Timeline of Church History (Late Byzantine Era (843-1054))

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The '''History of the Church''' is a vital part of the Orthodox Christian faith. Orthodox Christians are defined significantly by their continuity with all those who have gone before, those who first received and preached the truth of [[Jesus Christ]] to the world, those who helped to formulate the expression and worship of our faith, and those who continue to move forward in the unchanging yet ever-dynamic [[Holy Tradition]] of the [[Orthodox Church]].   
 
The '''History of the Church''' is a vital part of the Orthodox Christian faith. Orthodox Christians are defined significantly by their continuity with all those who have gone before, those who first received and preached the truth of [[Jesus Christ]] to the world, those who helped to formulate the expression and worship of our faith, and those who continue to move forward in the unchanging yet ever-dynamic [[Holy Tradition]] of the [[Orthodox Church]].   
  
==Late Byzantine era (843-1453)==
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==Late Byzantine era (843-1054)==
 
*843 [[Triumph of Orthodoxy]] occurs on first Sunday of [[Great Lent]], restoring [[iconography|icons]] to churches.   
 
*843 [[Triumph of Orthodoxy]] occurs on first Sunday of [[Great Lent]], restoring [[iconography|icons]] to churches.   
 
*845 42 Martyrs of Ammoria in Phrygia taken as hostages from Ammoria to Samarra (in Iraq) and executed there; noted Greek scholar [[w:Johannes Scotus Eriugena|Johannes Scotus Erigena]] takes over the Palatine Academy at Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) in France.   
 
*845 42 Martyrs of Ammoria in Phrygia taken as hostages from Ammoria to Samarra (in Iraq) and executed there; noted Greek scholar [[w:Johannes Scotus Eriugena|Johannes Scotus Erigena]] takes over the Palatine Academy at Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) in France.   
 
*846 Muslim raid of Rome.   
 
*846 Muslim raid of Rome.   
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*ca.847 Death of [[Theophanes the Confessor|Theophanes the Hymnographer (the Branded)]].
 
*850 [[Third Finding of the Head of St. John the Forerunner|Third Finding]] of the head of [[John the Forerunner]] ; Bishop Censteg of Dingerein in Cornwall accepts the authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury.   
 
*850 [[Third Finding of the Head of St. John the Forerunner|Third Finding]] of the head of [[John the Forerunner]] ; Bishop Censteg of Dingerein in Cornwall accepts the authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury.   
 
*852 [[Ansgar]] founds churches at Hedeby and Ribe in Denmark.   
 
*852 [[Ansgar]] founds churches at Hedeby and Ribe in Denmark.   
 
*858 [[Photius the Great]] becomes patriarch of Constantinople.   
 
*858 [[Photius the Great]] becomes patriarch of Constantinople.   
 
*860 [[w:Rus'-Byzantine War (860)|Second Rus-Byzantine War]], a naval raid and the first siege of Constantinople by the Rus.   
 
*860 [[w:Rus'-Byzantine War (860)|Second Rus-Byzantine War]], a naval raid and the first siege of Constantinople by the Rus.   
*ca. 860 [[w:Christianization of the Rus' Khaganate|Christianization of the Rus' Khaganate]].   
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*ca. 860 [[Christianization of Kievan Rus'|Christianization of the Rus' Khaganate]].   
*861 [[Cyril and Methodius]] depart from Constantinople to [[Church of Russia#Conversion of the Slavs|missionize the Slavs]]; Council of Constantinople attended by 318 fathers and presided over by papal legates confirms [[Photius the Great]] as patriarch and passes 17 canons.   
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*861 [[Cyril and Methodius]] depart from Constantinople to [[Church of Russia#Conversion of the Slavs|missionize the Slavs]]; [[Council of Constantinople (861)|Council of Constantinople]] attended by 318 fathers and presided over by papal legates confirms [[Photius the Great]] as patriarch and passes 17 canons.   
 
*862 [[Rastislav of Moravia]] converts to Christianity.   
 
*862 [[Rastislav of Moravia]] converts to Christianity.   
 
*863 First translations of [[Holy Scripture|Biblical]] and liturgical texts into [[Church Slavonic]] by [[Cyril and Methodius]].   
 
*863 First translations of [[Holy Scripture|Biblical]] and liturgical texts into [[Church Slavonic]] by [[Cyril and Methodius]].   
 
*863 Venetians steal relics of [[Apostle Mark]] from Alexandria.   
 
*863 Venetians steal relics of [[Apostle Mark]] from Alexandria.   
*864 Baptism of Prince [[Boris of Bulgaria]]; [[Synaxis]] of the [[Theotokos]] in Miasena in memory of the return of her icon.   
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*864 Baptism of Prince [[Boris I of Bulgaria|Boris of Bulgaria]]; [[Synaxis]] of the [[Theotokos]] in Miasena in memory of the return of her icon.   
*865 Bulgaria under Khan [[Boris of Bulgaria|Boris I]] converts to [[Orthodox Church|Orthodox Christianity]].     
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*865 Bulgaria under Khan [[Boris I of Bulgaria|Boris I]] converts to [[Orthodox Church|Orthodox Christianity]].     
 
*866 Vikings raid and capture York in England.   
 
*866 Vikings raid and capture York in England.   
*867 Council in Constantinople held, presided over by [[Photius the Great|Photius]], which anathematizes Pope [[Nicholas I of Rome]] for his attacks on work of Greek missionaries in Bulgaria and use by papal missionaries of [[Filioque]]; Pope Nicholas dies before hearing news of excommunication; [[Basil the Macedonian]] has Emperor [[Michael III]] murdered and usurps Imperial throne, reinstating Ignatius as patriarch of Constantinople.   
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*867 [[Council of Constantinople (867)|Council in Constantinople]] held, presided over by [[Photius the Great|Photius]], which anathematizes Pope [[Nicholas I of Rome]] for his attacks on work of Greek missionaries in Bulgaria and use by papal missionaries of [[Filioque]]; Pope Nicholas dies before hearing news of excommunication; [[Basil the Macedonian]] has Emperor [[Michael III the Amorian|Michael III]] murdered and usurps Imperial throne, reinstating Ignatius as patriarch of Constantinople.   
 
*867 Death of [[Kassiani the Hymnographer|Kassiani]], Greek-Byzantine poet and hymnographer, who composed the ''[[Hymn of Kassiani]]'', chanted during [[Holy Week]] on Holy Wednesday.   
 
*867 Death of [[Kassiani the Hymnographer|Kassiani]], Greek-Byzantine poet and hymnographer, who composed the ''[[Hymn of Kassiani]]'', chanted during [[Holy Week]] on Holy Wednesday.   
 
*869-870 [[Robber Council of 869-870]] held, deposing [[Photius the Great]] from the Constantinopolitan see and putting the rival claimant Ignatius on the throne, declaring itself to be the "Eighth Ecumenical Council."   
 
