Timeline of Church History (Late Byzantine Era (843-1054))
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The History of the Church is a vital part of the Orthodox Christian faith. Orthodox Christians are defined significantly by their continuity with all those who have gone before, those who first received and preached the truth of Jesus Christ to the world, those who helped to formulate the expression and worship of our faith, and those who continue to move forward in the unchanging yet ever-dynamic Holy Tradition of the Orthodox Church.
Late Byzantine era (843-1453)
- 843 Triumph of Orthodoxy occurs on first Sunday of Great Lent, restoring icons to churches.
- 845 42 Martyrs of Ammoria in Phrygia taken as hostages from Ammoria to Samarra (in Iraq) and executed there; noted Greek scholar Johannes Scotus Erigena takes over the Palatine Academy at Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) in France.
- 846 Muslim raid of Rome.
- 850 Third Finding of the head of John the Forerunner ; Bishop Censteg of Dingerein in Cornwall accepts the authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury.
- 852 Ansgar founds churches at Hedeby and Ribe in Denmark.
- 858 Photius the Great becomes patriarch of Constantinople.
- 860 Second Rus-Byzantine War, a naval raid and the first siege of Constantinople by the Rus.
- ca. 860 Christianization of the Rus' Khaganate.
- 861 Cyril and Methodius depart from Constantinople to missionize the Slavs; Council of Constantinople attended by 318 fathers and presided over by papal legates confirms Photius the Great as patriarch and passes 17 canons.
- 862 Rastislav of Moravia converts to Christianity.
- 863 First translations of Biblical and liturgical texts into Church Slavonic by Cyril and Methodius.
- 863 Venetians steal relics of Apostle Mark from Alexandria.
- 864 Baptism of Prince Boris of Bulgaria; Synaxis of the Theotokos in Miasena in memory of the return of her icon.
- 865 Bulgaria under Khan Boris I converts to Orthodox Christianity.
- 866 Vikings raid and capture York in England.
- 867 Council in Constantinople held, presided over by Photius, which anathematizes Pope Nicholas I of Rome for his attacks on work of Greek missionaries in Bulgaria and use by papal missionaries of Filioque; Pope Nicholas dies before hearing news of excommunication; Basil the Macedonian has Emperor Michael III murdered and usurps Imperial throne, reinstating Ignatius as patriarch of Constantinople.
- 867 Death of Kassiani, Greek-Byzantine poet and hymnographer, who composed the Hymn of Kassiani, chanted during Holy Week on Holy Wednesday.
- 869-870 Robber Council of 869-870 held, deposing Photius the Great from the Constantinopolitan see and putting the rival claimant Ignatius on the throne, declaring itself to be the "Eighth Ecumenical Council."
- 870 Conversion of Serbia; death of Rastislav of Moravia; Malta conquered from the Byzantines by the Arabs; martyrdom of Edmund, King of East Anglia.
- 874 Translation of relics of Nicephorus the Confessor, interred in the Church of the Holy Apostles, Constantinople.
- 877 Death of Ignatius of Constantinople, who appoints Photius to succeed him.
- 877 Arab Muslims conquer all of Sicily from Byzantium and make Palermo their capital.
- 878 King Alfred the Great of Wessex defeats Vikings; the Treaty of Wedmore divides England between the Anglo-Saxons and the Danes (the Danelaw).
- 879-880 Eighth Ecumenical Council held in Constantinople attended by 383 fathers passing 3 canons, confirms Photius as Patriarch of Constantinople, anathematizes additions to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed, and declares that the prerogatives and jurisdiction of the Roman pope and the Constantinopolitan patriarch are essentially equal; the council is reluctantly accepted by Pope John VIII of Rome.
- 883 Muslims burn the monastery of Monte Cassino.
- 885 Mount Athos gains political autonomy.
- 885 Death of Methodius.
- 886 Glagolitic alphabet, (now called Old Church Slavonic) adopted in Bulgarian Empire; St Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, captures London from the Danes.
- 888 Foundation of Shaftesbury Abbey.
- 902 Taormina, the last Byzantine stronghold in Sicily, is captured by the Aghlabid Arabs.
