Timeline of Church History (Post-Imperial Era (1453-1821))

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==Post-Imperial era (1453-1821)==
 
==Post-Imperial era (1453-1821)==
 
*1455 Gutenberg makes first printed [[Bible]].   
 
*1455 Gutenberg makes first printed [[Bible]].   
*1455-56 ''Confession of Faith'' by Patr. Gennadius of Constantinople.   
+
*1455-56 ''Confession of Faith'' by Patr. [[Gennadius Scholarius|Gennadius of Constantinople]].   
 
*1456-1587 Byzantine [[w:Pammakaristos Church|Church of Theotokos Pammakaristos]] became the seat of the [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]].   
 
*1456-1587 Byzantine [[w:Pammakaristos Church|Church of Theotokos Pammakaristos]] became the seat of the [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]].   
 
*1461 Death of Jonah, Metropolitan of Moscow; commemoration of the Apparition of the Pillar with the Robe of the Lord under it at Mtskheta in Georgia, [[October 1]]; the [[w:Empire of Trebizond|Trebizond Empire]], last pocket of the Byzantine Empire, falls to the Ottoman Turks.
 
*1461 Death of Jonah, Metropolitan of Moscow; commemoration of the Apparition of the Pillar with the Robe of the Lord under it at Mtskheta in Georgia, [[October 1]]; the [[w:Empire of Trebizond|Trebizond Empire]], last pocket of the Byzantine Empire, falls to the Ottoman Turks.
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*1542 Ethiopians and Portuguese defeat Ahmad ibn Ibrahim Gran of Adal, neutralizing Adal threat to Ethiopia.   
 
*1542 Ethiopians and Portuguese defeat Ahmad ibn Ibrahim Gran of Adal, neutralizing Adal threat to Ethiopia.   
 
*1545-63 [[w:Council of Trent|Council of Trent]] held to answer the Protestant Reformation.   
 
*1545-63 [[w:Council of Trent|Council of Trent]] held to answer the Protestant Reformation.   
*1551 [[Council of the Hundred Chapters]] in Russia.   
+
*1551 [[Stoglavy Sobor|Council of the Hundred Chapters]] in Russia.   
 
*1555 Abp. Gurian begins mission to Kazan.   
 
*1555 Abp. Gurian begins mission to Kazan.   
 
*1557 Death of [[Basil the Blessed]].     
 
*1557 Death of [[Basil the Blessed]].     
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*1575 [[Church of Constantinople]] grants [[autonomy]] to [[Church of Sinai]].   
 
*1575 [[Church of Constantinople]] grants [[autonomy]] to [[Church of Sinai]].   
 
*1576 [[w:Pope Gregory XIII|Pope Gregory XIII]] establishes Pontifical Greek College of St. Athanasius (popularly known as the 'Greek College') in Rome, which he charged with educating Italo-Byzantine clerics.     
 
*1576 [[w:Pope Gregory XIII|Pope Gregory XIII]] establishes Pontifical Greek College of St. Athanasius (popularly known as the 'Greek College') in Rome, which he charged with educating Italo-Byzantine clerics.     
*1579 Death of [[Gerasimos of Cephalonia|Gerasimus]] the New, ascetic of Cephalonia; discovery of [[Our Lady of Kazan]], holiest Russian icon.
+
*1579 Death of [[Gerasimos of Cephalonia|Gerasimus]] the New, ascetic of Cephalonia; discovery of [[Our Lady of Kazan]], holiest Russian icon; on [[Holy Saturday]] at the [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] the Armenian patriarch prayed day and night in order to obtain the [[Holy Fire]], but the Fire miraculously struck a column near the entrance of the church, and lit a candle held by the Orthodox patriarch standing nearby.
*1581 Ostrozhsky Bible printed by Prince Kurbsky and Ivan Fedorov.   
+
*1581 [[Ostrog Bible|Ostrozhsky Bible]] printed by Prince Kurbsky and Ivan Fedorov.   
 
