Timeline of Church History (Communist Era (1917-1991))

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(Communist era (1917-1991): 1917)
(Communist era (1917-1991): 1917;1921;1928;)
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*1917 [[w:Bolshevik Revolution|Bolshevik Revolution]] throws [[Church of Russia]] into chaos, effectively stranding the fledgling Russian Orthodox mission in America; restoration of Moscow Patriarchate with [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon]] as patriarch; British forces [[w:Battle of Jerusalem (1917)|capture Jerusalem]] from Ottoman Empire; [[Church of Georgia]]'s [[autocephaly]] restored ''de facto'' by political chaos in Russia; Balfour Declaration proclaims British support for the "establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people"; [[Belogorsky St. Nicholas Orthodox Missionary Monastery Cathedral (Perm Krai, Russia)]] is consecrated as the largest cathedral in the Urals, but is soon captured by the Red Army.   
 
*1917 [[w:Bolshevik Revolution|Bolshevik Revolution]] throws [[Church of Russia]] into chaos, effectively stranding the fledgling Russian Orthodox mission in America; restoration of Moscow Patriarchate with [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon]] as patriarch; British forces [[w:Battle of Jerusalem (1917)|capture Jerusalem]] from Ottoman Empire; [[Church of Georgia]]'s [[autocephaly]] restored ''de facto'' by political chaos in Russia; Balfour Declaration proclaims British support for the "establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people"; [[Belogorsky St. Nicholas Orthodox Missionary Monastery Cathedral (Perm Krai, Russia)]] is consecrated as the largest cathedral in the Urals, but is soon captured by the Red Army.   
 
*1917-40 [[w:Persecution of Christians in the Soviet Union|Persecution of the Orthodox Church in Russia]] begins, with 130,000 priests arrested, 95,000 of whom were executed by firing squad.     
 
*1917-40 [[w:Persecution of Christians in the Soviet Union|Persecution of the Orthodox Church in Russia]] begins, with 130,000 priests arrested, 95,000 of whom were executed by firing squad.     
 +
*1917-21 [[w:USSR Anti-Religious Campaign (1917–1921)|USSR Anti-Religious Campaign.]]
 
*1918 Tsar [[Nicholas II of Russia]] murdered together with his wife [[Alexandra Romanov|Alexandra]] and children; Metr. [[Vladimir (Bogoyavlensky) of Kiev and Gallich]] first bishop to be tortured and slain by Russian Communists; deaths of of Hieromartyr [[Andronik of Perm|Andronik, Archbishop of Perm]] and [[Elizabeth the New Martyr]].   
 
*1918 Tsar [[Nicholas II of Russia]] murdered together with his wife [[Alexandra Romanov|Alexandra]] and children; Metr. [[Vladimir (Bogoyavlensky) of Kiev and Gallich]] first bishop to be tortured and slain by Russian Communists; deaths of of Hieromartyr [[Andronik of Perm|Andronik, Archbishop of Perm]] and [[Elizabeth the New Martyr]].   
 
*1919-1922 [[w:Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922)|Greco-Turkish War]]; a million refugees flee to Greece joining half a million Greeks who had fled earlier; [[w:Pontic Greek Genocide|Pontic Greek Genocide]] eliminates the Christian population of Trebizond.   
 
*1919-1922 [[w:Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922)|Greco-Turkish War]]; a million refugees flee to Greece joining half a million Greeks who had fled earlier; [[w:Pontic Greek Genocide|Pontic Greek Genocide]] eliminates the Christian population of Trebizond.   
*1920 Death of [[Nektarios of Aegina]]; publication of Encyclical Letters by Constantinople on Christian unity and on the Ecumenical Movement.  
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*1920 Death of [[Nektarios of Aegina]]; publication of Encyclical Letters by Constantinople on Christian unity and on the Ecumenical Movement.  
 +
*1921-28 [[w:USSR Anti-Religious Campaign (1921–1928)|USSR Anti-Religious Campaign]].
 