- 904 Thessalonika sacked and pillaged by Saracen pirates under Leo of Tripoli, a Greek pirate serving Saracen interests.
- 907 Third Rus-Byzantine War, a naval raid of Constantinople (or Tsargrad in Old Slavonic) led by Varangian Prince Oleg of Novgorod, which was relieved by peace negotiations.
- 910 Benedictine Abbey of Cluny founded in France.
- 899 Death of Alfred the Great.
- 911 Holy Protection of the Virgin Mary; Russian envoys visit Constantinople to ratify a treaty, sent by Oleg, Grand Prince of Rus'.
- 912 Normans become Christian; Nicholas I Mysticus becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
- 927 Church of Bulgaria recognized as autocephalous by Constantinople.
- 931 Abbott Odo of Cluny reforms monasteries in Aquitaine, northern France, and Italy, starting the Cluniac Reform movement within the Benedictine order, focused on restoring the traditional monastic life, encouraging art and caring for the poor.
- 933 Death of Patr. Tryphon of Constantinople.
- 934 Death of Bp. Birnstan of Winchester, known for his work with the poor, and his mission of praying for the dead.
- 935 Martyrdom of Wenceslaus, prince of the Czechs.
- 941 Fourth Rus-Byzantine War.
- 944 City of Edessa recovered by Byzantine army, including Icon Not Made By Hands ; The Western Rite Monastery of the Holy Saviour is established in Constantinople under Imperial favour.
- 945 Dunstan becomes Abbot of Glastonbury.
- 948 Future Holy Roman Emperor Otto I the Great founds missionary dioceses of Brandenburg, Havelburg, Ribe, Aarhus, and Schleswig.
- ca. 950 Monastery of Hosios Loukas founded near Stiris in Greece.
- 957 Olga of Kiev baptized in Constantinople.
- 960 Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas re-captures Crete for Byzantines; Dunstan becomes Archbishop of Canterbury, reforming monasteries and enforcing rule of Benedict.
- 962 Denmark becomes Christian nation with baptism of King Harald Blaatand ("Bluetooth"); Holy Roman Empire formed, with Pope John XII crowning Otto I the Great Holy Roman Emperor; Diploma Ottonianum is co-signed by Pope John XII and Otto, confirming the earlier Donation of Pepin, granting control of Papal States to the Popes, regularizing Papal elections, and clarifying the relationship between Popes and oly Roman Emperors.
- 963 Athanasius of Athos establishes first major monastery on Mount Athos, the Great Lavra.
- 965 Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas gains Cyprus completely for the Byzantines; Sviatoslav of Kiev destroys Khazar imperial power, as the Khazar fortresses of Sarkel and Tamatarkha fall to the Rus'.
- 966 Anti-Christian riots in Jerusalem.
- 968 Rila Monastery founded; Sviatoslav of Kiev defeats Bulgarians at the Battle of Silistra, precipitating the collapse of the First Bulgarian Empire.
- 968-71 Fifth Rus-Byzantine War, resulting in a Byzantine victory over the coalition of Rus', Pechenegs, Magyars, and Bulgarians in the Battle of Arcadiopolis, and the defeat of Sviatoslav of Kiev by John I Tzimiskes.
- 969 Death of Olga of Kiev; Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas captures Antioch and Aleppo from Arabs.
- 972 Emperor John I Tzimiskes grants Mount Athos its first charter (Typikon).
- 973 Moravia assigned to the Diocese of Prague, putting the West Slavic tribes under jurisdiction of German church.
- 975 Emperor John I Tzimiskes in a Syrian campaign takes Emesa, Baalbek, Damascus, Tiberias, Nazareth, Caesarea, Sidon, Beirut, Byblos and Tripoli, but fails to take Jerusalem.
- 978 Death of King Edward the Martyr.
- 980 Revelation of the Axion Estin (the hymn "It Is Truly Meet"), with the appearance of the Archangel Gabriel to a monk on Mount Athos.
- 980-5 The Western Rite Monastery of Amalfion is founded on Mount Athos.
- 983 Martyrdom of Theodore the Varangian and his son John of Kiev.
