Timeline of Church History (Communist Era (1917-1991))

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*1939 [[w:Galicia (Central Europe)|Galicia]] is divided as Poland gets partitioned between the German Empire and Soviet Union approximately along the Curzon Line, so that Western Galicia goes to the German Empire, and Eastern Galicia is affiliated with Soviet Ukraine.     
 
*1939 [[w:Galicia (Central Europe)|Galicia]] is divided as Poland gets partitioned between the German Empire and Soviet Union approximately along the Curzon Line, so that Western Galicia goes to the German Empire, and Eastern Galicia is affiliated with Soviet Ukraine.     
 
*1941 Martyrdom of [[Gorazd (Pavlik) of Prague]] by Nazis; [[Nicholas (Ono) of Japan]] is the first Japanese national to be consecrated an Orthodox bishop.
 
*1941 Martyrdom of [[Gorazd (Pavlik) of Prague]] by Nazis; [[Nicholas (Ono) of Japan]] is the first Japanese national to be consecrated an Orthodox bishop.
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*1941-44 [[Pskov Orthodox Mission]] works for the revival of Orthodox Church life in North-Western Russia and the three neighbouring Baltic republics (the 'Liberated Regions of Russia'), during their occupation by Nazi Germany .
 
*1941-45 Croatian [[w:Ustaše|Ustasa]] terrorists kill 500,000 Orthodox Serbs, expel 250,000 and force 250,000 to convert to [[Roman Catholic Church|Catholicism]].   
 
*1941-45 Croatian [[w:Ustaše|Ustasa]] terrorists kill 500,000 Orthodox Serbs, expel 250,000 and force 250,000 to convert to [[Roman Catholic Church|Catholicism]].   
 
*1943 [[Church of Russia]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Georgia]]; first constitution of the African Orthodox Church in East Africa signed by [[Christopher Reuben Spartas|Reuben Spartas]] and Arthur Gathuna; Joseph Stalin meets with hierarchs of Russian Orthodox Church to establish a "patriotic union," granting concessions to the church, including the gathering of the holy synod and the election of [[Sergius I (Stragorodsky) of Moscow|Sergius I]] as patriarch of Moscow.   
 
*1943 [[Church of Russia]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Georgia]]; first constitution of the African Orthodox Church in East Africa signed by [[Christopher Reuben Spartas|Reuben Spartas]] and Arthur Gathuna; Joseph Stalin meets with hierarchs of Russian Orthodox Church to establish a "patriotic union," granting concessions to the church, including the gathering of the holy synod and the election of [[Sergius I (Stragorodsky) of Moscow|Sergius I]] as patriarch of Moscow.   
 
*1943-44 Hundreds of Orthodox priests of the [[Church of Ukraine|Ukrainian Orthodox Church]] eliminated, tortured and drowned by Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists - [[w:Ukrainian Insurgent Army|Ukrainian Rebel Army]], aided by [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniate]] Metr. Josyf Slipyj who was a spiritual leader of Nazi military units that were later condemned by the Nuremberg tribunal, and who was imprisoned by Soviet authorities for aiding the UPA.   
 
*1943-44 Hundreds of Orthodox priests of the [[Church of Ukraine|Ukrainian Orthodox Church]] eliminated, tortured and drowned by Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists - [[w:Ukrainian Insurgent Army|Ukrainian Rebel Army]], aided by [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniate]] Metr. Josyf Slipyj who was a spiritual leader of Nazi military units that were later condemned by the Nuremberg tribunal, and who was imprisoned by Soviet authorities for aiding the UPA.   
*1944 Fr. [[Jean-Nectaire (Kovalevsky) of Saint-Denis|Evgraph (Kovalevsky)]] completes restoration of [[Liturgy of St. Germaine de Paris]].   
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*1944 Fr. [[Jean-Nectaire (Kovalevsky) of Saint-Denis|Evgraph (Kovalevsky)]] completes restoration of [[Divine Liturgy according to St. Germanus of Paris|Liturgy of St. Germaine de Paris]].   
 
*1945 [[Church of Bulgaria]]'s [[autocephaly]] generally recognized; library of early Christian texts discovered at Nag Hammadi in Egypt; Soviet Union annexes Czechoslovakia; [[Church of Russia]] claims jurisdiction over the [[Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia]].
 
*1945 [[Church of Bulgaria]]'s [[autocephaly]] generally recognized; library of early Christian texts discovered at Nag Hammadi in Egypt; Soviet Union annexes Czechoslovakia; [[Church of Russia]] claims jurisdiction over the [[Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia]].
 