*1921 [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]] renounces all claims to jurisdiction in any part of Africa, with Alexandrian primate thenceforth known as ''Pope and Patriarch of [[Church of Alexandria|Alexandria and All Africa]]''; [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek Archdiocese of America]] formed ; Abp. [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon (Belavin)]] elected Patriarch of Moscow; [[Gorazd (Pavlik) of Prague|Gorazd (Pavlik)]] consecrated as bishop for Western Rite Diocese of Moravia and Silesia; an all-Ukrainian Synod is called in Kyiv and the [[Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church]] (UAOC) (as yet unrecognized) is declared independent from the Moscow Patriarchate (MP).
 
*1921 [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]] renounces all claims to jurisdiction in any part of Africa, with Alexandrian primate thenceforth known as ''Pope and Patriarch of [[Church of Alexandria|Alexandria and All Africa]]''; [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek Archdiocese of America]] formed ; Abp. [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon (Belavin)]] elected Patriarch of Moscow; [[Gorazd (Pavlik) of Prague|Gorazd (Pavlik)]] consecrated as bishop for Western Rite Diocese of Moravia and Silesia; an all-Ukrainian Synod is called in Kyiv and the [[Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church]] (UAOC) (as yet unrecognized) is declared independent from the Moscow Patriarchate (MP).
 
*1922 [[Church of Albania]] declares [[autocephaly]] from [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]]; formation of the [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia]]; [[w:British Mandate of Palestine|British Mandate of Palestine]] begins; Vladimir Lenin proclaims establishment of the [[w:Soviet Union|Soviet Union]]; [[Solovetsky Monastery]] converted by Lenin's decree to the [[w:Solovki|"Solovki Special Purpose Camp"]], one of the earliest forced-labor camps of the Gulag where 75 bishops died, along with tens of thousands of laity ; Alcuin Club in England prints the Russian synod's report in favor of adapting Book of Common Prayer for Orthodox use; death of [[Ethnomartyr]] Metropolitan [[Chrysostomos (Kalafatis) of Smyrna]]; the predominatly Christian city of [[w:Great Fire of Smyrna|Smyrna is destroyed]], ending 1900 years of Christian civilization.     
 
*1922 [[Church of Albania]] declares [[autocephaly]] from [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]]; formation of the [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia]]; [[w:British Mandate of Palestine|British Mandate of Palestine]] begins; Vladimir Lenin proclaims establishment of the [[w:Soviet Union|Soviet Union]]; [[Solovetsky Monastery]] converted by Lenin's decree to the [[w:Solovki|"Solovki Special Purpose Camp"]], one of the earliest forced-labor camps of the Gulag where 75 bishops died, along with tens of thousands of laity ; Alcuin Club in England prints the Russian synod's report in favor of adapting Book of Common Prayer for Orthodox use; death of [[Ethnomartyr]] Metropolitan [[Chrysostomos (Kalafatis) of Smyrna]]; the predominatly Christian city of [[w:Great Fire of Smyrna|Smyrna is destroyed]], ending 1900 years of Christian civilization.     
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*1926 Polish Catholic National Church received as a [[Western Rite]] diocese in Poland of [[Church of Russia]] under Bp. Alexis of Grodno; [[John Maximovitch]] tonsured by [[ROCOR]] Metr. [[Anthony (Khrapovitsky) of Kiev]]; the Benedictine monastery [[w:Chevetogne Abbey|Chevetogne Abbey]] is founded in Belgium, dedicated to Christian unity, being a ‘double rite’ monastery having both Western (Latin rite) and Eastern (Byzantine rite) churches holding services every day.  
 
*1926 Polish Catholic National Church received as a [[Western Rite]] diocese in Poland of [[Church of Russia]] under Bp. Alexis of Grodno; [[John Maximovitch]] tonsured by [[ROCOR]] Metr. [[Anthony (Khrapovitsky) of Kiev]]; the Benedictine monastery [[w:Chevetogne Abbey|Chevetogne Abbey]] is founded in Belgium, dedicated to Christian unity, being a ‘double rite’ monastery having both Western (Latin rite) and Eastern (Byzantine rite) churches holding services every day.  
 
*1927 Daniel William Alexander travels from South Africa to America to be consecrated a bishop of African Orthodox Church; Orthodox Archbishopric of Johannesburg established; bishops of Russian church in America authorize formation of [[American Orthodox Catholic Church]], including a [[Western Rite]] missionary outreach; death of [[Ambrose (Khelaia) the Confessor]].   
 