*869-870 [[Robber Council of 869-870]] held, deposing [[Photius the Great]] from the Constantinopolitan see and putting the rival claimant Ignatius on the throne, declaring itself to be the "Eighth Ecumenical Council."   
*870 Conversion of Serbia; death of [[Rastislav of Moravia]]; Malta conquered from the Byzantines by the Arabs; martyrdom of [[w:Edmund the Martyr|Edmund]], King of East Anglia.   
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*870 Gradual collapse of the [[w:Great Moravia|Moravian]] mission beginning with the death of Prince [[Rastislav of Moravia|Rostislav of Moravia]], who is captured and deposed by his nephew, [[w:Svatopluk I|Svátopulk]], who favours more the Latin liturgy and Bavarian clergy represented by the Frankish Bp. Wiching of Nitra (consecrated in 880 as the first Bp. of Nitria);<ref group="note">In Moravia, as in Bulgaria, the Greek mission clashed with German missionaries at work in the same area. Traces of the Slavonic mission lingered on in Moravia for two centuries more, but were eventually eradicated; and Christianity in its western form, with Latin culture and the Latin language (and the filioque), became universal. The attempt to found a Slavonic national Church in Moravia came to nothing. After its collapse in Moravia, the work of the Slavic apostles was saved for the Slavs and Europe by Bulgaria when its ruler Boris, in his endeavor to establish a national church, protected and encouraged the Slavic missionaries who sought refuge in his land. Thus, the Cyrillo-Methodian tradition was preserved and further cultivated in [[Autonomous Archdiocese of Ohrid|Ochrid]] and [[w:Preslav|Preslav]], two great and dissimilar centers which created a rich literature and culture Byzantine in inspiration, yet Slavic in language and ideology. Therefore other countries, where the brothers had not themselves preached, benefited from their work, most notably [[Church of Bulgaria|Bulgaria]], [[Church of Serbia|Serbia]], and [[Church of Russia|Russia]].</ref> Conversion of [[Church of Serbia|Serbia]]; Arabs conquer Malta from the Byzantines; martyrdom of [[w:Edmund the Martyr|Edmund]], King of East Anglia.   
*874 Translation of relics of [[Nicephorus I of Constantinople|Nicephorus the Confessor]], interred in the [[Church of the Holy Apostles (Constantinople)|Church of the Holy Apostles]], Constantinople.  
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*874 The [[w:Great Moravia|Great Moravian]] king [[w:Svatopluk I|Svátopulk]] subjugated the [[w:Vistulans|Vistulan]] tribe of [[w:Lesser Poland|Lesser Poland]], resulting in the Christianization of Little Poland in the Orthodox Cyrillo-Methodian style (as opposed to the Western Bohemian style), as early as the end of 9th century, before the conversion of Polish King [[w:Mieszko I of Poland|Mieszko I]] in 966;<ref group="note">Antoni Mironowicz. ''[http://www.slonko.com.pl/the-orthodox-church-in-poland.html The Orthodox Church in Poland].'' Sonca.org. 2010.</ref> Translation of relics of [[Nicephorus I of Constantinople|Nicephorus the Confessor]], interred in the [[Church of the Holy Apostles (Constantinople)|Church of the Holy Apostles]], Constantinople.  
 
*877 Death of [[Ignatius of Constantinople]], who appoints [[Photius the Great|Photius]] to succeed him.   
 
*877 Death of [[Ignatius of Constantinople]], who appoints [[Photius the Great|Photius]] to succeed him.   
 
*877 Arab Muslims conquer all of Sicily from Byzantium and make Palermo their capital.   
 
*877 Arab Muslims conquer all of Sicily from Byzantium and make Palermo their capital.   
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*933 Death of Patr. [[Tryphon of Constantinople]].  
 
*933 Death of Patr. [[Tryphon of Constantinople]].  
 
*934 Death of Bp. [[Birnstan of Winchester]], known for his work with the poor, and his mission of praying for the dead.  
 
*934 Death of Bp. [[Birnstan of Winchester]], known for his work with the poor, and his mission of praying for the dead.  
*935 Martyrdom of [[Wenceslaus]], prince of the Czechs.   
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*935 Martyrdom of [[Wenceslas]], prince of the Czechs.   
 
*941 Fourth [[w:Rus'-Byzantine War (941)|Rus-Byzantine War]].   
 
*941 Fourth [[w:Rus'-Byzantine War (941)|Rus-Byzantine War]].   
*944 City of Edessa recovered by Byzantine army, including [[Icon Not Made By Hands]] ; The [[Western Rite|Western Rite]] Monastery of the Holy Saviour is established in Constantinople under Imperial favour.   
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*944 City of Edessa recovered by Byzantine army, including [[Image Not-made-by-hands|Icon Not Made By Hands]] ; The [[Western Rite|Western Rite]] Monastery of the Holy Saviour is established in Constantinople under Imperial favour.   
 
*945 [[Dunstan of Canterbury|Dunstan]] becomes Abbot of [[w:Glastonbury Abbey|Glastonbury]].     
 
*945 [[Dunstan of Canterbury|Dunstan]] becomes Abbot of [[w:Glastonbury Abbey|Glastonbury]].     
 
*948 Future Holy Roman Emperor Otto I the Great founds missionary dioceses of Brandenburg, Havelburg, Ribe, Aarhus, and Schleswig.     
 
*948 Future Holy Roman Emperor Otto I the Great founds missionary dioceses of Brandenburg, Havelburg, Ribe, Aarhus, and Schleswig.     
 
*ca. 950 [[Monastery of Hosios Loukas]] founded near Stiris in Greece.   
 
*ca. 950 [[Monastery of Hosios Loukas]] founded near Stiris in Greece.   
 
*957 [[Olga of Kiev]] baptized in Constantinople.     
 
*957 [[Olga of Kiev]] baptized in Constantinople.     
*960 Emperor [[Nicephorus II]] Phocas re-captures [[w:Crete|Crete]] for Byzantines; [[Dunstan of Canterbury|Dunstan]] becomes [[Archbishop of Canterbury]], reforming monasteries and enforcing rule of [[Benedict of Nursia|Benedict]].     
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*960 Emperor [[Nicephorus II Phocas]] re-captures [[w:Crete|Crete]] for Byzantines; [[Dunstan of Canterbury|Dunstan]] becomes [[Archbishop of Canterbury]], reforming monasteries and enforcing rule of [[Benedict of Nursia|Benedict]].     
 