*1582 Institution of the [[Gregorian Calendar]] by Pope Gregory XIII; death of [[w:Teresa of Ávila|Teresa of Ávila]], prominent Spanish mystic.   
 
*1582 Institution of the [[Gregorian Calendar]] by Pope Gregory XIII; death of [[w:Teresa of Ávila|Teresa of Ávila]], prominent Spanish mystic.   
 
*1583 [[Sigillion of 1583]] issued against [[Gregorian Calendar]] by council convened in Constantinople.   
 
*1583 [[Sigillion of 1583]] issued against [[Gregorian Calendar]] by council convened in Constantinople.   
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*1646 [[w:Union of Uzhhorod|Union of Uzhhorod]] joins 63 Ruthenian Orthodox priests from the Carpathian Mountains to Roman Catholic Church on terms similar to [[Union of Brest]].   
 
*1646 [[w:Union of Uzhhorod|Union of Uzhhorod]] joins 63 Ruthenian Orthodox priests from the Carpathian Mountains to Roman Catholic Church on terms similar to [[Union of Brest]].   
 
*1647 Orthodox church erected in Tunisia.   
 
*1647 Orthodox church erected in Tunisia.   
*1649 Martyrdom of [[Athanasius of Brest-Litovsk]] by the Latins.   
+
*1649 Martyrdom of [[Athanasius of Bretsk|Athanasius of Brest-Litovsk]] by the Latins.   
 
*1650-1700 Ottoman [[w:Istanbul|Constantinople]] is [[w:List of largest cities throughout history|largest city in the world]] by population.   
 
*1650-1700 Ottoman [[w:Istanbul|Constantinople]] is [[w:List of largest cities throughout history|largest city in the world]] by population.   
 
*1652 School and hospital established in Old Cairo by Patr. Joannikios.   
 
*1652 School and hospital established in Old Cairo by Patr. Joannikios.   
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*1656 [[Voskresensky Monastery]] founded by Patr. [[Nikon of Moscow|Nikon]] at Istra near Moscow, intended to represent the Heavenly Jerusalem.   
 
*1656 [[Voskresensky Monastery]] founded by Patr. [[Nikon of Moscow|Nikon]] at Istra near Moscow, intended to represent the Heavenly Jerusalem.   
 
*1665 Greek Jewish kabbalist [[w:Sabbatai Zevi|Sabbatai Sevi]] hailed by Jews of Palestine as the [[Jesus Christ|Messiah]], but then converts to Islam before the Ottoman Sultan to save his life.   
 
*1665 Greek Jewish kabbalist [[w:Sabbatai Zevi|Sabbatai Sevi]] hailed by Jews of Palestine as the [[Jesus Christ|Messiah]], but then converts to Islam before the Ottoman Sultan to save his life.   
*1666-1667 [[Council of Moscow (1666-1667)|Council of Moscow]].
+
*1666-1667 [[Moscow Sobor of 1666–1667|Council of Moscow]].
 
*1667 Annexation of most of [[Christianization of Kievan Rus'|Kievan Rus']] by Tsar of Muscovite Kingdom.   
 
*1667 Annexation of most of [[Christianization of Kievan Rus'|Kievan Rus']] by Tsar of Muscovite Kingdom.   
 
*1669 Greek island of Crete taken by Ottoman Empire from Venetians.   
 
*1669 Greek island of Crete taken by Ottoman Empire from Venetians.   
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*1707-20 Grabbe's edition of the [[Septuagint]] published at Oxford, reproducing (imperfectly) the ''Codex Alexandrinus'' of London.   
 
*1707-20 Grabbe's edition of the [[Septuagint]] published at Oxford, reproducing (imperfectly) the ''Codex Alexandrinus'' of London.   
 
*1709 Death of [[w:Dimitri of Rostov|Dimitri of Rostov]].
 
*1709 Death of [[w:Dimitri of Rostov|Dimitri of Rostov]].
 +
*1710 Spectacular miracle occurred at the [[Grabarka|Holy Mount of Grabarka]], the holiest location in Poland for Orthodox Christians, where a deadly outbreak of cholera in the region ended almost instantly.
 