- 987 Sixth Rus-Byzantine War, where Vladimir of Kiev dispatches troops to the Byzantine Empire to assist Emperor Basil II with an internal revolt, agreeing to accept Orthodox Christianity as his religion and bring his people to the new faith.
- 988 Baptism of Rus' begins with the conversion of Vladimir of Kiev who is baptized at Chersonesos, the birthplace of the Russian and Ukrainian Orthodox churches; Vladimir marries Anna, sister of Byzantine emperor Basil II.
- 992 Death of Michael, first Metropolitan of Kiev.
- 995 Olaf of Norway proclaims Norway to be a Christian kingdom; relics of Cuthbert transferred with his community to Durham.
- 1000 Conversion of Greenland and Iceland.
- 1008 Conversion of Sweden.
- 1009 Patr. Sergius II of Constantinople removes name of Pope Sergius IV of Rome from diptychs of Constantinople, because the pope had written a letter to the patriarch including the Filioque.
- 1009 Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem destroyed by the "mad" Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, founder of the Druze.
- 1012 Martyrdom of Alphege, Archbishop of Canterbury; Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah issues oppressive decrees against Jews and Christians including the destruction of all Christian and Jewish houses of worship.
- 1013 Jews expelled from caliphate of Córdoba.
- 1014 Filioque used for first time in Rome by Pope Benedict VIII at coronation of Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor.
- 1015 Death of Vladimir of Kiev.
- 1017 Danish king Canute converts to Christianity.
- 1022 Death of Simeon the New Theologian.
- 1024 Seventh Rus-Byzantine War, Byzantine naval victory.
- 1027 Frankish protectorate over Christian interests in Jerusalem is replaced by a Byzantine protectorate, which begin reconstruction of Holy Sepulchre.
- 1034 Patriarch Alexius I Studites writes the first complete Studite Typikon, for a monastery he established near Constantinople; this was the Typikon introduced into the Rus' lands by Theodosius of the Kiev Caves.
- 1036 Byzantine Emperor Michael IV makes a truce with the Caliph of Egypt to allow rebuilding of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre by Byzantine masons; Varangian Guard of the Byzantine Emperor sent to protect pilgrims.
- 1037 Death of Persian polymath Avicenna who tried to merge rational philosophy (reason and logic) with Islamic theology, also regarded as a father of early modern medicine.
- 1043 Eighth and last Rus'-Byzantine War, an unsuccessful naval raid against Constantinople; Edward the Confessor crowned King of England at Winchester Cathedral; University of Constantinople is re-organized under Michael Psellos.
- 1045-50 Cathedral of Saint Sophia in Novgorod built, the oldest Orthodox church building in Russia, executed in an architectural style more austere than the Byzantine, reminiscent of the Romanesque.
- 1048 Re-consecration of Holy Sepulchre.
- 1051 Monastery of the Kiev Caves founded.
- 1052 Edward the Confessor founds Westminster Abbey, near London.
- 1053 Death of Lazarus the Wonder-worker of Mount Galesius near Ephesus.
- 1054 Cardinal Humbert excommunicates Michael Cerularius, patriarch of Constantinople, a major centerpoint in the formation of the Great Schism between East and West; First Letter of Michael Cerularius to Peter of Antioch.
- 1059 Errors of Berengar of Tours condemned in Rome; term transubstantiation begins to come in to use, ascribed to Peter Damian.
- 1064 Seljuk Turks storm Anatolia taking Caesarea and Ani, conquering Armenia.
- 1066 Normans invade England flying banner of Pope of Rome, defeating King Harold of England at Battle of Hastings.
- 1066-1171 Beginning reformation of English church and society to align with Latin continental ecclesiology and politics.
- 1071 Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert, beginning Islamification of Asia Minor; Norman princes led by Robert Guiscard capture Bari, the last Byzantine stronghold in Italy, bringing to an end over five centuries of Byzantine rule in the south.
- ca. 1071-1176 Byzantine epic poem "Digenes Akrites".
- 1073 Hildebrand becomes Pope Gregory VII and launches the Gregorian reforms (celibacy of the clergy, primacy of papacy over empire, right of Pope to depose emperors); Seljuk Turks conquer Ankara.
- 1074 Death of Theodosius of the Kiev Caves.
