorporation of ROCOR as semi-autonomous entity of the patriarchate.
 
*2008 [[Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem in North and South America|Jerusalem jurisdiction]] transferred to [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek Archdiocese]], forming [[Vicariate for Palestinian-Jordanian Communities in the USA|Vicariate for Palestinian/Jordanian Communities in the USA]]; Metr. [[Herman (Swaiko) of Washington and New York|Herman (Swaiko)]] retired by OCA amidst financial scandal; [[Jonah (Paffhausen) of Washington and New York|Jonah (Paffhausen)]] elected primate of OCA; [[All-American Council#Fifteenth All-American Council|Fifteenth All-American Council]] held in Pittsburgh, PA.
 
*2008 [[Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem in North and South America|Jerusalem jurisdiction]] transferred to [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek Archdiocese]], forming [[Vicariate for Palestinian-Jordanian Communities in the USA|Vicariate for Palestinian/Jordanian Communities in the USA]]; Metr. [[Herman (Swaiko) of Washington and New York|Herman (Swaiko)]] retired by OCA amidst financial scandal; [[Jonah (Paffhausen) of Washington and New York|Jonah (Paffhausen)]] elected primate of OCA; [[All-American Council#Fifteenth All-American Council|Fifteenth All-American Council]] held in Pittsburgh, PA.
*2009 [[Church of Georgia]] names Metr. [[Dimitri (Shiolashvili) of Batumi and Lazeti]] as bishop for North America; [[Orthodox Christian Mission Center|OCMC]] opens training center; Fourth Pre-Conciliar Pan-Orthodox Conference in Chambesy, Switzerland mandates "Episcopal Assemblies" for various regions of the world, including North America; Metr. [[Jonah (Paffhausen) of Washington and New York|Jonah (Paffhausen)]] addresses inaugural assembly of [[w:Anglican Church in North America|Anglican Church in North America]]; agreement was announced between [[St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary (Crestwood, New York)|St. Vladimir's Seminary]] and [[w:Nashotah House|Nashotah House]]; OCA Holy Synod reestablishes dioceses for [[Diocese of Washington (OCA)|Washington]] and [[Diocese of New York and New Jersey (OCA)|New York and New Jersey]]; Apostolic and Patriarchal Visit to the U.S. of Ecumenical Patr. [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople|Batholomew I (Archontonis)]], meeting with the Orthodox Primates of the USA; Patr. Bartholomew I officially opened the 8th Religion, Science and the Environment (RSE) Symposium, entitled ''“Restoring Balance: The Great Mississippi River, ”'' and is published in the Wall Street Journal in an op-ed piece entitled ''[http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704500604574485341504345488.html Our Indivisible Environment].”''
+
*2009 [[Church of Georgia]] names Metr. [[Dimitri (Shiolashvili) of Batumi and Lazeti]] as bishop for North America; visit of Abp. [[Demetrios (Trakatellis) of America|Demetios (Trakatellis)]] to [[ROCOR]] headquarters, the first visit of a Greek archbishop in more than 40 years; [[Orthodox Christian Mission Center|OCMC]] opens training center; Fourth Pre-Conciliar Pan-Orthodox Conference in Chambesy, Switzerland mandates "Episcopal Assemblies" for various regions of the world, including North America; OCA reestablishes dioceses for [[Diocese of Washington (OCA)|Washington]] and [[Diocese of New York and New Jersey (OCA)|New York and New Jersey]]; visit to US of Ecumenical Patr. [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople|Batholomew I (Archontonis)]].
 +
*2010 Consecration of Bp. [[Michael (Dahulich) of New York]]; formation of [[Episcopal Assembly of North and Central America]], with 55 Bishops in attendance; [[ROCOR]] marks its 90th anniversary; the Ministry of Education of the Hellenic Republic formally recognized [[St. Tikhon's Orthodox Theological Seminary (South Canaan, Pennsylvania)]] as an accredited institution of Higher Education, equal in standing to the schools of theology in the universities of Greece and the EU’s member states; [[Toronto Orthodox Theological Academy (Toronto, Ontario)]] and [[w:Saint Paul University|Saint Paul Catholic Pontifical University]] in Ottawa sign cooperation agreement as twin institutions within the Province of Ontario.<ref>Pravoslavie.ru. ''[http://www.pravoslavie.ru/english/43542.htm Toronto Orthodox Theological Academy & Saint Paul University sign cooperation agreement].'' 16/12/2010.</ref><ref group="note">[[w:Saint Paul University|Saint Paul University]] in Ottawa is the home of the the ''"[http://www.sheptytskyinstitute.ca/?page_id=2 Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky Institute of Eastern Christian Studies]",'' named after the primate of the Ukrainian Catholic Church, [[w:Andrey Sheptytsky|Andrey Sheptytsky]] (1865-1944); it specializes in Eastern Christian Studies with special but not exclusive emphasis on the tradition of the [[Christianization of Kievan Rus'|Church of Kyiv]].</ref>
 +
*2011 Second gathering of the [[Episcopal Assembly of North and Central America]], convened May 25-27 in Chicago, with 45 Bishops in attendance; [[All-American Council|Sixteenth All-American Council]] of the OCA was held in Bellevue, Washington; For the first time in nearly 70 years, the primates and hierarchs of the [[ROCOR and OCA|OCA and ROCOR]] concelebrate the Divine Liturgy.
 +
*2012  [[Jonah (Paffhausen) of Washington and New York|Jonah (Paffhausen)]] primate of [[OCA]] requests retirement; [[Tikhon (Mollard) of Washington|Tikhon (Mollard)]] elected primate of OCA at the [[All-American_Council#Seventeenth_All-American_Council|17th All-American Council]] held in Parma, Ohio; Third Annual Meeting of the [[Episcopal Assembly of North and Central America]], from September 10-12, in Chicago, with 43 Bishops in attendance.
  