*962 Denmark becomes Christian nation with [[baptism]] of King Harald Blaatand ("Bluetooth"); [[w:Holy Roman Empire|Holy Roman Empire]] formed, with Pope John XII crowning Otto I the Great Holy Roman Emperor; ''Diploma Ottonianum'' is co-signed by Pope John XII and Otto, confirming the earlier [[w:Donation of Pepin|Donation of Pepin]], granting control of [[w:Papal States|Papal States]] to the Popes, regularizing Papal elections, and clarifying the relationship between Popes and oly Roman Emperors.   
 
*962 Denmark becomes Christian nation with [[baptism]] of King Harald Blaatand ("Bluetooth"); [[w:Holy Roman Empire|Holy Roman Empire]] formed, with Pope John XII crowning Otto I the Great Holy Roman Emperor; ''Diploma Ottonianum'' is co-signed by Pope John XII and Otto, confirming the earlier [[w:Donation of Pepin|Donation of Pepin]], granting control of [[w:Papal States|Papal States]] to the Popes, regularizing Papal elections, and clarifying the relationship between Popes and oly Roman Emperors.   
 
*963 [[Athanasius of Athos]] establishes first major monastery on [[Mount Athos]], the [[Great Lavra (Athos)|Great Lavra]].   
 
*963 [[Athanasius of Athos]] establishes first major monastery on [[Mount Athos]], the [[Great Lavra (Athos)|Great Lavra]].   
*965 Emperor [[Nicephorus II]] Phocas gains Cyprus completely for the Byzantines; [[w:Sviatoslav I of Kiev|Sviatoslav of Kiev]] destroys [[w:Khazars|Khazar]] imperial power, as the Khazar fortresses of Sarkel and Tamatarkha fall to the Rus'.   
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*ca.963-1018 The [[w:Chronicle of Monemvasia|Chronicle of Monemvasia]] is composed, narrating the events that depict the [[w:Eurasian Avars|Avaro]]-[[w:South Slavs|Slavic]] conquest and colonization of mainland Greece, covering a period from 587 to 805 AD. 
*966 Anti-Christian riots in Jerusalem.  
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*965 Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas gains Cyprus completely for the Byzantines; [[w:Sviatoslav I of Kiev|Sviatoslav of Kiev]] destroys [[w:Khazars|Khazar]] imperial power, as the Khazar fortresses of Sarkel and Tamatarkha fall to the Rus'.   
 +
*966 Anti-Christian riots in Jerusalem.  
 +
*966 [[w:Mieszko I of Poland|Mieszko I]], the first historical ruler of Poland, accepts Baptism, after marrying the Christian princess [[w:Dobrawa of Bohemia|Dobrawa]] in 965, who as a Czech, had strong Orthodox connections.<ref group="note">Their palace was in Ostrov Tumski, where the royal couple worshipped in a chapel before Christianity became the official religion. It is the foundations of this chapel, marking the beginning of Christian life in Poland, which archaeologists think that they have now uncovered. Its pre-Romanesque structure shows the Orthodox architectural style of Western Europe before the schism. We should recall that in southern Poland, along the Moravian border which had been ruled by [[Rastislav of Moravia|St Rostislav]], Slav Orthodox missionaries had begun their task of spiritual enlightenment well before Mieszko’s marriage to Dobrawa. This discovery will surely lead the spiritually sensitive in Poland to realise that '''the origins of Poland's Christian faith are in Orthodoxy, and not in late eleventh-century Roman Catholicism. This was imported from Germany, and only developed to any great extent in Poland in the twelfth century.''' (''Orthodox England. [http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/poland.htm Orthodox Europe: Poland uncovers its original Orthodoxy].'')</ref>
 
*968 [[Rila Monastery]] founded; Sviatoslav of Kiev defeats Bulgarians at the [[w:Battle of Silistra|Battle of Silistra]], precipitating the collapse of the First Bulgarian Empire.   
 
*968 [[Rila Monastery]] founded; Sviatoslav of Kiev defeats Bulgarians at the [[w:Battle of Silistra|Battle of Silistra]], precipitating the collapse of the First Bulgarian Empire.   
 
*968-71 Fifth [[w:Rus'-Byzantine War (968-971)#Campaigns in the Balkans|Rus-Byzantine War]], resulting in a Byzantine victory over the coalition of Rus', Pechenegs, Magyars, and Bulgarians in the [[w:Battle of Arcadiopolis|Battle of Arcadiopolis]], and the defeat of [[w:Sviatoslav I of Kiev|Sviatoslav of Kiev]] by [[w:John I Tzimiskes|John I Tzimiskes]].   
 
*968-71 Fifth [[w:Rus'-Byzantine War (968-971)#Campaigns in the Balkans|Rus-Byzantine War]], resulting in a Byzantine victory over the coalition of Rus', Pechenegs, Magyars, and Bulgarians in the [[w:Battle of Arcadiopolis|Battle of Arcadiopolis]], and the defeat of [[w:Sviatoslav I of Kiev|Sviatoslav of Kiev]] by [[w:John I Tzimiskes|John I Tzimiskes]].   
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*983 Martyrdom of Theodore the [[w:Varangian Guard|Varangian]] and his son John of Kiev.   
 
*983 Martyrdom of Theodore the [[w:Varangian Guard|Varangian]] and his son John of Kiev.   
 
*987 Sixth [[w:Rus'-Byzantine War (987)#Baptism of Vladimir|Rus-Byzantine War]], where [[Vladimir of Kiev]] dispatches troops to the Byzantine Empire to assist Emperor [[w:Basil II|Basil II]] with an internal revolt, agreeing to accept [[Orthodox Christianity]] as his religion and bring his people to the new faith.     
 
*987 Sixth [[w:Rus'-Byzantine War (987)#Baptism of Vladimir|Rus-Byzantine War]], where [[Vladimir of Kiev]] dispatches troops to the Byzantine Empire to assist Emperor [[w:Basil II|Basil II]] with an internal revolt, agreeing to accept [[Orthodox Christianity]] as his religion and bring his people to the new faith.     
*988 [[Baptism of Rus']] begins with the conversion of [[Vladimir of Kiev]] who is baptized at [[w:Chersonesos|Chersonesos]], the birthplace of the Russian and Ukrainian Orthodox churches; Vladimir marries Anna, sister of Byzantine emperor Basil II.  
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*988 [[Baptism of Rus']] begins with the conversion of [[Vladimir of Kiev]] who is baptized at [[w:Chersonesos|Chersonesos]], the birthplace of the Russian and Ukrainian Orthodox churches; Vladimir marries Anna, sister of Byzantine emperor Basil II.
 +
*989 The ''[[w:Peace_and_Truce_of_God#Peace_of_God|Pax Dei]]'' or ''Peace of God'' was decreed at the Synod of Charroux, to publicize and enforce what were argued to be eternal principles of protection for churchmen, church property, and the particular protégés of the Church, the poor, becoming a movement that spread to most of Western Europe over the next century, surviving in some form until at least the thirteenth century.
 
