Timeline of Church History (Nicene Era (325-451))

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*345 Death of [[Nicholas of Myra|Nicholas]], Archbishop of Myra in Lycia.   
 
*345 Death of [[Nicholas of Myra|Nicholas]], Archbishop of Myra in Lycia.   
 
*347 [[Council of Sardica]].   
 
*347 [[Council of Sardica]].   
*348 Death of [[Pachomius the Great]]; death of [[Spyridon of Trimythous]].  
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*348 Death of [[Pachomius the Great]]; death of [[Spyridon of Trimythous]]; death of [[w:Abraham of Arbela|Abramius of Arbela]], Bp. of Arbela in Assyria, tortured and later beheaded under Shapur II. 
*350 [[Ninian]] establishes the church Candida Casa at Whithorn in Galloway, Scotland, beginning the missionary effort to the Picts.   
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*350 Bp. [[Jacob of Nisibis]] protected the city of Nisibis by his prayers during the Persian siege of [[w:Shapur II|Sapor II]]; [[Ninian]] establishes the church Candida Casa at Whithorn in Galloway, Scotland, beginning the missionary effort to the Picts.   
 
*351 Apparition of the Sign of the [[Cross]] over Jerusalem.   
 
*351 Apparition of the Sign of the [[Cross]] over Jerusalem.   
 
*354 [[w:Theophilos the Indian|Theophilos the Indian]] was sent by Emperor [[w:Constantius II|Constantius II]] on a mission to south Asia via Arabia, where he is said to have converted the [[w:Himyarite Kingdom|Himyarites]] and built three churches in southwest Arabia; he is also said to have found Christians in India, along the [[w:Malabar Coast|Malabar Coast]], as recorded by the [[w:Anomoeanism|Anomoean]] (Arian) Church historian [[w:Philostorgius|Philostorgius]].
 
*354 [[w:Theophilos the Indian|Theophilos the Indian]] was sent by Emperor [[w:Constantius II|Constantius II]] on a mission to south Asia via Arabia, where he is said to have converted the [[w:Himyarite Kingdom|Himyarites]] and built three churches in southwest Arabia; he is also said to have found Christians in India, along the [[w:Malabar Coast|Malabar Coast]], as recorded by the [[w:Anomoeanism|Anomoean]] (Arian) Church historian [[w:Philostorgius|Philostorgius]].
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*360 [[Martin of Tours]] founds first French monastery at Liguge; first church of [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] inaugurated by Emperor [[w:Constantius II|Constantius II]].   
 
*360 [[Martin of Tours]] founds first French monastery at Liguge; first church of [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] inaugurated by Emperor [[w:Constantius II|Constantius II]].   
 
*361-63 [[Julian the Apostate]] becomes Roman emperor, attempting to restore paganism.   
 
*361-63 [[Julian the Apostate]] becomes Roman emperor, attempting to restore paganism.   
*362 Synod of Alexandria; Antiochian schism (362-414); death of [[Saint titles|Greatmartyr]] Artemius at Antioch.  
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*362 Synod of Alexandria; Antiochian schism (362-414); death of [[Saint titles|Greatmartyr]] Artemius at Antioch; martyrdom of Roman soldier [[w:Eusignius|Eusignius]], who converted to Christianity at the age of 110.  
*363 Emperor [[w:Jovian|Jovian]] reestablished Christianity as the official religion of the Empire, stating that he preferred the Orthodox view, and that Athanasius was to be permitted to return to his see at Alexandria.  
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*363 Emperor [[w:Jovian|Jovian]] reestablished Christianity as the official religion of the Empire, stating that he preferred the Orthodox view, and that Athanasius was to be permitted to return to his see at Alexandria; martyrdom of [[w:Dometius of Persia|Dometius of Persia]] and two disciples.
 
*364 [[Council of Laodicea]] held.
 
*364 [[Council of Laodicea]] held.
 
*365-66 Brief exile and final restoration of [[Athanasius of Alexandria]].   
 
*365-66 Brief exile and final restoration of [[Athanasius of Alexandria]].   
 +
*366 Death of [[w:Abraham the Great of Kidunja|Abramius the Recluse]].
 
*367 [[Athanasius of Alexandria]] writes his [[Pascha]]l letter, listing for the first time the [[canon]] of the [[New Testament]] of the [[Holy Scriptures]], including all 27 New Testament Books; death of [[Hilary of Poitiers]].
 
*367 [[Athanasius of Alexandria]] writes his [[Pascha]]l letter, listing for the first time the [[canon]] of the [[New Testament]] of the [[Holy Scriptures]], including all 27 New Testament Books; death of [[Hilary of Poitiers]].
 
*372 Death of [[Hilarion the Great]] of Palestine.
 