*1945-58 In the post-war era the official organization of the [[Church of Russia]] was greatly expanded (although individual members of the clergy were occasionally arrested and exiled), with the number of open churches reaching ca. 25,000.   
 
*1945-58 In the post-war era the official organization of the [[Church of Russia]] was greatly expanded (although individual members of the clergy were occasionally arrested and exiled), with the number of open churches reaching ca. 25,000.   
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*1964 Meeting of Pope [[Paul VI of Rome]] and Patr. [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople]] in Jerusalem; third Pan-Orthodox Conference in Rhodes; [[Synaxis of the Saints of Rostov]] established by resolution of His Holiness Patriarch [[Alexei I (Simansky) of Moscow|Alexis I]] and the Holy Synod of the [[Church of Russia|Russian Orthodox Church]]; the [[w:Russian Compound|Russian Compound]] was purchased by the government of Israel from the [[Moscow Patriarchate]] (except for the cathedral and one building), paid for in $3.5 million worth of oranges (The "Orange Deal").
 
*1964 Meeting of Pope [[Paul VI of Rome]] and Patr. [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople]] in Jerusalem; third Pan-Orthodox Conference in Rhodes; [[Synaxis of the Saints of Rostov]] established by resolution of His Holiness Patriarch [[Alexei I (Simansky) of Moscow|Alexis I]] and the Holy Synod of the [[Church of Russia|Russian Orthodox Church]]; the [[w:Russian Compound|Russian Compound]] was purchased by the government of Israel from the [[Moscow Patriarchate]] (except for the cathedral and one building), paid for in $3.5 million worth of oranges (The "Orange Deal").
 
*1965 Pope Paul VI of Rome and Patriarch [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople]] mutually nullify the [[excommunication]]s of 1054 ; Abp. [[John Maximovitch]] consecrates [[Jean-Nectaire (Kovalevsky) of Saint-Denis|Jean-Nectaire (Kovalevsky)]] for Western Orthodox Church of France; the office of ''[[w:Latin Patriarch of Constantinople|Latin Patriarch of Constantinople]]'' is officially abolished.
 
*1965 Pope Paul VI of Rome and Patriarch [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople]] mutually nullify the [[excommunication]]s of 1054 ; Abp. [[John Maximovitch]] consecrates [[Jean-Nectaire (Kovalevsky) of Saint-Denis|Jean-Nectaire (Kovalevsky)]] for Western Orthodox Church of France; the office of ''[[w:Latin Patriarch of Constantinople|Latin Patriarch of Constantinople]]'' is officially abolished.
*1966 Translation of the sacred [[relics]] of the Holy [[Apostle Titus]] of Crete, from Venice (which took them in 1669), back to the Greek Orthodox [[Archdiocese of Crete]]; the [[w:Cultural Revolution|Cultural Revolution]] almost totally destroyed the young [[Church of China|Chinese Orthodox Church]]; the ''[[w:Index Librorum Prohibitorum|Index Librorum Prohibitorum]]'' ("List of Prohibited Books") is formally abolished on 14 June by Pope Paul VI.
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*1966 [[Translation (relics)|Translation]] of the sacred [[relics]] of the Holy [[Apostle Titus]] of Crete, from Venice (which took them in 1669), back to the Greek Orthodox [[Archdiocese of Crete]]; the [[w:Cultural Revolution|Cultural Revolution]] almost totally destroyed the young [[Church of China|Chinese Orthodox Church]]; the ''[[w:Index Librorum Prohibitorum|Index Librorum Prohibitorum]]'' ("List of Prohibited Books") is formally abolished on 14 June by Pope Paul VI.
 
*1967 [[Macedonian Orthodox Church |Church of Macedonia]] unilaterally declares its [[autocephaly]], making it independent of the [[Church of Serbia]] (as yet unrecognized); Albania is declared an atheist state, closing all religious institutions and forbiding any religious practices.
 
*1967 [[Macedonian Orthodox Church |Church of Macedonia]] unilaterally declares its [[autocephaly]], making it independent of the [[Church of Serbia]] (as yet unrecognized); Albania is declared an atheist state, closing all religious institutions and forbiding any religious practices.
*1968 Visit to [[Patriarchate of Alexandria]] by Vatican representatives, who give Patr. [[Nicholas (Valeropoulos) VI of Alexandria|Nicholas VI]] a part of the relics of [[Apostle Mark|St Mark]] from Venice, on behalf of Pope [[Paul VI of Rome|Paul VI]]; fourth Pan-Orthodox Conference in Chambesy, Switzerland.   
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*1968 Visit to [[Patriarchate of Alexandria]] by Vatican representatives, who give Patr. [[Nicholas VI of Alexandria|Nicholas VI]] a part of the relics of [[Apostle Mark|St Mark]] from Venice, on behalf of Pope [[Paul VI of Rome|Paul VI]]; fourth Pan-Orthodox Conference in Chambesy, Switzerland.   
 
