Timeline of Church History (Byzantine Era (451-843))

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==Byzantine era (451-843)==
 
==Byzantine era (451-843)==
*451 [[Fourth Ecumenical Council]] meets at Chalcedon, condemning [[Eutychianism]] and [[Monophysitism]], affirming doctrine of two perfect and indivisible but distinct natures in Christ, and recognizing [[Church of Jerusalem]] as patriarchate; Attila the Hun defeated at [[w:Battle of Chalons|Battle of Chalons]].  
+
*451 [[Fourth Ecumenical Council]] meets at Chalcedon, condemning [[Eutychianism]] and [[Monophysitism]], affirming doctrine of two perfect and indivisible but distinct natures in Christ, and recognizing [[Church of Jerusalem]] as patriarchate;
*452 [[Proterios of Alexandria]] convenes synod in Alexandria to reconcile Chalcedonians and non-Chalcedonians; second finding of the Head of [[John the Forerunner]]
+
* 451 The city of Lutetia (Gallo-Roman Paris) is spared from Attila's Huns due to the ministrations of St. [[Genevieve of Paris]]; Attila the Hun defeated at [[w:Battle of Chalons|Battle of Chalons]], last major military operation of the Western Roman Empire, where the Christian allied forces under Roman general Aetius defeated Attila and his Hunnic host, allowing [[Introduction to Orthodox Christianity|Christianity]] and western civilization to continue to flourish;<ref group="note">Allied with the Romans under General Flavius Aetius ("Last of the Romans") were the Christian Visigoths of King Theodoric, the Alans under Sangiban, Salian Franks, Burgundians, Saxons,  Armoricans and Sarmatians.<br>Allied with the Hunnic army of Attila ("The Scourge of God") were the Gepids under their king Ardaric, an Ostrogothic army led by the brothers Valamir and Theodemir (the father of the later Ostrogothic king Theodoric the Great), Vandals, Thuringians, Scythians, and Alamanni; the [[w:Ripuarian Franks|Ripuarian Franks]] fought on both sides as some of them lived outside the Empire.<br>This was the first major battle since the death of [[Constantine I]] where a predominantly Christian force faced a predominantly [[pagan]] opponent. This factor was very much apparent to the contemporaries, who often mention [[prayer]] playing a factor in this battle (e.g., [[w:Gregory of Tours|Gregory of Tours]]' story of the prayers of Aetius' wife saving the Roman's life in ''Historia Francorum'' 2.7).</ref> uprising of Armenian Christians reacting to the pro-[[w:Zoroastrianism|Zoroastrian]] policy of Sassanid Persian king [[w:Yazdegerd II|Yazdegerd II]]; Armenia was guaranteed religious freedom after the [[w:Battle of Avarayr|Battle of Avarayr]].
*452 Attila the Hun invades northern Italy, but is convinced to withdraw from Ravenna by Pope [[Leo the Great]]; [[Venice]] founded by fugitives from Attila's army.   
+
*ca.451-480 Flight of the [[w:Nine Saints|Nine Saints]] ([[Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church]]) from Byzantine Syria, following the [[Fourth Ecumenical Council]]; first translation of the Greek [[Septuagint]] into the [[w:Ge'ez language|Ge'ez language]] (i.e. the Ethiopian Bible), becoming the official Bible of the [[Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church]] as well as of the [[w:Beta Israel|Ethiopian Jewish community]].<ref group="note">Charles Bryant-Abraham (PhD), and The Hon. Knight de Bryan (OAA). ''"[http://www.dskmariam.org/artsandlitreature/litreature/pdf/ethiopianorthodoxchurchofjerusaleml.pdf An Interview with the Venerable Getahun Atlaw, Archdeacon of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, Israel]."'' Courtesy of the Augustan Society.</ref><ref group="note">The Ethiopian Jews ''([[w:Beta Israel|Beta-Israel]], Falashas)'' are the only Jewish community in the world today who accept the [[Septuagint]] (minus Ecclesiasticus). (''[http://www.bibliahebraica.com/the_texts/septuagint.htm Septuagint].'' BiblicaHebraica.org, BiblicaGreece.org.)</ref>
 +
*452 [[Proterius of Alexandria]] convenes synod in Alexandria to reconcile Chalcedonians and non-Chalcedonians; second finding of the Head of [[John the Forerunner]]; Attila the Hun invades northern Italy, but is convinced to withdraw from Ravenna by Pope [[Leo the Great]]; [[Venice]] founded by fugitives from Attila's army.   
 