*992 Death of [[Michael of Kiev|Michael]], first Metropolitan of Kiev.   
 
*992 Death of [[Michael of Kiev|Michael]], first Metropolitan of Kiev.   
 
*995 [[Olaf of Norway]] proclaims Norway to be a Christian kingdom; relics of [[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne|Cuthbert]] transferred with his community to Durham.   
 
*995 [[Olaf of Norway]] proclaims Norway to be a Christian kingdom; relics of [[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne|Cuthbert]] transferred with his community to Durham.   
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*ca.10th c. [[w:Paris Psalter|Paris Psalter]] produced, a Byzantine [[w:Illuminated manuscript|illuminated manuscript]] containing 449 folios and 14 full-page miniatures "in a grand, almost classical style", considered a key monument of the so-called [[w:Macedonian Renaissance|Macedonian Renaissance]] in [[w:Byzantine art|Byzantine art]].
 
*1000 Conversion of Greenland and Iceland.   
 
*1000 Conversion of Greenland and Iceland.   
 
*1008 Conversion of Sweden.   
 
*1008 Conversion of Sweden.   
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*1024 Seventh [[w:Rus'-Byzantine War (1024)|Rus-Byzantine War]], Byzantine naval victory.   
 
*1024 Seventh [[w:Rus'-Byzantine War (1024)|Rus-Byzantine War]], Byzantine naval victory.   
 
*1027 Frankish protectorate over Christian interests in Jerusalem is replaced by a Byzantine protectorate, which begin reconstruction of [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Holy Sepulchre]].  
 
*1027 Frankish protectorate over Christian interests in Jerusalem is replaced by a Byzantine protectorate, which begin reconstruction of [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Holy Sepulchre]].  
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*1033 Death of [[Melchizedek I of Georgia]].
 
*1034 Patriarch [[Alexius I of Constantinople|Alexius I Studites]] writes the first complete ''Studite [[Typikon]],'' for a monastery he established near Constantinople; this was the [[Typikon]] introduced into the Rus' lands by [[Theodosius of the Kiev Caves]].  
 
*1034 Patriarch [[Alexius I of Constantinople|Alexius I Studites]] writes the first complete ''Studite [[Typikon]],'' for a monastery he established near Constantinople; this was the [[Typikon]] introduced into the Rus' lands by [[Theodosius of the Kiev Caves]].  
 
*1036 Byzantine [[w:Michael IV the Paphlagonian|Emperor Michael IV]] makes a truce with the Caliph of Egypt to allow rebuilding of the [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] by Byzantine masons; [[w:Varangian Guard|Varangian Guard]] of the Byzantine Emperor sent to protect pilgrims.  
 
*1036 Byzantine [[w:Michael IV the Paphlagonian|Emperor Michael IV]] makes a truce with the Caliph of Egypt to allow rebuilding of the [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] by Byzantine masons; [[w:Varangian Guard|Varangian Guard]] of the Byzantine Emperor sent to protect pilgrims.  
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*1051 [[Monastery of the Kiev Caves]] founded.   
 
*1051 [[Monastery of the Kiev Caves]] founded.   
 
*1052 [[Edward the Confessor]] founds Westminster Abbey, near London.   
 