 
==See also==  
 
==See also==  
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*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in Japan]]
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in Japan]]
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic relations]]
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic relations]]
 +
 +
==Notes==
 +
<small><references group="note" /></small>
 +
 +
==References==
 +
<small><div><references/></div></small>
 +
 +
==External link==
 +
*[http://orthodoxhistory.org/ OrthodoxHistory.org], website of the [[Society for Orthodox Christian History in the Americas]] (SOCHA)
  
  

Revision as of 16:30, January 20, 2013

This article forms part of the series
Orthodoxy in America
Orthodox us.gif
History
American Orthodox Timeline
American Orthodox Bibliography
Byzantines on OCA autocephaly
Ligonier Meeting
ROCOR and OCA
People
Saints - Bishops - Writers
Jurisdictions
Antiochian - Bulgarian
OCA - Romanian - Moscow
ROCOR - Serbian

Ecumenical Patriarchate:
Albanian - Carpatho-Russian
Belarusian - Greek - Ukrainian
Palestinian/Jordanian

Monasteries
Seminaries
Christ the Saviour
Holy Cross
Holy Trinity
St. Herman's
St. Tikhon's
St. Sava's
St. Sophia's
St. Vladimir's
Organizations
Episcopal Assembly
AOI - EOCS - IOCC - OCEC
OCF - OCL - OCMC - OCPM - OCLife
OISM - OTSA - SCOBA - SOCHA
Groups
Amer. Orthodox Catholic Church
Brotherhood of St. Moses the Black
Evangelical Orthodox Church
Holy Order of MANS/CSB
Society of Clerks Secular of St. Basil
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The History of Orthodoxy in America is complex and resists any easy categorizations or explanations.

Contents

Early Visits and Missions (530-1900)

