Timeline of Church History (Late Byzantine Era (843-1054))

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*863 First translations of [[Holy Scripture|Biblical]] and liturgical texts into [[Church Slavonic]] by [[Cyril and Methodius]].   
 
*863 First translations of [[Holy Scripture|Biblical]] and liturgical texts into [[Church Slavonic]] by [[Cyril and Methodius]].   
 
*863 Venetians steal relics of [[Apostle Mark]] from Alexandria.   
 
*863 Venetians steal relics of [[Apostle Mark]] from Alexandria.   
*864 Baptism of Prince [[Boris of Bulgaria]]; [[Synaxis]] of the [[Theotokos]] in Miasena in memory of the return of her icon.   
+
*864 Baptism of Prince [[Boris I of Bulgaria|Boris of Bulgaria]]; [[Synaxis]] of the [[Theotokos]] in Miasena in memory of the return of her icon.   
*865 Bulgaria under Khan [[Boris of Bulgaria|Boris I]] converts to [[Orthodox Church|Orthodox Christianity]].     
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*865 Bulgaria under Khan [[Boris I of Bulgaria|Boris I]] converts to [[Orthodox Church|Orthodox Christianity]].     
 
*866 Vikings raid and capture York in England.   
 
*866 Vikings raid and capture York in England.   
*867 [[Council of Constantinople (867)|Council in Constantinople]] held, presided over by [[Photius the Great|Photius]], which anathematizes Pope [[Nicholas I of Rome]] for his attacks on work of Greek missionaries in Bulgaria and use by papal missionaries of [[Filioque]]; Pope Nicholas dies before hearing news of excommunication; [[Basil the Macedonian]] has Emperor [[Michael III]] murdered and usurps Imperial throne, reinstating Ignatius as patriarch of Constantinople.   
+
*867 [[Council of Constantinople (867)|Council in Constantinople]] held, presided over by [[Photius the Great|Photius]], which anathematizes Pope [[Nicholas I of Rome]] for his attacks on work of Greek missionaries in Bulgaria and use by papal missionaries of [[Filioque]]; Pope Nicholas dies before hearing news of excommunication; [[Basil the Macedonian]] has Emperor [[Michael III the Amorian|Michael III]] murdered and usurps Imperial throne, reinstating Ignatius as patriarch of Constantinople.   
 
*867 Death of [[Kassiani the Hymnographer|Kassiani]], Greek-Byzantine poet and hymnographer, who composed the ''[[Hymn of Kassiani]]'', chanted during [[Holy Week]] on Holy Wednesday.   
 
*867 Death of [[Kassiani the Hymnographer|Kassiani]], Greek-Byzantine poet and hymnographer, who composed the ''[[Hymn of Kassiani]]'', chanted during [[Holy Week]] on Holy Wednesday.   
 
*869-870 [[Robber Council of 869-870]] held, deposing [[Photius the Great]] from the Constantinopolitan see and putting the rival claimant Ignatius on the throne, declaring itself to be the "Eighth Ecumenical Council."   
 