*1052 [[Edward the Confessor]] founds Westminster Abbey, near London.   
*1053 Death of [[Lazarus the Wonder-worker]] of Mount Galesius near Ephesus
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*1053 Death of [[Lazarus the Wonder-worker]] of Mount Galesius near Ephesus.
*1054 Cardinal [[Humbert]] excommunicates [[Michael Cerularius]], patriarch of Constantinople, a major centerpoint in the formation of the [[Great Schism]] between East and West; First Letter of [[Michael Cerularius]] to Peter of Antioch. 
+
*1059 Errors of Berengar of Tours condemned in Rome; term ''transubstantiation'' begins to come in to use, ascribed to [[Peter Damian]]. 
+
*1064 [[w:Seljuk Turks|Seljuk Turks]] storm Anatolia taking Caesarea and Ani, conquering Armenia. 
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*1066 Normans invade England flying banner of Pope of Rome, defeating King [[Harold of England]] at Battle of Hastings. 
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*1066-1171 Beginning reformation of English church and society to align with Latin continental ecclesiology and politics. 
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*1071 [[w:Seljuk Turks|Seljuk Turks]] defeat Byzantines at the [[w:Battle of Manzikert|Battle of Manzikert]], beginning Islamification of Asia Minor; Norman princes led by [[w:Robert Guiscard|Robert Guiscard]] capture Bari, the last Byzantine stronghold in Italy, bringing to an end over five centuries of [[w:Catapanate of Italy|Byzantine rule in the south]]. 
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*ca. 1071-1176 Byzantine epic poem [http://www.enotes.com/classical-medieval-criticism/digenes-akrites "Digenes Akrites"]. 
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*1073 Hildebrand becomes Pope [[Grgeory VII of Rome|Gregory VII]] and launches the [[w:Gregorian Reform|Gregorian reforms]] (celibacy of the clergy, primacy of papacy over empire, right of Pope to depose emperors); Seljuk Turks conquer Ankara. 
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*1074 Death of [[Theodosius of the Kiev Caves]]. 
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*1075 ''[[w:Dictatus papae|Dictatus Papae]]'' document advances Papal supremacy. 
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*1077 The Seljuk Turks capture Jerusalem and kill 3,000 citizens; Seljuks capture Nicea. 
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*1084 Antioch is captured by the Seljuk Turks from the Byzantines. 
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*1087 Translation of the relics of [[Nicholas of Myra]] from Myra to Bari. 
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*1088 Founding of monastery of [[Apostle John|John the Theologian]] on Patmos; election of Pope [[w:Pope Urban II|Urban II]], a prominent member of the [[w:Cluniac Reforms|Cluniac Reform movement]] . 
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*1095 Launching of the [[w:First Crusade|First Crusade]]. 
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*1096 Persecution of Jews by Crusaders. 
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*1098 Anselm of Canterbury completes ''Cur Deus homo'', marking a radical divergence of Western theology of the atonement from that of the East.   
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*1098 Crusaders capture Antioch. 
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*1099 Crusaders capture Jerusalem founding the [[w:Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem|Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem]] and other crusader states known collectively as "[[w:Outremer|Outremer]]." 
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*1108 Death of Nicetas of [[Monastery of the Kiev Caves|Kiev Caves]], Bishop of Novgorod. 
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*1113 Latin Order of [[w:Knights Hospitaller|Knights Hospitaller]] founded as a religious/military order under its own charter, charged with the care and defense of the Holy Land and pilgrims. 
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*1118 Latin Order of [[w:Knights Templar|Knights Templar]] founded.
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*1118-1137 Imperial [http://www.byzantium1200.com/pantocra.html monastery of Christ Pantocrator] founded. 
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*ca. 1131-45 Coptic Pope of Alexandria [[w:Pope Gabriel II of Alexandria|Gabriel II]] initiates addition of Arabic as a liturgical language with his Arabic translation of the [[Divine Liturgy|Liturgy]]. 
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*ca. 1120-1220 Spread of Aristotelian philosophy throughout Western Europe, mostly via the translations of [[w:Averroes|Averroes]] and [[w:Maimonides|Maimonides]]. 
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*1120 [[w:Council of Nablus|Council of Nablus]] is held in Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. 
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*1127-1145 [[w:Constantinople|Constantinople]] [[w:List of largest cities throughout history|largest city in the world]] by population. 
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*1144 Bernard of Clairvaux calls for a [[w:Second Crusade|Second Crusade]] to rescue the besieged Latin kingdom of Jerusalem; Kings Louis VII of France and Konrad III of Germany join Crusaders, but are defeated by Muslims; Muslims take Christian stronghold of Edessa. 
+
*1147 Moscow founded by Prince Yuri Dolgoruki, a ruler of the northeastern Rus'; [[w:Roger II of Sicily|Roger II of Sicily]] takes Corfu from the Byzantine Empire, and pillages Corinth, Athens and Thebes. 
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*1149 Crusaders begin to renovate [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] in Romanesque style, adding a bell tower. 
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*1159 [[w:John of Salisbury|John of Salisbury]] authors ''[[w:Policraticus|Policraticus]]'', a treatise on government drawing from the [[Holy Scripture|Bible]], the [[w:Corpus Juris Civilis|Codex Justinianus]], and arguing for [[w:Divine Right of Kings|Divine Right of Kings]].   
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*1164 Uncovering of the relics of [[Leontius of Rostov]]. 
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*1170 Miracle of the weeping icon of the [[Theotokos]] "of the Sign" at Novgorod; Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland; city of Dublin captured by the Normans.   
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*1176 [[w:Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm|Sultanate of Rum]] defeats Byzantine Empire in the [[w:Battle of Myriokephalon|Battle of Myriokephalon]], marking end of Byzantine attempts to recover Anatolian plateau; Al-Adil I, Muslim ruler of Egypt, suppresses a revolt by Christian Copts in city of Qift, hanging nearly 3,000 of them. 
+
*1177 Latin King Baldwin of Jerusalem and his knights, with Templars, defeat Muslim army of Saladin at [[w:Battle of Montgisard|Battle of Montgisard]]. 
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*1179 Death of [[w:Hildegard of Bingen|Hildegard von Bingen]]. 
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*1180 Last formal acceptance of Latins to communion at an Orthodox altar in Antioch. 
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*1182 [[Maronite Catholic Church|Maronites]], who assisted the Crusaders during the Crusades, reaffirm their affiliation with Rome in 1182; dedication of [[w:Monreale#The_Cathedral|Monreale Cathedral]] in Sicily, containing the largest cycle of Byzantine mosaics extant in Italy. 
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*1185 [[w:Second Bulgarian Empire|Second Bulgarian Empire]] founded. 
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*1186 Byzantine Empire recognizes independence of Bulgaria and Serbia. 
+
*1187 [[w:Saladin|Saladin]] retakes Jerusalem after destroying crusader army at [[w:Battle of Hattin (1187)|Battle of Hattin]], and returns Christian holy places to [[Church of Jerusalem|Orthodox Church]]. 
+
*1189 [[w:Third Crusade|Third Crusade]] led by King Richard the Lion-Hearted of England, King Philip Augustus II of France, and Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. 
+
*ca. 1189 Ethiopian Emperor [[w:Gebre Mesqel Lalibela|Gebre Mesqel Lalibela]] orders construction of [[w:Lalibela|Lalibela]]. 
+
*1191 Cyprus taken from Byzantines by English King Richard I the Lion-hearted. 
+
*1198 Cyprus sold by England to Frankish crusaders. 
+
*1204 Fourth Crusade [[Fall of Constantinople|sacks Constantinople]], laying waste to the city and stealing many [[relics]] and other items; [[Great Schism]] generally regarded as having been completed by this act; Venetians use the imperial [http://www.byzantium1200.com/pantocra.html monastery of Christ Pantocrator] as their headquardters in Constantinople; [[w:Theodore I Laskaris|Theodore I Lascaris]] establishes the [[w:Empire of Nicaea|Empire of Nicaea]]; death of Jewish philosopher [[w:Maimonides|Moses Maimonides]], author of ''[[w:The Guide for the Perplexed|Guide for the Perplexed]]'' which harmonized the Old Testament with Aristotle.     
+
*ca.1207 [[w:Stephen Langton|Stephen Langton]] divides the Bible into the defined modern chapters in use today. 
+
*1211 Venetian crusaders conquer Byzantine Crete, retaining it until ousted by Ottoman Turks in 1669. 
+
*1212 [[w:Children's Crusade|Children's Crusade]], led by 12-year-old Stephen of Cloyes, sets out for Holy Land from France.   
+
*1213 Death of [[Tamar of Georgia]]. 
+
*1216 Latin [[w:Dominican Order|Dominican Order]] formally recognized. 
+
*1217-21 [[w:Fifth Crusade|Fifth Crusade]]. 
+