- 1075 Dictatus Papae document advances Papal supremacy.
- 1077 The Seljuk Turks capture Jerusalem and kill 3,000 citizens; Seljuks capture Nicea.
- 1084 Antioch is captured by the Seljuk Turks from the Byzantines.
- 1087 Translation of the relics of Nicholas of Myra from Myra to Bari.
- 1088 Founding of monastery of John the Theologian on Patmos; election of Pope Urban II, a prominent member of the Cluniac Reform movement .
- 1095 Launching of the First Crusade.
- 1096 Persecution of Jews by Crusaders.
- 1098 Anselm of Canterbury completes Cur Deus homo, marking a radical divergence of Western theology of the atonement from that of the East.
- 1098 Crusaders capture Antioch.
- 1099 Crusaders capture Jerusalem founding the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem and other crusader states known collectively as "Outremer."
- 1108 Death of Nicetas of Kiev Caves, Bishop of Novgorod.
- 1113 Latin Order of Knights Hospitaller founded as a religious/military order under its own charter, charged with the care and defense of the Holy Land and pilgrims.
- 1118 Latin Order of Knights Templar founded.
- 1118-1137 Imperial monastery of Christ Pantocrator founded.
- ca. 1131-45 Coptic Pope of Alexandria Gabriel II initiates addition of Arabic as a liturgical language with his Arabic translation of the Liturgy.
- ca. 1120-1220 Spread of Aristotelian philosophy throughout Western Europe, mostly via the translations of Averroes and Maimonides.
- 1120 Council of Nablus is held in Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.
- 1127-1145 Constantinople largest city in the world by population.
- 1144 Bernard of Clairvaux calls for a Second Crusade to rescue the besieged Latin kingdom of Jerusalem; Kings Louis VII of France and Konrad III of Germany join Crusaders, but are defeated by Muslims; Muslims take Christian stronghold of Edessa.
- 1147 Moscow founded by Prince Yuri Dolgoruki, a ruler of the northeastern Rus'; Roger II of Sicily takes Corfu from the Byzantine Empire, and pillages Corinth, Athens and Thebes.
- 1149 Crusaders begin to renovate Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Romanesque style, adding a bell tower.
- 1159 John of Salisbury authors Policraticus, a treatise on government drawing from the Bible, the Codex Justinianus, and arguing for Divine Right of Kings.
- 1164 Uncovering of the relics of Leontius of Rostov.
- 1170 Miracle of the weeping icon of the Theotokos "of the Sign" at Novgorod; Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland; city of Dublin captured by the Normans.
- 1176 Sultanate of Rum defeats Byzantine Empire in the Battle of Myriokephalon, marking end of Byzantine attempts to recover Anatolian plateau; Al-Adil I, Muslim ruler of Egypt, suppresses a revolt by Christian Copts in city of Qift, hanging nearly 3,000 of them.
- 1177 Latin King Baldwin of Jerusalem and his knights, with Templars, defeat Muslim army of Saladin at Battle of Montgisard.
- 1179 Death of Hildegard von Bingen.
- 1180 Last formal acceptance of Latins to communion at an Orthodox altar in Antioch.
- 1182 Maronites, who assisted the Crusaders during the Crusades, reaffirm their affiliation with Rome in 1182; dedication of Monreale Cathedral in Sicily, containing the largest cycle of Byzantine mosaics extant in Italy.
- 1185 Second Bulgarian Empire founded; Death of John, Bishop of Novgorod.
- 1186 Byzantine Empire recognizes independence of Bulgaria and Serbia.
- 1187 Saladin retakes Jerusalem after destroying crusader army at Battle of Hattin, and returns Christian holy places to Orthodox Church.
- 1189 Third Crusade led by King Richard the Lion-Hearted of England, King Philip Augustus II of France, and Emperor Frederick Barbarossa.
- ca. 1189 Ethiopian Emperor Gebre Mesqel Lalibela orders construction of Lalibela.
- 1191 Cyprus taken from Byzantines by English King Richard I the Lion-hearted.
- 1198 Cyprus sold by England to Frankish crusaders.