*869-870 [[Robber Council of 869-870]] held, deposing [[Photius the Great]] from the Constantinopolitan see and putting the rival claimant Ignatius on the throne, declaring itself to be the "Eighth Ecumenical Council."   
*870 Conversion of Serbia; death of [[Rastislav of Moravia]]; Malta conquered from the Byzantines by the Arabs; martyrdom of [[w:Edmund the Martyr|Edmund]], King of East Anglia.   
+
*870 Gradual collapse of the [[w:Great Moravia|Moravian]] mission beginning with the death of Prince [[Rastislav of Moravia|Rostislav of Moravia]], who is captured and deposed by his nephew, [[w:Svatopluk I|Svátopulk]], who favours more the Latin liturgy and Bavarian clergy represented by the Frankish Bp. Wiching of Nitra (consecrated in 880 as the first Bp. of Nitria);<ref group="note">In Moravia, as in Bulgaria, the Greek mission clashed with German missionaries at work in the same area. Traces of the Slavonic mission lingered on in Moravia for two centuries more, but were eventually eradicated; and Christianity in its western form, with Latin culture and the Latin language (and the filioque), became universal. The attempt to found a Slavonic national Church in Moravia came to nothing. After its collapse in Moravia, the work of the Slavic apostles was saved for the Slavs and Europe by Bulgaria when its ruler Boris, in his endeavor to establish a national church, protected and encouraged the Slavic missionaries who sought refuge in his land. Thus, the Cyrillo-Methodian tradition was preserved and further cultivated in [[Autonomous Archdiocese of Ohrid|Ochrid]] and [[w:Preslav|Preslav]], two great and dissimilar centers which created a rich literature and culture Byzantine in inspiration, yet Slavic in language and ideology. Therefore other countries, where the brothers had not themselves preached, benefited from their work, most notably [[Church of Bulgaria|Bulgaria]], [[Church of Serbia|Serbia]], and [[Church of Russia|Russia]].</ref> Conversion of [[Church of Serbia|Serbia]]; Arabs conquer Malta from the Byzantines; martyrdom of [[w:Edmund the Martyr|Edmund]], King of East Anglia.   
*874 Translation of relics of [[Nicephorus I of Constantinople|Nicephorus the Confessor]], interred in the [[Church of the Holy Apostles (Constantinople)|Church of the Holy Apostles]], Constantinople.  
+
*874 The [[w:Great Moravia|Great Moravian]] king [[w:Svatopluk I|Svátopulk]] subjugated the [[w:Vistulans|Vistulan]] tribe of [[w:Lesser Poland|Lesser Poland]], resulting in the Christianization of Little Poland in the Orthodox Cyrillo-Methodian style (as opposed to the Western Bohemian style), as early as the end of 9th century, before the conversion of Polish King [[w:Mieszko I of Poland|Mieszko I]] in 966;<ref group="note">Antoni Mironowicz. ''[http://www.slonko.com.pl/the-orthodox-church-in-poland.html The Orthodox Church in Poland].'' Sonca.org. 2010.</ref> Translation of relics of [[Nicephorus I of Constantinople|Nicephorus the Confessor]], interred in the [[Church of the Holy Apostles (Constantinople)|Church of the Holy Apostles]], Constantinople.  
 
*877 Death of [[Ignatius of Constantinople]], who appoints [[Photius the Great|Photius]] to succeed him.   
 
*877 Death of [[Ignatius of Constantinople]], who appoints [[Photius the Great|Photius]] to succeed him.   
 
*877 Arab Muslims conquer all of Sicily from Byzantium and make Palermo their capital.   
 
*877 Arab Muslims conquer all of Sicily from Byzantium and make Palermo their capital.   
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*ca. 950 [[Monastery of Hosios Loukas]] founded near Stiris in Greece.   
 
*ca. 950 [[Monastery of Hosios Loukas]] founded near Stiris in Greece.   
 
*957 [[Olga of Kiev]] baptized in Constantinople.     
 
*957 [[Olga of Kiev]] baptized in Constantinople.     
*960 Emperor [[Nicephorus II]] Phocas re-captures [[w:Crete|Crete]] for Byzantines; [[Dunstan of Canterbury|Dunstan]] becomes [[Archbishop of Canterbury]], reforming monasteries and enforcing rule of [[Benedict of Nursia|Benedict]].     
+
*960 Emperor [[Nicephorus II Phocas]] re-captures [[w:Crete|Crete]] for Byzantines; [[Dunstan of Canterbury|Dunstan]] becomes [[Archbishop of Canterbury]], reforming monasteries and enforcing rule of [[Benedict of Nursia|Benedict]].     
 
*962 Denmark becomes Christian nation with [[baptism]] of King Harald Blaatand ("Bluetooth"); [[w:Holy Roman Empire|Holy Roman Empire]] formed, with Pope John XII crowning Otto I the Great Holy Roman Emperor; ''Diploma Ottonianum'' is co-signed by Pope John XII and Otto, confirming the earlier [[w:Donation of Pepin|Donation of Pepin]], granting control of [[w:Papal States|Papal States]] to the Popes, regularizing Papal elections, and clarifying the relationship between Popes and oly Roman Emperors.   
 
*962 Denmark becomes Christian nation with [[baptism]] of King Harald Blaatand ("Bluetooth"); [[w:Holy Roman Empire|Holy Roman Empire]] formed, with Pope John XII crowning Otto I the Great Holy Roman Emperor; ''Diploma Ottonianum'' is co-signed by Pope John XII and Otto, confirming the earlier [[w:Donation of Pepin|Donation of Pepin]], granting control of [[w:Papal States|Papal States]] to the Popes, regularizing Papal elections, and clarifying the relationship between Popes and oly Roman Emperors.   
 
*963 [[Athanasius of Athos]] establishes first major monastery on [[Mount Athos]], the [[Great Lavra (Athos)|Great Lavra]].   
 