*ca.1220 English Bp. [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Poore Richard Le Poore ] is said to have been responsible for the final form of the "[[Sarum Use|Use of Sarum]]", which had the sterling reputation of being the best liturgy anywhere in the West.   
+
*1223 Latin [[w:Franciscan|Franciscan Order]] formally recognized. 
+
*1226 Latin [[w:Carmelites|Carmelite order]] formally recognized. 
+
*1228 [[w:Sixth Crusade|Sixth Crusade]] results in 10-year treaty starting in 1229 between Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and Egyptian sultan; Jerusalem ceded to Franks, along with a narrow corridor to the coast, as well as Nazareth, Sidon, Jaffa and Bethlehem.
+
*1231 [[w:Medieval Inquisition|Papal Inquisition]] initiated by Pope Gregory IX, charged with suppressing heresy.
+
*1235 Death of [[Sava of Serbia]]. 
+
*1237 Golden Horde begin [[Church of Russia#Mongol Tartars over Russia (1237-1448)|subjugation of Russia]]. 
+
*1240 Mongols sack Kiev; Prince [[Alexander Nevsky]] defeats Swedish army at [[Battle of the Neva]]. 
+
*1242 [[Alexander Nevsky]]'s Novgorodian force defeats Teutonic Knights in [[w:Battle of the Ice|Battle of Lake Peipus]], a major defeat for the Catholic crusaders. 
+
*1244 Jerusalem conquered and razed by [[w:Khwarezm|Khwarezmian]] mercenaries (Oghuz Turks) serving under the [[w:Ayyubid dynasty|Ayyubid]] ruler of Egypt Salih Ayyub, triggering Seventh Crusade. 
+
*1245 First Council of Lyons in the Roman Catholic Church mandates red hat for cardinals and a levy for the Holy Land.   
+
*1247 [[w:Ayyubid dynasty|Ayyubids]] conquer Jerusalem, driving out the Khwarezmian Turks. 
+
*1248-54 [[w:Seventh Crusade|Seventh Crusade]].   
+
*1258 [[Michael VIII Palaiologos]] seizes the throne of the Nicaean Empire, founding the last Roman (Byzantine) dynasty, beginning reconquest of Greek peninsula from Latins; [[w:Salisbury Cathedral|Salisbury Cathedral]] is consecrated. 
+
*1259 Byzantines defeat Latin [[w:Principality of Achaea|Principality of Achaea]] at the [[w:Battle of Pelagonia|Battle of Pelagonia]], marking the beginning of the Byzantine recovery of Greece. 
+
*ca. 1259-80 Martyrdom by Latins of monks of [[Iviron Monastery (Athos)|Iveron Monastery]].
+
*1260 Subjugation of [[Church of Cyprus]] to the [[Roman Catholic Church]]. 
+
*1261 End of Latin occupation of Constantinople and restoration of Orthodox patriarchs; Emperor [[Michael VIII Palaiologos]] makes [[Mystras]] seat of the new [[w:Despotate of Morea|Despotate of Morea]], where a Byzantine renaissance occurred. 
+
*1268 Egyptian Mamelukes capture Antioch. 
+
*1269 Orthodox patriarch returns to Antioch after a 171-year exile and usurpation by Latin patriarch.
+
*1270 [[w:Eighth Crusade|Eighth Crusade]] launched by King [[w:Louis IX of France|Louis IX]] of France. 
+
*1271-72 [[w:Ninth Crusade|Ninth Crusade]] led by [[w:Edward I of England|Prince Edward]] of England to Acre, considered to be the last of the medieval Crusades to the Holy Land. 
+
*1274 Second [[Council of Lyons]] held, proclaiming union between the Orthodox East and the Roman Catholic West, but generally unaccepted in the East; death of [[w:Thomas Aquinas|Thomas Aquinas]], Latin [[w:Scholasticism|scholastic]] philosopher and theologian, author of the ''[[w:Summa Theologica|Summa Theologica]]''. 
+
*1275 Unionist Patriarch of Constantinople [[John XI Beccus of Constantinople|John XI Beccus]] elected to replace Patriarch [[Joseph I Galesiotes of Constantinople|Joseph I Galesiotes]], who opposed [[Council of Lyons]]; 26 martyrs of Zographou monastery on [[Mount Athos|Mt. Athos]], martyred by the Latins. 
+
*ca. 1280 ''[[w:Kebra Nagast|Kebra Nagast]]'' ("Book of the Glory of Kings") compiled, a repository of Ethiopian national and religious feelings. 
+
*1281 [[w:Pope Martin IV|Pope Martin IV]] authorizes a Crusade against the newly re-established [[Byzantine Empire]] in Constantinople, excommunicating Emperor [[Michael VIII Palaiologos]] and the Greeks and renouncing the union of 1274; French and Venetian expeditions set out toward Constantinople but are forced to turn back in the following year. 
+
*1287 Last record of [[Western Rite]] Monastery of Amalfion on [[Mount Athos|Mount Athos]]. 
+
*1291 Fall of Acre; end of crusading in Holy Land. 
+
*1298 [[Ambrose of Milan|Ambrose]], [[Augustine of Hippo|Augustine]], [[Jerome]], and [[Gregory the Dialogist|Pope Gregory I]] are named collectively as the first Great [[w:Doctor of the Church|Doctors]] of the Western Church.   
+
*1302 Papal Bull ''[[w:Unam sanctum|Unam Sanctum]]'' issued by Pope [[Boniface VIII of Rome|Boniface VIII]] proclaims Papal supremacy. 
+
*1326 Metr. [[Peter of Moscow|Peter]] moves his see from Kiev to Vladimir and then to Moscow.   
+
*1309 Rhodes falls to the [[w:Knights Hospitaller|Knights of St. John]], who establish their headquarters there, renaming themselves the "Knights of Rhodes."   
+
*1311-12 Council of Vienne in the Roman Catholic Church disbands the Knights Templar.   
+
*1332 [[w:Amda Seyon I of Ethiopia|Amda Syon]], Emperor of Ethiopia begins his campaigns in the southern Muslim provinces, allowing for the spread of Christianity to frontier areas. 
+
*1336 [[Meteora]] in Greece established as a center of Orthodox [[monasticism]]. 
+
*1338 [[Gregory Palamas]] writes ''Triads in Defense of the Holy Hesychasts'', defending the Orthodox practice of [[hesychasm|hesychast spirituality]] and the use of the [[Jesus Prayer]].
+
*1340 [[Holy Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra]] founded by [[Sergius of Radonezh]].
+
*1341-47 Byzantine civil war between John VI Cantacuzenus (1347–54) and John V Palaeologus (1341–91). 
+
*1341-51 Three sessions of the [[Ninth Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople, affirming [[hesychasm|hesychastic]] theology of [[Gregory Palamas]] and condemning rationalistic philosophy of [[Barlaam of Calabria]]. 
+
*1342 Patriarchate of Antioch transferred to Damascus under [[Ignatius II of Antioch|Ignatius II]].   
+
*1344 Death of [[w:Amda Seyon I of Ethiopia|Amda Syon]], Emperor of Ethiopia.
+
*1349 Prince [[Stephen Dushan]] of Serbia assumes the title of ''Tsar'' (Caesar); principality of [[w:Galicia (Central Europe)|Galicia]] (Halitsh) comes under Polish control. 
+
*1352 Death of [[w:Ewostatewos|Ewostatewos]] (Eusthathius), Ethiopian monk and religious leader. 
+
*1353 Death of Sergius and Herman, Abbots of [[Valaam Monastery|Valaam]]. 
+
*1354 Ottoman Turks make first settlement in Europe at Gallipoli. 
+
*1359 Death of [[Gregory Palamas]].   
+
*1360 Death of [[John Koukouzelis]] the Hymnographer. 
+
*1365 Crusaders under Latin King [[w:Peter I of Cyprus|Peter I of Cyprus]] sack Alexandria, Egypt. 
+
*1378 Death of [[Alexis of Moscow]]. 
+
*1379 Western Great Schism ensues, including simultaneous reign of three Popes of Rome. 
+
*ca. 1380 English Church reformer John Wyclif writes that the true faith is preserved only in the East, "among the Greeks."   
+
*1382-95 [[w:Wyclif's Bible|First English Bible]] translated by John Wyclif. 
+
*1383 [[Stephen of Perm]], missionary to Zyrians, consecrated bishop; appearance of [[Theotokos of Tikhvin]] icon. 
+
*1385 [[w:Union of Krewo|Kreva Agreement]] provides for conversion of Lithuanian nobles and all pagan Lithuanians to Roman Catholicism, joining Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the Kingdom of Poland through a dynastic union. 
+
*1387 [[w:Christianization of Lithuania|Lithuania converts to Roman Catholicism]], while most [[w:Ruthenians|Ruthenian]] lands (Belarus and Ukraine) remain Orthodox. 
+
*1389 Serbs defeated by Ottoman Turks of Sultan Murad I at the battle of Kosovo Polje; death of [[Lazar of Serbia|Lazar]], prince of Serbia. 
+
*1390 Ottomans take [[w:Alaşehir|Philadelphia]], last significant Byzantine enclave in Anatolia.   
+
*1391-98 Ottoman Turks unsuccessfully besiege Constantinople for the first time. 
+
*1410 Iconographer [[Andrei Rublev]] paints his most famous icon depicting the three angels who appeared to Abraham and Sarah, the angels being considered a type of the [[Holy Trinity|Holy Trinity]].   
+
*1414-18 Council of Constance in Roman Catholic Church represents high point for [[w:Conciliarism|Conciliar Movement]] over authority of pope. 
+
*1417 End of Western Great Schism at the [[Council of Constance]]. 
+
*1418 Latin monk [[w:Thomas à Kempis|Thomas à Kempis]] authors ''[[w:The Imitation of Christ (book)|The Imitation of Christ]]''. 
+
*1422 [[w:Siege of Constantinople (1422)|Second unsuccessful Ottoman siege]] of Constantinople. 
+
*1423-24 [[w:Council of Siena|Council of Siena]] in the Roman Catholic Church was the high point of [[w:Conciliarism|conciliarism]], emphasizing the leadership of the bishops gathered in council, but the conciliarism expressed there was later branded as a heresy. 
+
*1439 Ecclesiastical reunion with West attempted at [[Council of Florence]], where only [[Mark of Ephesus]] refuses to capitulate to demands of delegates from Rome. 
+
*1440-41 Encyclical Letter of [[Mark of Ephesus]]. 
+
*1444 ''[[Donation of Constantine]]'' proved forgery. 
+
*1448 [[Church of Russia]] unilaterally declares its independence from the [[Church of Constantinople]]; [[w:Vatican Library|Vatican Library]] formally established by Pope Nicholas V. 
+
*1452 Unification of Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox Churches in Hagia Sophia on West's terms, when Emperor [[Constantine XI Palaiologos]], under pressure from Rome, allows the union to be proclaimed. 
+
*1453 [[Fall of Constantinople|Constantinople falls]] to invasion of the Ottoman Turks, ending Roman Empire; [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] turned into a mosque; martyrdom of [[Constantine XI|Constantine XI Palaiologos]], last of the [[List of Byzantine Emperors|Byzantine Emperors]]; many Greek scholars escape to the West with books that become translated into Latin, triggering the [[w:Renaissance|Renaissance]].
+
  