*372 Death of [[Hilarion the Great]] of Palestine.
 
*373 Death of [[Athanasius the Great]]; death of [[Ephrem the Syrian]].     
 
*373 Death of [[Athanasius the Great]]; death of [[Ephrem the Syrian]].     
*374 Election of [[Ambrose of Milan|Ambrose]] as bishop of Milan.
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*374 Election of [[Ambrose of Milan|Ambrose]] as bishop of Milan; death of [[w:Nonna of Nazianzus|Nonna of Nazianzus]], mother of St [[Gregory the Theologian]].
 
*ca. 375 Emperor [[w:Gratian|Gratian]] relinquishes the pagan imperial title of ''[[w:Pontifex Maximus|Pontifex Maximus]],'' bestowing the title on Pope [[w:Pope Damasus I|Damasus I]] of Rome (although it was not until the fifteenth century that ''"Pontifex Maximus"'' became a regular title of honour for Popes).  
 
*ca. 375 Emperor [[w:Gratian|Gratian]] relinquishes the pagan imperial title of ''[[w:Pontifex Maximus|Pontifex Maximus]],'' bestowing the title on Pope [[w:Pope Damasus I|Damasus I]] of Rome (although it was not until the fifteenth century that ''"Pontifex Maximus"'' became a regular title of honour for Popes).  
 
*375 [[Basil the Great]] writes ''[[On the Holy Spirit]]'', confirming the divinity of the [[Holy Spirit]].   
 
*375 [[Basil the Great]] writes ''[[On the Holy Spirit]]'', confirming the divinity of the [[Holy Spirit]].   
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*379 Death of [[Basil the Great]]; Emperor Gratian's rescript ''Ordinariorum Sententias'' extends power of Bishop of Rome by allowing him authority over bishops within his own jurisdiction.   
 
*379 Death of [[Basil the Great]]; Emperor Gratian's rescript ''Ordinariorum Sententias'' extends power of Bishop of Rome by allowing him authority over bishops within his own jurisdiction.   
 
*380 Christianity established as the official faith of the Roman Empire by Emperor [[Theodosius the Great]]; [[Council of Saragossa]] condemns [[Priscillianism]].   
 
*380 Christianity established as the official faith of the Roman Empire by Emperor [[Theodosius the Great]]; [[Council of Saragossa]] condemns [[Priscillianism]].   
*381 [[Second Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople, condemning [[Pneumatomachianism|Macedonianism/Pneumatomachianism]] and [[Appollinarianism]], declaring the divinity of the Holy Spirit, confirming the previous [[Ecumenical Council]], and completing the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed]]; [[Council of Aquileia]] led by [[Ambrose of Milan]] deposes Arian bishops.   
+
*381 [[Second Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople, condemning [[Pneumatomachianism|Macedonianism/Pneumatomachianism]] and [[Apollinarianism]], declaring the divinity of the Holy Spirit, confirming the previous [[Ecumenical Council]], and completing the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed]]; [[Council of Aquileia]] led by [[Ambrose of Milan]] deposes Arian bishops.   
 
*382 Pope [[Siricius of Rome]] first to bear title ''Pontifex Maximus''.   
 
*382 Pope [[Siricius of Rome]] first to bear title ''Pontifex Maximus''.   
 
*383 Death of [[Frumentius of Axum]], bishop of Axum and Apostle to Ethiopia.
 
*383 Death of [[Frumentius of Axum]], bishop of Axum and Apostle to Ethiopia.
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*386 [[Panagia Soumela Monastery]] founded in Trebizond, Pontus, Asia Minor; death of [[Cyril of Jerusalem]]; [[Theodosius the Great (emperor)|Theodosius the Great]] begins to rebuild the present-day [[w:Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls|Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls]].     
 
*386 [[Panagia Soumela Monastery]] founded in Trebizond, Pontus, Asia Minor; death of [[Cyril of Jerusalem]]; [[Theodosius the Great (emperor)|Theodosius the Great]] begins to rebuild the present-day [[w:Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls|Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls]].     
 
*387 [[Augustine of Hippo|Augustine]] baptized at [[Pascha]] by [[Ambrose of Milan]].   
 
*387 [[Augustine of Hippo|Augustine]] baptized at [[Pascha]] by [[Ambrose of Milan]].   
 +
*390 Death of [[Horus of the Thebaid]].
 
*391 Death of [[Gregory the Theologian]].     
 
*391 Death of [[Gregory the Theologian]].     
 
*391-92 All non-Christian temples in the Empire closed; [[Theodosius the Great (emperor)|Theodosius the Great]] ends pagan Eleusinian Mysteries by decree and causes surviving pagan sacrifices at Alexandria and Rome to cease.   
 