*1715 Metr. [[Arsenios of Thebaid]] sent to England by Pope [[Samuel of Alexandria]] to negotiate with [[Non-Jurors|Non-Juror]] Anglican bishops.   
 
*1715 Metr. [[Arsenios of Thebaid]] sent to England by Pope [[Samuel of Alexandria]] to negotiate with [[Non-Jurors|Non-Juror]] Anglican bishops.   
 
*1715-1956 [[Russian Orthodox Mission in China|Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in China]].
 
*1715-1956 [[Russian Orthodox Mission in China|Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in China]].
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*1721 Czar [[Peter I of Russia]] replaces Russian patriarchate with a ruling [[Apostolic Governing Synod |holy synod]].   
 
*1721 Czar [[Peter I of Russia]] replaces Russian patriarchate with a ruling [[Apostolic Governing Synod |holy synod]].   
 
*1723 Schism in the [[Roman Catholic Church]], as the [[w:Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands|Church of Holland]], (or [[w:Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands|Church of Utrecht]]) broke with Rome under its own archbishop and hierarchy, becoming the mother church of the [[w:Old Catholic Church|Old Catholic Churches]].
 
*1723 Schism in the [[Roman Catholic Church]], as the [[w:Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands|Church of Holland]], (or [[w:Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands|Church of Utrecht]]) broke with Rome under its own archbishop and hierarchy, becoming the mother church of the [[w:Old Catholic Church|Old Catholic Churches]].
*1724 [[Melkite Greek Catholic Church|Melkite]] schism, in which many faithful from the [[Church of Antioch]] become [[Uniate]]s.  
+
*1724 [[Melkite]] schism, in which many faithful from the [[Church of Antioch]] become [[Uniate]]s.  
 
*1728 The [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]] formally replaced the ''[[Byzantine Creation Era|Creation Era]]'' (AM) calendar with the [[w:Anno Domini|Christian Era]] (AD).
 
*1728 The [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]] formally replaced the ''[[Byzantine Creation Era|Creation Era]]'' (AM) calendar with the [[w:Anno Domini|Christian Era]] (AD).
 
*1731 Death of [[Innocent of Irkutsk]].
 
*1731 Death of [[Innocent of Irkutsk]].
*1741 Synodal reform initiated, when Metr. Gerasimos of Heraclia obtains a [[Firman]] (decree) from Ottoman officials, regulating and subordinating the election of the Patriarch of Constantinople to the five Metropolitans of Heraclia, Kyzikos, Nicomedia, Nicaea, and Chalcedon, creating the so-called ''System of the Elders'' (''Γεροντισμος''), established gradually, in place until the late 19th century.
+
*1741 Synodal reform initiated, when Metr. Gerasimos of Heraclia obtains a [[Firman]] (decree) from Ottoman officials, regulating and subordinating the election of the Patriarch of Constantinople to the five Metropolitans of Heraclia, Kyzikos, Nicomedia, Nicaea, and Chalcedon, creating the so-called ''[[Gerontism|System of the Elders]]'' (''Γεροντισμος''), established gradually, in place until the late 19th century.
*1754 [[Hesychasm|Hesychast]] Renaissance begins with the [[Kollyvades Movement]].  
+
*1754 [[Hesychasm|Hesychast]] Renaissance begins with the [[Kollyvades Movement]]; discovery of the holy [[relics]] of the Four [[Martyr]]s of [[w:Megara|Megara]]: Polyeuctos, George, Adrianos and Platon, the "Newly-Revealed".  
 
*1755 [[Synod of Constantinople|Synod of Constantinople (1755)]] declares Roman Catholic baptism invalid and ordered baptism of converts from Roman Catholicism.     
 