*1927 Daniel William Alexander travels from South Africa to America to be consecrated a bishop of African Orthodox Church; Orthodox Archbishopric of Johannesburg established; bishops of Russian church in America authorize formation of [[American Orthodox Catholic Church]], including a [[Western Rite]] missionary outreach; death of [[Ambrose (Khelaia) the Confessor]].   
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*1928-41 [[w:USSR Anti-Religious Campaign (1928–1941)|USSR Anti-Religious Campaign]].
 
*1928 [[Fellowship of St. Alban and St. Sergius]] founded.   
 
*1928 [[Fellowship of St. Alban and St. Sergius]] founded.   
 
*1929 Papal Bull ''Cum data fuerit'' regulates Uniate clergy in the US, mandating celibacy, resulting in the return of several parishes back to Orthodoxy in 1938; kingdom of Italy and Papacy ratify [[w:Lateran Treaty|Lateran Treaty]], recognizing sovereignty of Papacy within the new state of the [[w:Vatican City|Vatican City]]; "[[w:Collegium Russicum|Russicum]]" (Russian College or 'College of St. Therese') founded in Vatican City by Pope Pius XI and run by the [[w:Society of Jesus|Jesuits]]; Russian Fraternity of Saint Irenee in France celebrates [[Western Rite]].   
 
*1929 Papal Bull ''Cum data fuerit'' regulates Uniate clergy in the US, mandating celibacy, resulting in the return of several parishes back to Orthodoxy in 1938; kingdom of Italy and Papacy ratify [[w:Lateran Treaty|Lateran Treaty]], recognizing sovereignty of Papacy within the new state of the [[w:Vatican City|Vatican City]]; "[[w:Collegium Russicum|Russicum]]" (Russian College or 'College of St. Therese') founded in Vatican City by Pope Pius XI and run by the [[w:Society of Jesus|Jesuits]]; Russian Fraternity of Saint Irenee in France celebrates [[Western Rite]].   

Revision as of 10:41, July 17, 2010

Timeline of Church History
Eras Timeline of Church History (Abridged article)
Eras New Testament Era | Apostolic Era (33-100) | Ante-Nicene Era (100-325) | Nicene Era (325-451) | Byzantine Era (451-843) | Late Byzantine Era (843-1054) | Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453) | Post-Imperial Era (1453-1821) | Modern Era (1821-1917) | Communist Era (1917-1991) | Post-Communist Era (1991-Present) |
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The History of the Church is a vital part of the Orthodox Christian faith. Orthodox Christians are defined significantly by their continuity with all those who have gone before, those who first received and preached the truth of Jesus Christ to the world, those who helped to formulate the expression and worship of our faith, and those who continue to move forward in the unchanging yet ever-dynamic Holy Tradition of the Orthodox Church.

Contents

Communist era (1917-1991)

Notes

  • Some of these dates are necessarily a bit vague, as records for some periods are particularly difficult to piece together accurately.
  • The division of Church History into separate eras as done here will always be to some extent arbitrary, though it was attempted to group periods according to major watershed events.
  • This timeline is necessarily biased toward the history of the Orthodox Church, though a number of non-Orthodox or purely political events are mentioned for their importance in history related to Orthodoxy or for reference.

See also

Published works

The following are published writings that provide an overview of Church history:

From an Orthodox perspective

From a Heterodox perspective

  • Cairns, Earle E. Christianity Through the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 0310208122)
  • Collins, Michael, ed.; Price, Matthew Arlen. Story of Christianity: A Celebration of 2000 Years of Faith. (ISBN 0789446057)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 3: From the Protestant Reformation to the Twentieth Century. (ISBN 0687171849)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity, Volume 2: Reformation to the Present Day. (ISBN 0060633166)
  • Hastings, Adrian, ed. A World History of Christianity. (ISBN 0802848753)
  • Jones, Timothy P. Christian History Made Easy. (ISBN 1890947105)
  • Noll, Mark A. Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity. (ISBN 080106211X)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 5: Christian Doctrine and Modern Culture (since 1700). (ISBN 0226653803)
  • Schaff, Philip. History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 156563196X)
  • Walton, Robert C. Chronological and Background Charts of Church History. (ISBN 0310362814)

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