*455 [[w:Vandals|Vandals]] under Gaiseric sack Rome; Germanic Saxons and Angles conquer Britain, founding several independent kingdoms.   
 
*455 [[w:Vandals|Vandals]] under Gaiseric sack Rome; Germanic Saxons and Angles conquer Britain, founding several independent kingdoms.   
 
*457 Victorius of Aquitania computes new [[Paschalion]]; first coronation of Byzantine Emperor by patriarch of Constantinople.   
 
*457 Victorius of Aquitania computes new [[Paschalion]]; first coronation of Byzantine Emperor by patriarch of Constantinople.   
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*461 Death of [[Leo the Great]]; death of [[Patrick of Ireland]].   
 
*461 Death of [[Leo the Great]]; death of [[Patrick of Ireland]].   
 
*462 [[Indiction]] moved to [[September 1]]; [[Studion Monastery]] founded.   
 
*462 [[Indiction]] moved to [[September 1]]; [[Studion Monastery]] founded.   
*466 [[Church of Antioch]] elevates bishop of Mtskheta to rank of [[Catholicos]] of Kartli, rendering the [[Church of Georgia]] [[autocephaly|autocephalous]].  
+
*466 [[Church of Antioch]] elevates bishop of Mtskheta to rank of [[Catholicos]] of Kartli, rendering the [[Church of Georgia]] [[autocephaly|autocephalous]]; death of [[Shenouda the Archimandrite|Shenouda the Great]], abbott of White Monastery in Egypt, considered the founder of [[Church of Alexandria (Coptic)|Coptic Christianity]]. 
 +
*471 Death of Patr. [[w:Gennadius of Constantinople|Gennadius of Constantinople]].
 
*ca.471 Patriarch [[Acacius of Constantinople]] was first called ''"Oikoumenikos"'' (Ecumenical).   
 
*ca.471 Patriarch [[Acacius of Constantinople]] was first called ''"Oikoumenikos"'' (Ecumenical).   
 
*473 Death of [[Euthymius the Great]].   
 
*473 Death of [[Euthymius the Great]].   
 
*475 Emperor [[w:Basiliscus|Basiliscus]] issues circular letter to the bishops of his empire, supporting [[Monophysitism|Monophysite]] [[Christology|Christological]] position.   
 