==Notes==  
+
==Notes==
*Some of these dates are necessarily a bit vague, as records for some periods are particularly difficult to piece together accurately. 
+
<references group="note" /> 
*The division of Church History into separate eras as done here will always be to some extent arbitrary, though it was attempted to group periods according to major watershed events. 
+
*This timeline is necessarily biased toward the history of the [[Orthodox Church]], though a number of non-Orthodox or purely political events are mentioned for their importance in history related to Orthodoxy or for reference. 
+
 
      
 
      
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in America]]   
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in America]]   
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in Australia]]  
+
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in Australia]]
 +
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in Britain]] 
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in China]]
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in China]]
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in Greece]]   
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in Greece]]   
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in New Zealand]]   
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in New Zealand]]   
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in Japan]]
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in Japan]]
 +
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in Russia]]
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic relations]]
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic relations]]
  
Line 235: Line 119:
 
'''From an Orthodox perspective'''   
 
'''From an Orthodox perspective'''   
 
      
 
      
 +
* Louth, Rev. Dr. Andrew. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=WlpPjOlVzQwC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0 Greek East and Latin West : The Church, AD 681-1071]''. '''The Church in History Vol. III'''. Crestwood, N.Y. : St. Vladimirs Seminary Press, 2007. ISBN 9780881413205
 
* [[Alexander Schmemann|Schmemann, Alexander]]. ''The Historical Road of Eastern Orthodoxy''.   
 
* [[Alexander Schmemann|Schmemann, Alexander]]. ''The Historical Road of Eastern Orthodoxy''.   
 
* [[Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia|Ware, Timothy]]. ''The Orthodox Church: New Edition''. (ISBN 0140146563)  
 
* [[Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia|Ware, Timothy]]. ''The Orthodox Church: New Edition''. (ISBN 0140146563)  
 
* Dr. Kathryn Tsai. ''A Timeline of Eastern Church History.'' [[St. John of San Francisco Monastery (Manton, California)|Divine Ascent Press]], CA, 2004. ISBN 0971413924   
 
* Dr. Kathryn Tsai. ''A Timeline of Eastern Church History.'' [[St. John of San Francisco Monastery (Manton, California)|Divine Ascent Press]], CA, 2004. ISBN 0971413924   
 +
* Robert Ousterhout. ''Rebuilding the Temple: Constantine Monomachus and the Holy Sepulchre.'' '''Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians'''. Vol.48, No.1, Mar., 1989. pp. 66-78.
 
      
 
      
 
'''From a [[Heterodox]] perspective'''   
 
'''From a [[Heterodox]] perspective'''   
   
+
     
* Boer, Harry R. ''A Short History of the Early Church''. (ISBN 0802813399) 
+
 
* Cairns, Earle E. ''Christianity Through the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church''. (ISBN 0310208122)   
 
* Cairns, Earle E. ''Christianity Through the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church''. (ISBN 0310208122)   
* Chadwick, Henry. ''The Early Church''. (ISBN 0140231994) 
+
* Collins, Michael, ed.; Price, Matthew Arlen. ''Story of Christianity: A Celebration of 2000 Years of Faith''. (ISBN 0789446057)      
* Collins, Michael, ed.; Price, Matthew Arlen. ''Story of Christianity: A Celebration of 2000 Years of Faith''. (ISBN 0789446057)  
+
* Gonzalez, Justo L. ''A History of Christian Thought, Volume 2: From Augustine to the Eve of the Reformation''. (ISBN 0687171830)  
* Eusebius Pamphilus; Cruse, C.F. (translator). ''Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History''. (ISBN 1565633717) 
+
* Gonzalez, Justo L. ''The Story of Christianity, Volume 1: The Early Church to the Reformation''. (ISBN 0060633158)      
* Gonzalez, Justo L. ''A History of Christian Thought, Volume 1: From the Beginnings to the Council of Chalcedon''. (ISBN 0687171822) 
+
* Gonzalez, Justo L. ''A History of Christian Thought, Volume 2: From Augustine to the Eve of the Reformation''. (ISBN 0687171830)  
+
* Gonzalez, Justo L. ''A History of Christian Thought, Volume 3: From the Protestant Reformation to the Twentieth Century''. (ISBN 0687171849) 
+
* Gonzalez, Justo L. ''The Story of Christianity, Volume 1: The Early Church to the Reformation''. (ISBN 0060633158)  
+
* Gonzalez, Justo L. ''The Story of Christianity, Volume 2: Reformation to the Present Day''. (ISBN 0060633166) 
+
* Hall, Stuart G. ''Doctrine and Practice in the Early Church''. (ISBN 0802806295) 
+
 