*391-92 All non-Christian temples in the Empire closed; [[Theodosius the Great (emperor)|Theodosius the Great]] ends pagan Eleusinian Mysteries by decree and causes surviving pagan sacrifices at Alexandria and Rome to cease.   
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*395 [[Augustine of Hippo|Augustine]] becomes bishop of Hippo in North Africa; the placing of the cincture (sash) of the Most Holy [[Theotokos]] in the Church of the Virgin in Halkoprateia-Constantinople (395-408).   
 
*395 [[Augustine of Hippo|Augustine]] becomes bishop of Hippo in North Africa; the placing of the cincture (sash) of the Most Holy [[Theotokos]] in the Church of the Virgin in Halkoprateia-Constantinople (395-408).   
 
*395 Re-division of Empire with death of Emperor Theodosius the Great.   
 
*395 Re-division of Empire with death of Emperor Theodosius the Great.   
*397 [[Council of Carthage]] publishes Biblical canon; death of [[Martin of Tours]]; death of [[Ambrose of Milan]].   
+
*397 [[Councils of Carthage|Council of Carthage]] publishes Biblical canon; death of [[Martin of Tours]]; death of [[Ambrose of Milan]].   
 
*398 [[John Chrysostom]] becomes [[Archbishop]] of Constantinople.   
 
*398 [[John Chrysostom]] becomes [[Archbishop]] of Constantinople.   
 
*ca. 398 Martyrdom of 10,000 Fathers of the Scetis by Patriarch [[Theophilus of Alexandria]].   
 
*ca. 398 Martyrdom of 10,000 Fathers of the Scetis by Patriarch [[Theophilus of Alexandria]].   
*399 [[Anastasius of Rome]] and other bishops condemn doctrine of [[Origen]].    
+
*399 [[Anastasius of Rome]] and other bishops condemn doctrine of [[Origen]]; Death of [[Evagrius Ponticus]]    
 
*401 [[Augustine of Hippo]] writes ''Confessions''; Pope [[Innocent I of Rome]] supports [[John Chrysostom]] and condemns [[pelagianism]].   
 
*401 [[Augustine of Hippo]] writes ''Confessions''; Pope [[Innocent I of Rome]] supports [[John Chrysostom]] and condemns [[pelagianism]].   
 
*ca.400 ''[[w:Babylonian_Talmud#Talmud_Yerushalmi_.28Jerusalem_Talmud.29|Jerusalem Talmud]]'' completed.  
 
*ca.400 ''[[w:Babylonian_Talmud#Talmud_Yerushalmi_.28Jerusalem_Talmud.29|Jerusalem Talmud]]'' completed.  
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*425 Sanhedrin disbanded by the Roman Empire; [[w:University of Constantinople|University of Constantinople]] founded as the first university in the world.   
 
*425 Sanhedrin disbanded by the Roman Empire; [[w:University of Constantinople|University of Constantinople]] founded as the first university in the world.   
 
*426 [[Augustine of Hippo]] writes ''The City of God''.   
 
*426 [[Augustine of Hippo]] writes ''The City of God''.   
*428 [[Nestorius]] becomes patriarch of Constantinople.  
+
*428 [[Nestorius]] becomes patriarch of Constantinople; [[Translation (relics)|translation]] of the [[relics]] of the [[Apostle Stephen the Protomartyr]], found incorrupt, together with the relics of Sts. [[Nicodemus the Righteous]], [[Gamaliel]], and his son Abibus, from Jerusalem to Constantinople on [[August 2]].
 
*429 Pope [[Celestine of Rome|Celestine I]] dispatches prominent Gallo-Roman Bishops [[Germanus of Auxerre]] and Lupus of Troyes to Britain as missionary bishops and to combat the [[Pelagianism|Pelagian]] heresy; death of [[Sisoes the Great]].     
 
*429 Pope [[Celestine of Rome|Celestine I]] dispatches prominent Gallo-Roman Bishops [[Germanus of Auxerre]] and Lupus of Troyes to Britain as missionary bishops and to combat the [[Pelagianism|Pelagian]] heresy; death of [[Sisoes the Great]].     
 
*ca. 430 Death of [[Nilus of Sinai]].   
 
*ca. 430 Death of [[Nilus of Sinai]].   
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*431 [[Third Ecumenical Council]] held in Ephesus, condemning [[Nestorianism]] and [[Pelagianism]], confirming the use of the term ''[[Theotokos]]'' to refer to the Virgin Mary, and confirming [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Cyprus]]; Pope Celestine sends [[Palladius]] to Ireland.   
 
*431 [[Third Ecumenical Council]] held in Ephesus, condemning [[Nestorianism]] and [[Pelagianism]], confirming the use of the term ''[[Theotokos]]'' to refer to the Virgin Mary, and confirming [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Cyprus]]; Pope Celestine sends [[Palladius]] to Ireland.   
 