*963 [[Athanasius of Athos]] establishes first major monastery on [[Mount Athos]], the [[Great Lavra (Athos)|Great Lavra]].   
*965 Emperor [[Nicephorus II]] Phocas gains Cyprus completely for the Byzantines; [[w:Sviatoslav I of Kiev|Sviatoslav of Kiev]] destroys [[w:Khazars|Khazar]] imperial power, as the Khazar fortresses of Sarkel and Tamatarkha fall to the Rus'.   
+
*ca.963-1018 The [[w:Chronicle of Monemvasia|Chronicle of Monemvasia]] is composed, narrating the events that depict the [[w:Eurasian Avars|Avaro]]-[[w:South Slavs|Slavic]] conquest and colonization of mainland Greece, covering a period from 587 to 805 AD. 
*966 Anti-Christian riots in Jerusalem.  
+
*965 Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas gains Cyprus completely for the Byzantines; [[w:Sviatoslav I of Kiev|Sviatoslav of Kiev]] destroys [[w:Khazars|Khazar]] imperial power, as the Khazar fortresses of Sarkel and Tamatarkha fall to the Rus'.   
 +
*966 Anti-Christian riots in Jerusalem.  
 +
*966 [[w:Mieszko I of Poland|Mieszko I]], the first historical ruler of Poland, accepts Baptism, after marrying the Christian princess [[w:Dobrawa of Bohemia|Dobrawa]] in 965, who as a Czech, had strong Orthodox connections.<ref group="note">Their palace was in Ostrov Tumski, where the royal couple worshipped in a chapel before Christianity became the official religion. It is the foundations of this chapel, marking the beginning of Christian life in Poland, which archaeologists think that they have now uncovered. Its pre-Romanesque structure shows the Orthodox architectural style of Western Europe before the schism. We should recall that in southern Poland, along the Moravian border which had been ruled by [[Rastislav of Moravia|St Rostislav]], Slav Orthodox missionaries had begun their task of spiritual enlightenment well before Mieszko’s marriage to Dobrawa. This discovery will surely lead the spiritually sensitive in Poland to realise that '''the origins of Poland's Christian faith are in Orthodoxy, and not in late eleventh-century Roman Catholicism. This was imported from Germany, and only developed to any great extent in Poland in the twelfth century.''' (''Orthodox England. [http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/poland.htm Orthodox Europe: Poland uncovers its original Orthodoxy].'')</ref>
 
*968 [[Rila Monastery]] founded; Sviatoslav of Kiev defeats Bulgarians at the [[w:Battle of Silistra|Battle of Silistra]], precipitating the collapse of the First Bulgarian Empire.   
 
*968 [[Rila Monastery]] founded; Sviatoslav of Kiev defeats Bulgarians at the [[w:Battle of Silistra|Battle of Silistra]], precipitating the collapse of the First Bulgarian Empire.   
 
*968-71 Fifth [[w:Rus'-Byzantine War (968-971)#Campaigns in the Balkans|Rus-Byzantine War]], resulting in a Byzantine victory over the coalition of Rus', Pechenegs, Magyars, and Bulgarians in the [[w:Battle of Arcadiopolis|Battle of Arcadiopolis]], and the defeat of [[w:Sviatoslav I of Kiev|Sviatoslav of Kiev]] by [[w:John I Tzimiskes|John I Tzimiskes]].   
 
*968-71 Fifth [[w:Rus'-Byzantine War (968-971)#Campaigns in the Balkans|Rus-Byzantine War]], resulting in a Byzantine victory over the coalition of Rus', Pechenegs, Magyars, and Bulgarians in the [[w:Battle of Arcadiopolis|Battle of Arcadiopolis]], and the defeat of [[w:Sviatoslav I of Kiev|Sviatoslav of Kiev]] by [[w:John I Tzimiskes|John I Tzimiskes]].   
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*1053 Death of [[Lazarus the Wonder-worker]] of Mount Galesius near Ephesus.
 
*1053 Death of [[Lazarus the Wonder-worker]] of Mount Galesius near Ephesus.
  