- 1204 Fourth Crusade sacks Constantinople, laying waste to the city and stealing many relics and other items; Great Schism generally regarded as having been completed by this act; Venetians use the imperial monastery of Christ Pantocrator as their headquardters in Constantinople; Theodore I Lascaris establishes the Empire of Nicaea; death of Jewish philosopher Moses Maimonides, author of Guide for the Perplexed which harmonized the Old Testament with Aristotle.
- ca.1207 Stephen Langton divides the Bible into the defined modern chapters in use today.
- 1211 Venetian crusaders conquer Byzantine Crete, retaining it until ousted by Ottoman Turks in 1669.
- 1212 Children's Crusade, led by 12-year-old Stephen of Cloyes, sets out for Holy Land from France.
- 1213 Death of Tamar of Georgia.
- 1216 Latin Dominican Order formally recognized.
- 1217-21 Fifth Crusade.
- ca.1220 English Bp. Richard Le Poore is said to have been responsible for the final form of the "Use of Sarum", which had the sterling reputation of being the best liturgy anywhere in the West.
- 1223 Latin Franciscan Order formally recognized.
- 1226 Latin Carmelite order formally recognized.
- 1228 Sixth Crusade results in 10-year treaty starting in 1229 between Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and Egyptian sultan; Jerusalem ceded to Franks, along with a narrow corridor to the coast, as well as Nazareth, Sidon, Jaffa and Bethlehem.
- 1231 Papal Inquisition initiated by Pope Gregory IX, charged with suppressing heresy.
- 1235 Death of Sava of Serbia.
- 1237 Golden Horde begin subjugation of Russia.
- 1240 Mongols sack Kiev; Prince Alexander Nevsky defeats Swedish army at Battle of the Neva.
- 1242 Alexander Nevsky's Novgorodian force defeats Teutonic Knights in Battle of Lake Peipus, a major defeat for the Catholic crusaders.
- 1244 Jerusalem conquered and razed by Khwarezmian mercenaries (Oghuz Turks) serving under the Ayyubid ruler of Egypt Salih Ayyub, triggering Seventh Crusade.
- 1245 First Council of Lyons in the Roman Catholic Church mandates red hat for cardinals and a levy for the Holy Land.
- 1247 Ayyubids conquer Jerusalem, driving out the Khwarezmian Turks.
- 1248-54 Seventh Crusade.
- 1258 Michael VIII Palaiologos seizes the throne of the Nicaean Empire, founding the last Roman (Byzantine) dynasty, beginning reconquest of Greek peninsula from Latins; Salisbury Cathedral is consecrated.
- 1259 Byzantines defeat Latin Principality of Achaea at the Battle of Pelagonia, marking the beginning of the Byzantine recovery of Greece.
- ca. 1259-80 Martyrdom by Latins of monks of Iveron Monastery.
- 1260 Subjugation of Church of Cyprus to the Roman Catholic Church.
- 1261 End of Latin occupation of Constantinople and restoration of Orthodox patriarchs; Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos makes Mystras seat of the new Despotate of Morea, where a Byzantine renaissance occurred.
- 1268 Egyptian Mamelukes capture Antioch.
- 1269 Orthodox patriarch returns to Antioch after a 171-year exile and usurpation by Latin patriarch.
- 1270 Eighth Crusade launched by King Louis IX of France.
- 1271-72 Ninth Crusade led by Prince Edward of England to Acre, considered to be the last of the medieval Crusades to the Holy Land.
- 1274 Second Council of Lyons held, proclaiming union between the Orthodox East and the Roman Catholic West, but generally unaccepted in the East; death of Thomas Aquinas, Latin scholastic philosopher and theologian, author of the Summa Theologica.
- 1275 Unionist Patriarch of Constantinople John XI Beccus elected to replace Patriarch Joseph I Galesiotes, who opposed Council of Lyons; 26 martyrs of Zographou monastery on Mt. Athos, martyred by the Latins.
- ca. 1280 Kebra Nagast ("Book of the Glory of Kings") compiled, a repository of Ethiopian national and religious feelings.
- 1281 Pope Martin IV authorizes a Crusade against the newly re-established Byzantine Empire in Constantinople, excommunicating Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos and the Greeks and renouncing the union of 1274; French and Venetian expeditions set out toward Constantinople but are forced to turn back in the following year.