  • 530 St. Brendan the Navigator lands in Newfoundland, Canada, establishing a short-lived community of Irish monks.
  • 1738 Conversion of Col. Philip Ludwell III of Virginia at Russian church in London.
  • 1741 Divine Liturgy celebrated on a Russian ship off the coast of Alaska.
  • 1767 Community of Orthodox Greeks establishes itself in New Smyrna, Spanish Florida.
  • 1787 The US Constitution is drafted in Philadelphia, embodying the ideal of secular government with deliberate separation of "church and state" (First Amendment).
  • 1794 Missionaries, including Herman of Alaska, arrive at Kodiak Island, bringing Orthodoxy to Russian Alaska.
  • 1796 Martyrdom of Juvenaly of Alaska.
  • 1799 Ioasaph (Bolotov) consecrated in Irkutsk as first bishop for Alaska, but dies in a shipwreck during his return.
  • 1803 Louisiana Purchase expands American territory beyond Mississippi River.
  • 1816 Martyrdom of Peter the Aleut near San Francisco.
  • 1817 Russian colony of Fort Ross established 60 miles from San Francisco.
  • 1819 Various Spanish territories ceded to United States, including Florida.
  • 1824 Fr. John Veniaminov comes to Unalaska, Alaska.
  • 1825 First native priest, Jacob Netsvetov.
  • 1834 Fr. John Veniaminov moves to Sitka, Alaska; liturgy and catechism translated into Aleut.
  • 1830 Saints Peter and Paul Russian Orthodox Church is founded on Saint Paul Island (Alaska), in the Bering Sea.
  • 1836 Imperial ukaz regarding Alaskan education issued from Czar Nicholas I that students were to become faithful members of the Orthodox Church, loyal subjects of the Czar, and loyal citizens; Fr. John Veniaminov returns to Russia.
  • 1837 Death of Herman of Alaska on Spruce Island.
  • 1840 Consecration of Fr. John Veniaminov as bishop with the name Innocent.
  • 1841 Return of Innocent of Alaska to Sitka; sale of Fort Ross property to an American citizen; pastoral school established in Sitka.
  • 1844 Formation of seminary in Sitka.
  • 1845 Former Republic of Texas joins United States.
  • 1846 Pacific Northwest received by United States via treaty with United Kingdom.
  • 1848 Consecration of St. Michael Cathedral in Sitka; Pacific Southwest won from Mexico by United States.
  • 1850 Alaskan episcopal see and seminary moved to Yakutsk, Russia.
  • 1858 Peter (Lysakov) consecrated as auxiliary bishop for Alaska with Innocent's primary see moved to Yakutsk.
  • 1864 Holy Trinity Church, first Orthodox parish established on United States soil in New Orleans, Louisiana, by Greeks.
  • 1865 First Divine Liturgy celebrated in New York City, by Fr. Agapius Honcharenko.
  • 1867 Alaska purchased by United States from Russia; Bp. Paul (Popov) succeeds Bp. Peter.
  • 1868 First Russian parish established in US territory in San Francisco, California; Innocent of Alaska becomes Metropolitan of Moscow.
  • 1870 Diocese of the Aleutian Islands and Alaska formed by the Church of Russia with Bp. John (Mitropolsky) as ruling hierarch; Nicholas Bjerring, a Roman Catholic layman, converts to Orthodoxy and becomes priest of a Russian chapel in New York City.
  • 1871-72 Visit of Russian Grand Duke Alexis to the United States.
  • 1872 See of the Aleutians diocese moved to San Francisco, placing it outside the defined boundaries of the diocese (i.e., Alaska).
  • 1876 Bp. John (Mitropolsky) recalled to Russia.
  • 1879 Bp. Nestor (Zass) succeeds John (Metropolsky).
  • 1882 Bp. Nestor (Zass) drowns in Bering Sea.
  • 1883 Fr. Nicholas Bjerring, priest of the Russian chapel in New York City, converts to Presbyterianism.
  • 1888 Bp. Vladimir (Sokolovsky) becomes Bishop of the Aleutians and Alaska.
  • 1890-1917 Greek Immigration to USA: widespread unemployment and economic problems led to migrations to the US of 450,000 Greeks, one-fifth of the total population.
  • 1891 Fr. Alexis Toth, a Uniate priest, petitions to be received along with his parish in Minneapolis into the Russian church; Bp. Nicholas (Adoratsky) assigned as Bishop of Alaska but is transferred before taking up his post; Nicholas (Ziorov) becomes ruling bishop of the Alaskan diocese.
  • 1892 Fr. Alexis Toth and his parish in Minneapolis received into Russian church; Carpatho-Russian Uniate parishes in Illinois, Connecticut, and several in Pennsylvania soon follow; first Serbian parish established in Jackson, California; Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox parish founded in New York City; Greek and Russian parishes founded in Chicago; first American-born person ordained, Fr. Sebastian Dabovich.
  • 1895 Archim. Raphael (Hawaweeny) arrives in America; Fr. John Kochurov arrives in America and becomes priest of the Russian parish in Chicago; Fr. Anatole (Kamensky) arrives in Alaska; first Syrian parish in Brooklyn, New York, founded by Raphael of Brooklyn; first clergy conference, in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania.
  • 1896 Bp. Nicholas (Ziorov) reports to the Holy Synod of Russia that "the commemoration of the Emperor and the Reigning House during the divine services brings forth dismay and apprehension among Orthodox in America of non-Russian background"; Alexander Hotovitsky appointed as rector in New York; Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church is chartered by a special act of the New York State Legislature, being the first Greek Church founded in New York.
  • 1897 Bp. Nicholas (Ziorov) and Fr. Sebastian Dabovich petition Church of Serbia to oversee Serbian parishes in America, but are rebuffed due to an inability to support the infrastructure.
  • 1898 Bp. Nicholas (Ziorov) returns to Russia; Tikhon (Belavin) becomes Bishop of the Aleutians and Alaska; American annexation of Hawaii.

Beyond Alaska (1900-1918)

Revolution and Rivalry (1918-1943)

Emergence of American Orthodoxy (1943-1970)

Union and Division (1970-1994)

Ligonier and Beyond (1994-present)

See also

Notes

  1. Saint Paul University in Ottawa is the home of the the "Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky Institute of Eastern Christian Studies", named after the primate of the Ukrainian Catholic Church, Andrey Sheptytsky (1865-1944); it specializes in Eastern Christian Studies with special but not exclusive emphasis on the tradition of the Church of Kyiv.

References

  1. Timeline of Archbishop Michael. Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America.
  2. Loconte, Joe. "Peering over the Orthodox-evangelical crevasse." Christianity Today. 9 Nov. 1992: 63.
  3. Subdeacon Kevin Wigglesworth. Statistics of Orthodox Christianity in Canada. The Canadian Journal of Orthodox Christianity. Volume V, No 1, Winter 2010. p.33.
  4. Pravoslavie.ru. Toronto Orthodox Theological Academy & Saint Paul University sign cooperation agreement. 16/12/2010.

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