*1755 [[Synod of Constantinople|Synod of Constantinople (1755)]] declares Roman Catholic baptism invalid and ordered baptism of converts from Roman Catholicism.     
*1756 ''[[Sigillion of 1756]]'' issued against the [[Gregorian Calendar]] by Patr. [[Cyril V of Constantinople]].  
+
*1756 ''[[Sigillion of 1756]]'' issued against the [[Gregorian Calendar]] by Patr. [[Cyril V of Constantinople]];
 +
*1756 After Tsar Peter the Great had ordered in 1712 the printed Slavonic text of the Bible to be carefully compared with the Greek of the Septuagint and to be made in every respect conformable to it, the second edition of the Queen "Elizabeth" [[w:Slavic translations of the Bible|Slavonic Bible]] (QEB), ([[Septuagint|LXX]]) is issued in 1756; all later reprints of the Russian Church Bible are based upon this second edition, which is the authorized version of the [[Church of Russia|Russian Orthodox Church]].
 
*1760 [[Holy Trinity St. Seraphim-Diveyevo Convent]] founded in Russia.   
 
*1760 [[Holy Trinity St. Seraphim-Diveyevo Convent]] founded in Russia.   
 
*1763 The [[w:Jansenism|Jansenist]] Provincial Council of Utrecht, seed of the future [[w:Old Catholic Church|Old Catholic]] movements, affirmed every Roman Catholic dogma and pronounced the Orthodox Faith to be schismatic and false, signalling not so much a rapprochement with Orthodoxy, but rather a refusal to drift yet further from her, as much of the Roman fold was doing.
 
*1763 The [[w:Jansenism|Jansenist]] Provincial Council of Utrecht, seed of the future [[w:Old Catholic Church|Old Catholic]] movements, affirmed every Roman Catholic dogma and pronounced the Orthodox Faith to be schismatic and false, signalling not so much a rapprochement with Orthodoxy, but rather a refusal to drift yet further from her, as much of the Roman fold was doing.
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*1794 Missionaries, including [[Herman of Alaska]], arrive at Kodiak Island, bringing Orthodoxy to Russian Alaska; death of [[Paisius Velichkovsky]] of Moldova and Mt. Athos.   
 
*1794 Missionaries, including [[Herman of Alaska]], arrive at Kodiak Island, bringing Orthodoxy to Russian Alaska; death of [[Paisius Velichkovsky]] of Moldova and Mt. Athos.   
 
*1796 [[Nicodemus of the Holy Mountain|Nicodemus the Hagiorite]] publishes ''[[Unseen Warfare]]'' in Venice.   
 
*1796 [[Nicodemus of the Holy Mountain|Nicodemus the Hagiorite]] publishes ''[[Unseen Warfare]]'' in Venice.   
*1798 Patriarch [[Anthimios of Jerusalem]] contended that the [[w:Ottoman Empire|Ottoman Empire]] was part of the [[w:Divine Providence|Divine Dispensation]] granted by [[God]] to protect [[Orthodoxy]] from the taint of [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholicism]] and of Western [[w:Secularism|secularism]] and [[w:Irreligion by country|irreligion]].
+
*1798 Patriarch [[Anthimus of Jerusalem]] contended that the [[w:Ottoman Empire|Ottoman Empire]] was part of the [[w:Divine Providence|Divine Dispensation]] granted by [[God]] to protect [[Orthodoxy]] from the taint of [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholicism]] and of Western [[w:Secularism|secularism]] and [[w:Irreligion by country|irreligion]].
 
*1800 ''[[The Rudder]]'' published and printed in Athens.   
 
*1800 ''[[The Rudder]]'' published and printed in Athens.   
 
*1803 Death of [[Xenia of St. Petersburg]].   
 
*1803 Death of [[Xenia of St. Petersburg]].   
 
*1804 [[w:British and Foreign Bible Society|British and Foreign Bible Society]] founded.   
 
*1804 [[w:British and Foreign Bible Society|British and Foreign Bible Society]] founded.   
*1805 Death of [[Makarios of Corinth]], a central figure in the Kollyvades movement.   
+
*1805 Death of [[Macarius Notaras of Corinth|Makarios of Corinth]], a central figure in the Kollyvades movement.   
 