- 1287 Last record of Western Rite Monastery of Amalfion on Mount Athos.
- 1291 Fall of Acre; end of crusading in Holy Land.
- 1298 Ambrose, Augustine, Jerome, and Pope Gregory I are named collectively as the first Great Doctors of the Western Church.
- 1302 Papal Bull Unam Sanctum issued by Pope Boniface VIII proclaims Papal supremacy.
- 1326 Metr. Peter moves his see from Kiev to Vladimir and then to Moscow.
- 1309 Rhodes falls to the Knights of St. John, who establish their headquarters there, renaming themselves the "Knights of Rhodes."
- 1311-12 Council of Vienne in the Roman Catholic Church disbands the Knights Templar.
- 1332 Amda Syon, Emperor of Ethiopia begins his campaigns in the southern Muslim provinces, allowing for the spread of Christianity to frontier areas.
- 1336 Meteora in Greece established as a center of Orthodox monasticism.
- 1338 Gregory Palamas writes Triads in Defense of the Holy Hesychasts, defending the Orthodox practice of hesychast spirituality and the use of the Jesus Prayer.
- 1340 Holy Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra founded by Sergius of Radonezh.
- 1341-47 Byzantine civil war between John VI Cantacuzenus (1347–54) and John V Palaeologus (1341–91).
- 1341-51 Three sessions of the Ninth Ecumenical Council held in Constantinople, affirming hesychastic theology of Gregory Palamas and condemning rationalistic philosophy of Barlaam of Calabria.
- 1342 Patriarchate of Antioch transferred to Damascus under Ignatius II.
- 1344 Death of Amda Syon, Emperor of Ethiopia.
- 1349 Prince Stephen Dushan of Serbia assumes the title of Tsar (Caesar); principality of Galicia (Halitsh) comes under Polish control.
- 1352 Death of Ewostatewos (Eusthathius), Ethiopian monk and religious leader.
- 1353 Death of Sergius and Herman, Abbots of Valaam.
- 1354 Ottoman Turks make first settlement in Europe at Gallipoli.
- 1359 Death of Gregory Palamas.
- 1360 Death of John Koukouzelis the Hymnographer.
- 1365 Crusaders under Latin King Peter I of Cyprus sack Alexandria, Egypt.
- 1378 Death of Alexis of Moscow.
- 1379 Western Great Schism ensues, including simultaneous reign of three Popes of Rome.
- ca. 1380 English Church reformer John Wyclif writes that the true faith is preserved only in the East, "among the Greeks."
- 1382-95 First English Bible translated by John Wyclif.
- 1383 Stephen of Perm, missionary to Zyrians, consecrated bishop; appearance of Theotokos of Tikhvin icon.
- 1385 Kreva Agreement provides for conversion of Lithuanian nobles and all pagan Lithuanians to Roman Catholicism, joining Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the Kingdom of Poland through a dynastic union.
- 1387 Lithuania converts to Roman Catholicism, while most Ruthenian lands (Belarus and Ukraine) remain Orthodox.
- 1389 Serbs defeated by Ottoman Turks of Sultan Murad I at the battle of Kosovo Polje; death of Lazar, prince of Serbia.
- 1390 Ottomans take Philadelphia, last significant Byzantine enclave in Anatolia.
- 1391-98 Ottoman Turks unsuccessfully besiege Constantinople for the first time.
- 1410 Iconographer Andrei Rublev paints his most famous icon depicting the three angels who appeared to Abraham and Sarah, the angels being considered a type of the Holy Trinity.
- 1414-18 Council of Constance in Roman Catholic Church represents high point for Conciliar Movement over authority of pope.
- 1417 End of Western Great Schism at the Council of Constance.
- 1418 Latin monk Thomas à Kempis authors The Imitation of Christ.
- 1422 Second unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Constantinople.
- 1423-24 Council of Siena in the Roman Catholic Church was the high point of conciliarism, emphasizing the leadership of the bishops gathered in council, but the conciliarism expressed there was later branded as a heresy.
- 1439 Ecclesiastical reunion with West attempted at Council of Florence, where only Mark of Ephesus refuses to capitulate to demands of delegates from Rome.