*475 Emperor [[w:Basiliscus|Basiliscus]] issues circular letter to the bishops of his empire, supporting [[Monophysitism|Monophysite]] [[Christology|Christological]] position.   
*476 Fall of Western Roman Empire.  
+
*476 Fall of Western Roman Empire; martyrdom of [[Thomais of Alexandria]].
*477 [[Timothy Aelurus]] of Alexandria exiles Chalcedonian bishops from Egypt.   
+
*477 [[Timothy II Aelurus of Alexandria|Timothy Aelurus]] of Alexandria exiles Chalcedonian bishops from Egypt.   
*482 Byzantine emperor [[Zeno|Zeno I]] issues ''[[Henotikon]]'' in an attempt to reconcile the differences over the Christology of [[Fourth Ecumenical Council|Chalcedon]].   
+
*482 Byzantine emperor [[Zeno (emperor)|Zeno I]] issues ''[[Henoticon|Henotikon]]'' in an attempt to reconcile the differences over the Christology of [[Fourth Ecumenical Council|Chalcedon]].   
*484 [[Acacian Schism]]. 
+
*484 The ''Catholicos-Patriarch of the Church of the East'' [[w:Babowai|Babowai]] (457–484) was executed by Sassanid king Peroz I, for his pro-Byzantine leanings, for which he was often in conflict with other members of the anti-Byzantine Church of the East (i.e. such as [[w:Barsauma|Barsauma]]); [[Synod of Beth Lapat]] is convened under the Metr. of Nisibis [[w:Barsauma|Barsauma]], declaring [[Nestorianism]] as the official theology of the [[Assyrian Church of the East]], permanently separating the Assyrian church from the Byzantine church, pleasing the Zoroastrian Persian kings, who were at constant war with the now Christian [[Byzantine Empire]].
*484 Founding of [[Holy Lavra of St. Savas (Jerusalem)|Mar Sabbas Monastery]] by [[Sabbas the Sanctified]]; [[Synod of Beth Lapat]] in Persia declares [[Nestorianism]] as official theology of [[Assyrian Church of the East]], effectively separating the Assyrian church from the Byzantine church.   
+
*484 [[Acacian Schism]]; Founding of [[Holy Lavra of St. Savas (Jerusalem)|Mar Sabbas Monastery]] by [[Sabbas the Sanctified]].   
*488 Death of [[Peter the Fuller]].   
+
*488 Death of [[Peter Fullo of Antioch|Peter the Fuller]].   
*489 Emperor [[Zeno I]] closes [[w:School of Nisibis|Nestorian academy in Edessa]], which was then transferred under Sassanian Persian auspices to Nisibis, becoming the spiritual center of the [[Assyrian Church of the East]].   
+
*489 Emperor [[Zeno (emperor)|Zeno I]] closes [[w:School of Nisibis|Nestorian academy in Edessa]], which was then transferred under Sassanian Persian auspices to Nisibis, becoming the spiritual center of the [[Assyrian Church of the East]].   
 +
*ca.490 Apparition of the [[Archangel Michael]] on Mount [[w:Gargano|Gargano]] in southern Italy, to Bishop Laurence of [[w:Bishop of Siponto|Siponto]], in memory of which the famous [[w:Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo|Monastery of the Archangel]] was founded.
 
*490 [[Brigid of Kildaire]] founds monastery of Kildare in Ireland.   
 
*490 [[Brigid of Kildaire]] founds monastery of Kildare in Ireland.   
*494 Pope [[Gelasius I of Rome]] delineates relationship between church and state in his letter ''Duo sunt'', written to Emperor [[Anastasius I]].   
+
*494 Pope [[Gelasius I of Rome]] delineates relationship between church and state in his letter ''Duo sunt'', written to Emperor [[Flavius Anastasius|Anastasius I]].   
 
*496 Pope [[Gelasius I of Rome]] dedicates [[February 14]] to [[Valentine of Terni]] in the West, banning the pre-Christian Roman festival of Lupercalia; Bp. [[Remigius of Rheims]] baptizes Franks into Orthodox Christianity.   
 
*496 Pope [[Gelasius I of Rome]] dedicates [[February 14]] to [[Valentine of Terni]] in the West, banning the pre-Christian Roman festival of Lupercalia; Bp. [[Remigius of Rheims]] baptizes Franks into Orthodox Christianity.   
 
*ca. 500 [[Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite]] writes ''The Mystical Theology''; ''[[w:Babylonian_Talmud#Talmud_Bavli_.28Babylonian_Talmud.29|Babylonian Talmud]]'' completed.   
 
*ca. 500 [[Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite]] writes ''The Mystical Theology''; ''[[w:Babylonian_Talmud#Talmud_Bavli_.28Babylonian_Talmud.29|Babylonian Talmud]]'' completed.   
 
*502 Start of [[w:Byzantine-Sassanid Wars|Byzantine-Sassanid wars]], lasting until 562.   
 