*1808 Death of Hieromartyr Nikita the Slav, of Mount Athos.   
 
*1808 Death of Hieromartyr Nikita the Slav, of Mount Athos.   
 
*1809-10 Rotunda and edicule exterior of [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] rebuilt after fire in Ottoman Baroque style.   
 
*1809-10 Rotunda and edicule exterior of [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] rebuilt after fire in Ottoman Baroque style.   
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* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 4: Reformation of Church and Dogma (1300-1700)''. (ISBN 0226653773)   
 
* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 4: Reformation of Church and Dogma (1300-1700)''. (ISBN 0226653773)   
 
* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 5: Christian Doctrine and Modern Culture (since 1700)''. (ISBN 0226653803)   
 
* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 5: Christian Doctrine and Modern Culture (since 1700)''. (ISBN 0226653803)   
 +
* Peri, Oded (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem). ''Islamic Law and Christian Holy Sites: Jerusalem and Its Vicinity in Early Ottoman Times.'' '''Islamic Law and Society'''. Vol.6, No.1. 1999. pp.97-111.
 
* Schaff, Philip. ''History of the Christian Church''. (ISBN 156563196X)
 
* Schaff, Philip. ''History of the Christian Church''. (ISBN 156563196X)
  

Latest revision as of 11:43, April 18, 2013

Timeline of Church History
Eras Timeline of Church History (Abridged article)
Eras New Testament Era | Apostolic Era (33-100) | Ante-Nicene Era (100-325) | Nicene Era (325-451) | Byzantine Era (451-843) | Late Byzantine Era (843-1054) | Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453) | Post-Imperial Era (1453-1821) | Modern Era (1821-1917) | Communist Era (1917-1991) | Post-Communist Era (1991-Present) |
(Main articles)


This article forms part of the series
Introduction to
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The History of the Church is a vital part of the Orthodox Christian faith. Orthodox Christians are defined significantly by their continuity with all those who have gone before, those who first received and preached the truth of Jesus Christ to the world, those who helped to formulate the expression and worship of our faith, and those who continue to move forward in the unchanging yet ever-dynamic Holy Tradition of the Orthodox Church.

Contents

Post-Imperial era (1453-1821)

Notes

  • Some of these dates are necessarily a bit vague, as records for some periods are particularly difficult to piece together accurately.
  • The division of Church History into separate eras as done here will always be to some extent arbitrary, though it was attempted to group periods according to major watershed events.
  • This timeline is necessarily biased toward the history of the Orthodox Church, though a number of non-Orthodox or purely political events are mentioned for their importance in history related to Orthodoxy or for reference.

See also

Published works

The following are published writings that provide an overview of Church history:

From an Orthodox perspective

From a Heterodox perspective

  • Cairns, Earle E. Christianity Through the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 0310208122)
  • Collins, Michael, ed.; Price, Matthew Arlen. Story of Christianity: A Celebration of 2000 Years of Faith. (ISBN 0789446057)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 3: From the Protestant Reformation to the Twentieth Century. (ISBN 0687171849)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity, Volume 2: Reformation to the Present Day. (ISBN 0060633166)
  • Hastings, Adrian, ed. A World History of Christianity. (ISBN 0802848753)
  • Jones, Timothy P. Christian History Made Easy. (ISBN 1890947105)
  • Noll, Mark A. Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity. (ISBN 080106211X)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 2: The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600-1700). (ISBN 0226653730)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 4: Reformation of Church and Dogma (1300-1700). (ISBN 0226653773)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 5: Christian Doctrine and Modern Culture (since 1700). (ISBN 0226653803)
  • Peri, Oded (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem). Islamic Law and Christian Holy Sites: Jerusalem and Its Vicinity in Early Ottoman Times. Islamic Law and Society. Vol.6, No.1. 1999. pp.97-111.
  • Schaff, Philip. History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 156563196X)

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