*1968-71 Millions of Christians, Muslims, Jews and others witness apparitions of the [[Theotokos|Virgin Mary]] many times over a three year period over the Coptic Orthodox Church of St. Mary at [[Zeitun]], Cairo, recognized as authentic by the [[Church of Alexandria (Coptic)|Coptic Orthodox Church]] and other churches.
 
*1968-71 Millions of Christians, Muslims, Jews and others witness apparitions of the [[Theotokos|Virgin Mary]] many times over a three year period over the Coptic Orthodox Church of St. Mary at [[Zeitun]], Cairo, recognized as authentic by the [[Church of Alexandria (Coptic)|Coptic Orthodox Church]] and other churches.
 
*1969 Metr. [[Philaret (Voznesensky) of New York]] ([[ROCOR]]) issues the first of a series of "Sorrowful Epistles" (1969,1971,1975) to the primates of the local Orthodox Churches, condemning forays into [[ecumenism]].   
 
*1969 Metr. [[Philaret (Voznesensky) of New York]] ([[ROCOR]]) issues the first of a series of "Sorrowful Epistles" (1969,1971,1975) to the primates of the local Orthodox Churches, condemning forays into [[ecumenism]].   

Revision as of 13:23, October 24, 2012

Timeline of Church History
Eras Timeline of Church History (Abridged article)
Eras New Testament Era | Apostolic Era (33-100) | Ante-Nicene Era (100-325) | Nicene Era (325-451) | Byzantine Era (451-843) | Late Byzantine Era (843-1054) | Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453) | Post-Imperial Era (1453-1821) | Modern Era (1821-1917) | Communist Era (1917-1991) | Post-Communist Era (1991-Present) |
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This article forms part of the series
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The History of the Church is a vital part of the Orthodox Christian faith. Orthodox Christians are defined significantly by their continuity with all those who have gone before, those who first received and preached the truth of Jesus Christ to the world, those who helped to formulate the expression and worship of our faith, and those who continue to move forward in the unchanging yet ever-dynamic Holy Tradition of the Orthodox Church.

Contents

Communist era (1917-1991)

Notes

  • Some of these dates are necessarily a bit vague, as records for some periods are particularly difficult to piece together accurately.
  • The division of Church History into separate eras as done here will always be to some extent arbitrary, though it was attempted to group periods according to major watershed events.
  • This timeline is necessarily biased toward the history of the Orthodox Church, though a number of non-Orthodox or purely political events are mentioned for their importance in history related to Orthodoxy or for reference.

See also

Published works

The following are published writings that provide an overview of Church history:

From an Orthodox perspective

  • Schmemann, Alexander. The Historical Road of Eastern Orthodoxy.
  • Ware, Timothy. The Orthodox Church: New Edition. (ISBN 0140146563)
  • Nikolas K. Gvosdev. Emperors and Elections: Reconciling the Orthodox Tradition with Modern Politics. Huntington, NY: Troitsa Books, 2000.
  • Theodore Papadopoullos. Orthodox Church and Civil Authority. Journal of Contemporary History. Vol. 2, No. 4, Church and Politics (Oct., 1967), pp.201-209.

From a Heterodox perspective

  • Cairns, Earle E. Christianity Through the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 0310208122)
  • Collins, Michael, ed.; Price, Matthew Arlen. Story of Christianity: A Celebration of 2000 Years of Faith. (ISBN 0789446057)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 3: From the Protestant Reformation to the Twentieth Century. (ISBN 0687171849)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity, Volume 2: Reformation to the Present Day. (ISBN 0060633166)
  • Hastings, Adrian, ed. A World History of Christianity. (ISBN 0802848753)
  • Jones, Timothy P. Christian History Made Easy. (ISBN 1890947105)
  • Noll, Mark A. Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity. (ISBN 080106211X)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 5: Christian Doctrine and Modern Culture (since 1700). (ISBN 0226653803)
  • Schaff, Philip. History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 156563196X)
  • Walton, Robert C. Chronological and Background Charts of Church History. (ISBN 0310362814)

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