*502 Start of [[w:Byzantine-Sassanid Wars|Byzantine-Sassanid wars]], lasting until 562.   
 
*506 [[Church of Armenia]] separates from Chalcedonian Orthodoxy.   
 
*506 [[Church of Armenia]] separates from Chalcedonian Orthodoxy.   
*507 Clovis I defeats Visigoths at [[w:Battle of Vouillé|Battle of Vouillé]] near Poitiers, ending their power in Gaul.  
+
*507 Clovis I defeats Visigoths at [[w:Battle of Vouillé|Battle of Vouillé]] near Poitiers, ending their power in Gaul; Byzantine emperor Anastasius I made Clovis I a consul.
 +
*ca.507-11 ''[[w:Salic law|Lex Salica]] (Salic Law)'' is issued in the reign of Clovis, the most important, although not the oldest, of all Teutonic laws (''[[w:Leges barbarorum|Leges Barbarorum]]'').  
 
*512 Death of [[Genevieve of Paris]].   
 
*512 Death of [[Genevieve of Paris]].   
 
*518 [[Severus of Antioch]] deposed by Emperor [[Justin I]] for Monophysitism; Patriarch [[John II of Constantinople]] is addressed as ''"Oikoumenikos Patriarches"'' (Ecumenical Patriarch).   
 
*518 [[Severus of Antioch]] deposed by Emperor [[Justin I]] for Monophysitism; Patriarch [[John II of Constantinople]] is addressed as ''"Oikoumenikos Patriarches"'' (Ecumenical Patriarch).   
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*ca. 520 [[Elesbaan]] (Caleb), King of Ethiopia (Axum), invades Jewish Himyarite kingdom of Yemen, which was persecuting the Christians there, thus establishing Axumite control of South Arabia.   
 
*ca. 520 [[Elesbaan]] (Caleb), King of Ethiopia (Axum), invades Jewish Himyarite kingdom of Yemen, which was persecuting the Christians there, thus establishing Axumite control of South Arabia.   
 
*521 Birth of [[Columba of Iona]].     
 
*521 Birth of [[Columba of Iona]].     
 +
*522 Byzantine monk [[w:|Cosmas Indicopleustes]] (literally "who sailed to India") visits the [[w:Malabar Coast|Malabar Coast]] and [[w:Sri Lanka|Ceylon]], writing about Christian Communities in his book ''[[w:Christian Topography|Topografia Christiana]].''
 +
*523 Death of Martyr [[w:Arethas (martyr)|Arethas]] (al-Haarith) and over 4,000 with him, executed during the persecution of Christians by the Jewish Himyarite king [[w:Dhu Nuwas|Dhu Nuwas]].
 
*527 [[Dionysius Exiguus]] calculates the date of birth of Jesus incorrectly; foundation of [[St. Catherine's Monastery (Sinai)|St. Catherine's Monastery]] on the Sinai peninsula by [[Justinian the Great]].   
 
*527 [[Dionysius Exiguus]] calculates the date of birth of Jesus incorrectly; foundation of [[St. Catherine's Monastery (Sinai)|St. Catherine's Monastery]] on the Sinai peninsula by [[Justinian the Great]].   
 
*ca. 528 Death of [[Procopius of Gaza]].     
 