==Notes==  
+
==Notes==
*Some of these dates are necessarily a bit vague, as records for some periods are particularly difficult to piece together accurately. 
+
<references group="note" /> 
*The division of Church History into separate eras as done here will always be to some extent arbitrary, though it was attempted to group periods according to major watershed events. 
+
*This timeline is necessarily biased toward the history of the [[Orthodox Church]], though a number of non-Orthodox or purely political events are mentioned for their importance in history related to Orthodoxy or for reference. 
+
 
      
 
      
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
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* [[Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia|Ware, Timothy]]. ''The Orthodox Church: New Edition''. (ISBN 0140146563)  
 
* [[Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia|Ware, Timothy]]. ''The Orthodox Church: New Edition''. (ISBN 0140146563)  
 
* Dr. Kathryn Tsai. ''A Timeline of Eastern Church History.'' [[St. John of San Francisco Monastery (Manton, California)|Divine Ascent Press]], CA, 2004. ISBN 0971413924   
 
* Dr. Kathryn Tsai. ''A Timeline of Eastern Church History.'' [[St. John of San Francisco Monastery (Manton, California)|Divine Ascent Press]], CA, 2004. ISBN 0971413924   
 +
* Robert Ousterhout. ''Rebuilding the Temple: Constantine Monomachus and the Holy Sepulchre.'' '''Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians'''. Vol.48, No.1, Mar., 1989. pp. 66-78.
 
      
 
      
 
'''From a [[Heterodox]] perspective'''   
 
'''From a [[Heterodox]] perspective'''   

Latest revision as of 16:35, November 20, 2012

Timeline of Church History
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The History of the Church is a vital part of the Orthodox Christian faith. Orthodox Christians are defined significantly by their continuity with all those who have gone before, those who first received and preached the truth of Jesus Christ to the world, those who helped to formulate the expression and worship of our faith, and those who continue to move forward in the unchanging yet ever-dynamic Holy Tradition of the Orthodox Church.

Contents

Late Byzantine era (843-1054)

Notes

  1. In Moravia, as in Bulgaria, the Greek mission clashed with German missionaries at work in the same area. Traces of the Slavonic mission lingered on in Moravia for two centuries more, but were eventually eradicated; and Christianity in its western form, with Latin culture and the Latin language (and the filioque), became universal. The attempt to found a Slavonic national Church in Moravia came to nothing. After its collapse in Moravia, the work of the Slavic apostles was saved for the Slavs and Europe by Bulgaria when its ruler Boris, in his endeavor to establish a national church, protected and encouraged the Slavic missionaries who sought refuge in his land. Thus, the Cyrillo-Methodian tradition was preserved and further cultivated in Ochrid and Preslav, two great and dissimilar centers which created a rich literature and culture Byzantine in inspiration, yet Slavic in language and ideology. Therefore other countries, where the brothers had not themselves preached, benefited from their work, most notably Bulgaria, Serbia, and Russia.
  2. Antoni Mironowicz. The Orthodox Church in Poland. Sonca.org. 2010.
  3. Their palace was in Ostrov Tumski, where the royal couple worshipped in a chapel before Christianity became the official religion. It is the foundations of this chapel, marking the beginning of Christian life in Poland, which archaeologists think that they have now uncovered. Its pre-Romanesque structure shows the Orthodox architectural style of Western Europe before the schism. We should recall that in southern Poland, along the Moravian border which had been ruled by St Rostislav, Slav Orthodox missionaries had begun their task of spiritual enlightenment well before Mieszko’s marriage to Dobrawa. This discovery will surely lead the spiritually sensitive in Poland to realise that the origins of Poland's Christian faith are in Orthodoxy, and not in late eleventh-century Roman Catholicism. This was imported from Germany, and only developed to any great extent in Poland in the twelfth century. (Orthodox England. Orthodox Europe: Poland uncovers its original Orthodoxy.)

See also

Published works

The following are published writings that provide an overview of Church history:

From an Orthodox perspective

From a Heterodox perspective

  • Cairns, Earle E. Christianity Through the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 0310208122)
  • Collins, Michael, ed.; Price, Matthew Arlen. Story of Christianity: A Celebration of 2000 Years of Faith. (ISBN 0789446057)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 2: From Augustine to the Eve of the Reformation. (ISBN 0687171830)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity, Volume 1: The Early Church to the Reformation. (ISBN 0060633158)
  • Hastings, Adrian, ed. A World History of Christianity. (ISBN 0802848753)
  • Hussey, J. M. The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire: Oxford History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 0198264569)
  • Jones, Timothy P. Christian History Made Easy. (ISBN 1890947105)
  • Noll, Mark A. Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity. (ISBN 080106211X)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 2: The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600-1700). (ISBN 0226653730)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 3: The Growth of Medieval Theology (600-1300). (ISBN 0226653749)
  • Schaff, Philip. History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 156563196X)
  • Walton, Robert C. Chronological and Background Charts of Church History. (ISBN 0310362814)

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