*432 Return of [[Patrick of Ireland|Patrick]] to Ireland to begin missionary work; death of [[Ninian]], Apostle to the Picts.   
 
*432 Return of [[Patrick of Ireland|Patrick]] to Ireland to begin missionary work; death of [[Ninian]], Apostle to the Picts.   
 +
[[Image:Seven Sleepers icon.jpeg|right|thumb|Icon  of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus.]]
 
*433 [[Formulary of Peace]] completes the work of the [[Third Ecumenical Council]] by reconciling [[Cyril of Alexandria]] with [[John of Antioch]].   
 
*433 [[Formulary of Peace]] completes the work of the [[Third Ecumenical Council]] by reconciling [[Cyril of Alexandria]] with [[John of Antioch]].   
 
*435 Death of [[John Cassian]]; death of [[Acacius of Melitene]]; [[Nestorius]] exiled by Imperial edict to a monastery in a Sahara oasis.   
 
*435 Death of [[John Cassian]]; death of [[Acacius of Melitene]]; [[Nestorius]] exiled by Imperial edict to a monastery in a Sahara oasis.   
 +
*437 [[w:Seven Sleepers|Seven Sleepers of Ephesus]] awakened to prove resurrection of the dead.
 
*438 [[w:Codex Theodosianus|Codex Theodosianus]] published.   
 
*438 [[w:Codex Theodosianus|Codex Theodosianus]] published.   
 
*439 Carthage falls to Vandals.   
 
*439 Carthage falls to Vandals.   
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* Noll, Mark A. ''Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity''. (ISBN 080106211X)   
 
* Noll, Mark A. ''Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity''. (ISBN 080106211X)   
 
* [[Jaroslav Pelikan|Pelikan, Jaroslav]]. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 1: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600)''. (ISBN 0226653714)     
 
* [[Jaroslav Pelikan|Pelikan, Jaroslav]]. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 1: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600)''. (ISBN 0226653714)     
*Rapp, Claudia. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=iMTYAb7cALsC&source=gbs_navlinks_s Holy Bishops in Late Antiquity: The Nature of Christian Leadership in an Age of Transition].'' University of California Press, 2005. 346pp. ISBN 9780520242968
+
* Merrill, Elmer Truesdell (Professor). ''The Church in the Fourth Century.'' '''Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association.''' Vol.50, 1919. pp.101-121.
 +
* Rapp, Claudia. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=iMTYAb7cALsC&source=gbs_navlinks_s Holy Bishops in Late Antiquity: The Nature of Christian Leadership in an Age of Transition].'' University of California Press, 2005. 346pp. ISBN 9780520242968
 
* Schaff, Philip. ''History of the Christian Church''. (ISBN 156563196X)   
 
* Schaff, Philip. ''History of the Christian Church''. (ISBN 156563196X)   
 
* Wace, Henry; Piercy, William C., ed. ''A Dictionary of Christian Biography: Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A.D. With an Account of the Principal Sects and Heresies''. (ISBN 1565630572)   
 
* Wace, Henry; Piercy, William C., ed. ''A Dictionary of Christian Biography: Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A.D. With an Account of the Principal Sects and Heresies''. (ISBN 1565630572)   

Latest revision as of 17:43, November 20, 2012

Timeline of Church History
Eras Timeline of Church History (Abridged article)
Eras New Testament Era | Apostolic Era (33-100) | Ante-Nicene Era (100-325) | Nicene Era (325-451) | Byzantine Era (451-843) | Late Byzantine Era (843-1054) | Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453) | Post-Imperial Era (1453-1821) | Modern Era (1821-1917) | Communist Era (1917-1991) | Post-Communist Era (1991-Present) |
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The History of the Church is a vital part of the Orthodox Christian faith. Orthodox Christians are defined significantly by their continuity with all those who have gone before, those who first received and preached the truth of Jesus Christ to the world, those who helped to formulate the expression and worship of our faith, and those who continue to move forward in the unchanging yet ever-dynamic Holy Tradition of the Orthodox Church.

Contents

Nicene era (325-451)

Icon of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus.

Notes

  • Some of these dates are necessarily a bit vague, as records for some periods are particularly difficult to piece together accurately.
  • The division of Church History into separate eras as done here will always be to some extent arbitrary, though it was attempted to group periods according to major watershed events.
  • This timeline is necessarily biased toward the history of the Orthodox Church, though a number of non-Orthodox or purely political events are mentioned for their importance in history related to Orthodoxy or for reference.

See also

Published works

The following are published writings that provide an overview of Church history:

From an Orthodox perspective

From a Heterodox perspective

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