*ca. 528 Death of [[Procopius of Gaza]].     
*529 Pagan University of Athens closed and replaced by Christian university in Constantinople; [[Benedict of Nursia]] founds monastery of [[Monte Cassino]] and codifies Western [[monasticism]]; [[Council of Orange]] condemns [[Pelagianism]]; [[Church of the Nativity (Bethlehem)|Church of the Nativity]] burned down in Samaritan revolt of 529; death of [[Theodosius the Great]].  
+
*529 Pagan University of Athens closed and replaced by Christian university in Constantinople; [[Benedict of Nursia]] founds monastery of [[Monte Cassino]] and codifies Western [[monasticism]]; [[Council of Orange]] condemns [[Pelagianism]]; [[Church of the Nativity (Bethlehem)|Church of the Nativity]] burned down in Samaritan revolt of 529; death of [[Theodosius the Great]]; Second Council of Vasio (Vaison-la-Romaine), [[November 5]], (''Consilium Vasense II''), attended by 12 Bps. presided over by [[w:Caesarius of Arles|Caesarius of Arles]].
*529-534 [[Justinian the Great|Justinian]]'s ''[[w:Corpus Juris Civilis|Corpus Juris Civilis]]'' issued.   
+
*529-534 [[Justinian the Great|Justinian]]'s ''[[Code of Justinian|Corpus Juris Civilis]]'' issued.   
 
*530 [[Brendan the Navigator]] lands in Newfoundland, Canada, establishing a short-lived community of Irish monks.   
 
*530 [[Brendan the Navigator]] lands in Newfoundland, Canada, establishing a short-lived community of Irish monks.   
 
*532 [[Justinian the Great]] orders building of [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]]; death of [[Sabbas the Sanctified]].   
 
*532 [[Justinian the Great]] orders building of [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]]; death of [[Sabbas the Sanctified]].   
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*536 [[Mennas of Constantinople]] summons a synod anathematizing [[Severus of Antioch]].   
 
*536 [[Mennas of Constantinople]] summons a synod anathematizing [[Severus of Antioch]].   
 
*537 Construction of [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] in Constantinople completed; Justinian decrees that all dates must include the [[Indiction]].
 
*537 Construction of [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] in Constantinople completed; Justinian decrees that all dates must include the [[Indiction]].
 +
*538 Emperor [[Justinian the Great]], via deportations and force, manages to get [[Pentarchy|all five patriarchates]] offcially into communion.
 
*539 [[Ravenna (Italy)|Ravenna]] becomes exarchate of the [[Byzantine Empire]].   
 
*539 [[Ravenna (Italy)|Ravenna]] becomes exarchate of the [[Byzantine Empire]].   
 
*541 [[Jacob Baradeus]] organizes the [[Oriental Orthodox|Non-Chalcedonian Church]] in western Syria (the "Jacobites"), which spreads to Armenia and Egypt.   
 
*541 [[Jacob Baradeus]] organizes the [[Oriental Orthodox|Non-Chalcedonian Church]] in western Syria (the "Jacobites"), which spreads to Armenia and Egypt.   
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*557 [[Brendan the Navigator]] founds monastery at Clonfert, Ireland.   
 
*557 [[Brendan the Navigator]] founds monastery at Clonfert, Ireland.   
 
*563 Re-consecration of [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] in Constantinople after its dome is rebuilt; [[Columba of Iona|Columba]] arrives on [[Iona]] and establishes [[monastery]] there, founding mission to the Picts.   
 
*563 Re-consecration of [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] in Constantinople after its dome is rebuilt; [[Columba of Iona|Columba]] arrives on [[Iona]] and establishes [[monastery]] there, founding mission to the Picts.   
*564 Death of [[Petroc]].  
+
*564 Death of [[Petroc]].  
 +
*565-78 The [[Cherubic Hymn]] was added to the [[Divine Liturgy]] by Emperor [[Justin II]].
 
*569 Final schism between Chalcedonians and non-Chalcedonians in Egypt; [[David of Wales]] holds [[Synod of Victoria]] to re-assert the anti-Pelagian decrees of Brefi.   
 
*569 Final schism between Chalcedonians and non-Chalcedonians in Egypt; [[David of Wales]] holds [[Synod of Victoria]] to re-assert the anti-Pelagian decrees of Brefi.   
 
*570 Death of [[Gildas]]; birth of Muhammad, founder of [[Islam]].   
 