- 1440-41 Encyclical Letter of Mark of Ephesus.
- 1444 Donation of Constantine proved forgery.
- 1448 Church of Russia unilaterally declares its independence from the Church of Constantinople; Vatican Library formally established by Pope Nicholas V.
- 1452 Unification of Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox Churches in Hagia Sophia on West's terms, when Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos, under pressure from Rome, allows the union to be proclaimed.
- 1453 Constantinople falls to invasion of the Ottoman Turks, ending Roman Empire; Hagia Sophia turned into a mosque; martyrdom of Constantine XI Palaiologos, last of the Byzantine Emperors; many Greek scholars escape to the West with books that become translated into Latin, triggering the Renaissance.
- Some of these dates are necessarily a bit vague, as records for some periods are particularly difficult to piece together accurately.
- The division of Church History into separate eras as done here will always be to some extent arbitrary, though it was attempted to group periods according to major watershed events.
- This timeline is necessarily biased toward the history of the Orthodox Church, though a number of non-Orthodox or purely political events are mentioned for their importance in history related to Orthodoxy or for reference.
- Timeline of Orthodoxy in America
- Timeline of Orthodoxy in Australia
- Timeline of Orthodoxy in Britain
- Timeline of Orthodoxy in China
- Timeline of Orthodoxy in Greece
- Timeline of Orthodoxy in New Zealand
- Timeline of Orthodoxy in Japan
- Timeline of Orthodoxy in Russia
- Timeline of Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic relations
The following are published writings that provide an overview of Church history:
From an Orthodox perspective
- Schmemann, Alexander. The Historical Road of Eastern Orthodoxy.
- Ware, Timothy. The Orthodox Church: New Edition. (ISBN 0140146563)
- Dr. Kathryn Tsai. A Timeline of Eastern Church History. Divine Ascent Press, CA, 2004. ISBN 0971413924
From a Heterodox perspective
- Boer, Harry R. A Short History of the Early Church. (ISBN 0802813399)
- Cairns, Earle E. Christianity Through the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 0310208122)
- Chadwick, Henry. The Early Church. (ISBN 0140231994)
- Collins, Michael, ed.; Price, Matthew Arlen. Story of Christianity: A Celebration of 2000 Years of Faith. (ISBN 0789446057)
- Eusebius Pamphilus; Cruse, C.F. (translator). Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History. (ISBN 1565633717)
- Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 1: From the Beginnings to the Council of Chalcedon. (ISBN 0687171822)
- Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 2: From Augustine to the Eve of the Reformation. (ISBN 0687171830)
- Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 3: From the Protestant Reformation to the Twentieth Century. (ISBN 0687171849)
- Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity, Volume 1: The Early Church to the Reformation. (ISBN 0060633158)
- Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity, Volume 2: Reformation to the Present Day. (ISBN 0060633166)
- Hall, Stuart G. Doctrine and Practice in the Early Church. (ISBN 0802806295)
- Hastings, Adrian, ed. A World History of Christianity. (ISBN 0802848753)
- Hussey, J. M. The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire: Oxford History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 0198264569)
- Jones, Timothy P. Christian History Made Easy. (ISBN 1890947105)
- Noll, Mark A. Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity. (ISBN 080106211X)
- Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 1: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600). (ISBN 0226653714)
- Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 2: The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600-1700). (ISBN 0226653730)
- Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 3: The Growth of Medieval Theology (600-1300). (ISBN 0226653749)
- Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 4: Reformation of Church and Dogma (1300-1700). (ISBN 0226653773)
- Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 5: Christian Doctrine and Modern Culture (since 1700). (ISBN 0226653803)
- Schaff, Philip. History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 156563196X)
- Wace, Henry; Piercy, William C., ed. A Dictionary of Christian Biography: Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A.D. With an Account of the Principal Sects and Heresies. (ISBN 1565630572)
- Walton, Robert C. Chronological and Background Charts of Church History. (ISBN 0310362814)
- History of Orthodox Christianity (QuickTime movies)
- Timeline of Patriarchal History. Order of St. Andrew the Apostle. Archons of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. (Pop-up Video Presentation, in Sections)