* Hastings, Adrian, ed. ''A World History of Christianity''. (ISBN 0802848753)   
 
* Hastings, Adrian, ed. ''A World History of Christianity''. (ISBN 0802848753)   
 
* Hussey, J. M. ''The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire: Oxford History of the Christian Church''. (ISBN 0198264569)   
 
* Hussey, J. M. ''The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire: Oxford History of the Christian Church''. (ISBN 0198264569)   
 
* Jones, Timothy P. ''Christian History Made Easy''. (ISBN 1890947105)   
 
* Jones, Timothy P. ''Christian History Made Easy''. (ISBN 1890947105)   
* Noll, Mark A. ''Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity''. (ISBN 080106211X)  
+
* Noll, Mark A. ''Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity''. (ISBN 080106211X)  
* [[Jaroslav Pelikan|Pelikan, Jaroslav]]. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 1: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600)''. (ISBN 0226653714) 
+
 
* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 2: The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600-1700)''. (ISBN 0226653730)   
 
* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 2: The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600-1700)''. (ISBN 0226653730)   
* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 3: The Growth of Medieval Theology (600-1300)''. (ISBN 0226653749)  
+
* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 3: The Growth of Medieval Theology (600-1300)''. (ISBN 0226653749)    
* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 4: Reformation of Church and Dogma (1300-1700)''. (ISBN 0226653773) 
+
* Schaff, Philip. ''History of the Christian Church''. (ISBN 156563196X)  
* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 5: Christian Doctrine and Modern Culture (since 1700)''. (ISBN 0226653803) 
+
* Schaff, Philip. ''History of the Christian Church''. (ISBN 156563196X)  
+
* Wace, Henry; Piercy, William C., ed. ''A Dictionary of Christian Biography: Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A.D. With an Account of the Principal Sects and Heresies''. (ISBN 1565630572) 
+
 
* Walton, Robert C. ''Chronological and Background Charts of Church History''. (ISBN 0310362814)
 
* Walton, Robert C. ''Chronological and Background Charts of Church History''. (ISBN 0310362814)
  

Latest revision as of 16:35, November 20, 2012

Timeline of Church History
Eras Timeline of Church History (Abridged article)
Eras New Testament Era | Apostolic Era (33-100) | Ante-Nicene Era (100-325) | Nicene Era (325-451) | Byzantine Era (451-843) | Late Byzantine Era (843-1054) | Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453) | Post-Imperial Era (1453-1821) | Modern Era (1821-1917) | Communist Era (1917-1991) | Post-Communist Era (1991-Present) |
(Main articles)


This article forms part of the series
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The History of the Church is a vital part of the Orthodox Christian faith. Orthodox Christians are defined significantly by their continuity with all those who have gone before, those who first received and preached the truth of Jesus Christ to the world, those who helped to formulate the expression and worship of our faith, and those who continue to move forward in the unchanging yet ever-dynamic Holy Tradition of the Orthodox Church.

Contents

Late Byzantine era (843-1054)

Notes

  1. In Moravia, as in Bulgaria, the Greek mission clashed with German missionaries at work in the same area. Traces of the Slavonic mission lingered on in Moravia for two centuries more, but were eventually eradicated; and Christianity in its western form, with Latin culture and the Latin language (and the filioque), became universal. The attempt to found a Slavonic national Church in Moravia came to nothing. After its collapse in Moravia, the work of the Slavic apostles was saved for the Slavs and Europe by Bulgaria when its ruler Boris, in his endeavor to establish a national church, protected and encouraged the Slavic missionaries who sought refuge in his land. Thus, the Cyrillo-Methodian tradition was preserved and further cultivated in Ochrid and Preslav, two great and dissimilar centers which created a rich literature and culture Byzantine in inspiration, yet Slavic in language and ideology. Therefore other countries, where the brothers had not themselves preached, benefited from their work, most notably Bulgaria, Serbia, and Russia.
  2. Antoni Mironowicz. The Orthodox Church in Poland. Sonca.org. 2010.
  3. Their palace was in Ostrov Tumski, where the royal couple worshipped in a chapel before Christianity became the official religion. It is the foundations of this chapel, marking the beginning of Christian life in Poland, which archaeologists think that they have now uncovered. Its pre-Romanesque structure shows the Orthodox architectural style of Western Europe before the schism. We should recall that in southern Poland, along the Moravian border which had been ruled by St Rostislav, Slav Orthodox missionaries had begun their task of spiritual enlightenment well before Mieszko’s marriage to Dobrawa. This discovery will surely lead the spiritually sensitive in Poland to realise that the origins of Poland's Christian faith are in Orthodoxy, and not in late eleventh-century Roman Catholicism. This was imported from Germany, and only developed to any great extent in Poland in the twelfth century. (Orthodox England. Orthodox Europe: Poland uncovers its original Orthodoxy.)

See also

Published works

The following are published writings that provide an overview of Church history:

From an Orthodox perspective

From a Heterodox perspective

  • Cairns, Earle E. Christianity Through the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 0310208122)
  • Collins, Michael, ed.; Price, Matthew Arlen. Story of Christianity: A Celebration of 2000 Years of Faith. (ISBN 0789446057)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 2: From Augustine to the Eve of the Reformation. (ISBN 0687171830)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity, Volume 1: The Early Church to the Reformation. (ISBN 0060633158)
  • Hastings, Adrian, ed. A World History of Christianity. (ISBN 0802848753)
  • Hussey, J. M. The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire: Oxford History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 0198264569)
  • Jones, Timothy P. Christian History Made Easy. (ISBN 1890947105)
  • Noll, Mark A. Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity. (ISBN 080106211X)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 2: The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600-1700). (ISBN 0226653730)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 3: The Growth of Medieval Theology (600-1300). (ISBN 0226653749)
  • Schaff, Philip. History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 156563196X)
  • Walton, Robert C. Chronological and Background Charts of Church History. (ISBN 0310362814)

External links

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