*570 Death of [[Gildas]]; birth of Muhammad, founder of [[Islam]].   
*571 Death of [[w:Yared|Yared]], Ethiopian musician credited with inventing the sacred music tradition of the [[Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church|Ethiopian Orthodox Church]].  
+
*571 Death of [[w:Yared|Yared]], Ethiopian musician credited with inventing the sacred music tradition of the [[Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church|Ethiopian Orthodox Church]].  
 +
*576 Dual hierarchy henceforth in Alexandria, [[Church of Alexandria|Chalcedonian (Greek)]] and [[Church of Alexandria (Coptic)|Monophysite (Coptic)]].
 +
*577 Patr. [[John Scholasticus|John III Scholasticus]] is responible for the first collection of Canon Law, the ''[[Nomocanon]]'', of the [[Orthodox Church]].
 
*579 400 Martyrs slain by Lombards in Sicily.   
 
*579 400 Martyrs slain by Lombards in Sicily.   
*580 [[Monte Cassino]] sacked by Lombards, sending its monks fleeing to Rome; Slavs begin to migrate into the Balkans and Greece.  
+
*580 [[Monte Cassino]] sacked by Lombards, sending its monks fleeing to Rome; Slavs begin to migrate into the Balkans and Greece; death of [[Martin of Braga]], “Apostle of the Sueves”.
 +
*586 Martrydom of [[w:Hermengild|Hermengild]], Prince of the Visigoths, whose martyrdom was a catalyst in the Visigoths' conversion from Arianism to Nicene Christianity.
 
*587 Visigoth King [[w:Reccared I|Reccared]] renounces [[Arianism]] in favor of [[Orthodoxy]].   
 
*587 Visigoth King [[w:Reccared I|Reccared]] renounces [[Arianism]] in favor of [[Orthodoxy]].   
 
*589 [[Council of Toledo]] adds [[Filioque]] to [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed]] in an attempt to combat [[Arianism]].   
 
*589 [[Council of Toledo]] adds [[Filioque]] to [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed]] in an attempt to combat [[Arianism]].   
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*635 Founding of [[Lindisfarne]] Monastery by [[Aidan of Lindisfarne|Aidan]], a monk from [[Iona]]; Cynegils, king of Wessex, converts to Christianity.   
 
*635 Founding of [[Lindisfarne]] Monastery by [[Aidan of Lindisfarne|Aidan]], a monk from [[Iona]]; Cynegils, king of Wessex, converts to Christianity.   
 
*636 Capture of [[Jerusalem]] by Muslim Arabs after [[w:Battle of Yarmouk|Battle of Yarmuk]].   
 
*636 Capture of [[Jerusalem]] by Muslim Arabs after [[w:Battle of Yarmouk|Battle of Yarmuk]].   
*638 Muslim Arabs allow Jews to return to Jerusalem.  
+
*638 Muslim Arabs allow Jews to return to Jerusalem.  
*640 [[w:Muslim conquest of Syria|Muslim conquest of Syria]]; [[w:Battle of Heliopolis|Battle of Heliopolis]] between Arab Muslim armies and Byzantium opens door for Muslim conquest of Byzantine [[w:Exarchate of Africa|Exarchate of Africa]].  
+
*639 Christian monastery built in Ch'ang-an, capital of China. 
 +
*640 [[w:Muslim conquest of Syria|Muslim conquest of Syria]]; [[w:Battle of Heliopolis|Battle of Heliopolis]] between Arab Muslim armies and Byzantium opens door for Muslim conquest of Byzantine [[w:Exarchate of Africa|Exarchate of Africa]]; death of [[Gallus of Switzerland|Gallus]] (Gall), enlightener of Switzerland.
 
*641 Capture of Alexandria by Muslim Arabs.   
 
*641 Capture of Alexandria by Muslim Arabs.   
 
*642 Muslim conquest of Egypt; Arabs invade [[w:Nubia#Christian_Nubia|Christian Nubia]] for the first time.   
 
*642 Muslim conquest of Egypt; Arabs invade [[w:Nubia#Christian_Nubia|Christian Nubia]] for the first time.   
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*662 Death of [[Maximus the Confessor]].   
 
*662 Death of [[Maximus the Confessor]].   
 
*663 Emperor [[Constans II]] is last Eastern emperor to set foot in Rome; [[Constans II]] declares the Pope of Rome to have no jurisdiction over the Archbishop of Ravenna, since that city was the seat of the exarch, his immediate representative.   
 
*663 Emperor [[Constans II]] is last Eastern emperor to set foot in Rome; [[Constans II]] declares the Pope of Rome to have no jurisdiction over the Archbishop of Ravenna, since that city was the seat of the exarch, his immediate representative.   
*664 [[Synod of Whitby]] held in northern England, adopting Roman calendar and tonsures in Northumbria; [[Iona|Ionian]] monk [[Wilfrid of York|Wilfrid]] appointed as Archbishop of York; death of [[Cedd]].   
+
*664 [[Synod of Whitby]] held in northern England, adopting Roman calendar and tonsures in Northumbria; [[Iona|Ionian]] monk [[Wilfrid]] appointed as Archbishop of York; death of [[Cedd]].   
 
*668 [[Theodore of Tarsus]] appointed Archbishop of Canterbury.   
 
*668 [[Theodore of Tarsus]] appointed Archbishop of Canterbury.   
 
*669-78 [[w:Siege of Constantinople (674)|First Arab siege of Constantinople]]; at [[w:Battle of Syllaeum|Battle of Syllaeum]] Arab fleet destroyed by Byzantines through use of [[w:Greek Fire|Greek Fire]], ending immediate Arab threat to eastern Europe.   
 
*669-78 [[w:Siege of Constantinople (674)|First Arab siege of Constantinople]]; at [[w:Battle of Syllaeum|Battle of Syllaeum]] Arab fleet destroyed by Byzantines through use of [[w:Greek Fire|Greek Fire]], ending immediate Arab threat to eastern Europe.   
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*672 The First Synod of Hertford called by [[Theodore of Tarsus]], adoption of ten decrees paralleling the canons of the Council of Chalcedon.   
 
*672 The First Synod of Hertford called by [[Theodore of Tarsus]], adoption of ten decrees paralleling the canons of the Council of Chalcedon.   
 
*673 The Second Council of Hatfield upholds Orthodoxy against [[Monothelitism]].   
 
*673 The Second Council of Hatfield upholds Orthodoxy against [[Monothelitism]].   
*680-681 [[Sixth Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople, condemning [[Monothelitism]] and affirming [[Christology]] of [[Maximus the Confessor]], affirming that Christ has both a human will and a divine will; Patr. [[Sergius of Constantinople]] and Pope [[Honorius of Rome]] are both explicitly [[anathema]]tized for their support of Monothelitism.   
+
*680-681 [[Sixth Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople, condemning [[Monothelitism]] and affirming [[Christology]] of [[Maximus the Confessor]], affirming that Christ has both a human will and a divine will; Patr. [[Sergius I of Constantinople]] and Pope [[Honorius I of Rome]] are both explicitly [[anathema]]tized for their support of Monothelitism.   
 
*680 [[w:First Bulgarian Empire|First Bulgarian Empire]] established after a successful war with Byzantium.   
 
*680 [[w:First Bulgarian Empire|First Bulgarian Empire]] established after a successful war with Byzantium.   
 
*682 Foundation of [[Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Abbey]] in England.   
 
*682 Foundation of [[Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Abbey]] in England.   
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*694 Byzantine army of [[Justinian II]] defeated by [[Maronite Catholic Church|Maronites]], who became fully independent afterwards.   
 
*694 Byzantine army of [[Justinian II]] defeated by [[Maronite Catholic Church|Maronites]], who became fully independent afterwards.   
 
*697 [[Council of Birr]] accepts Roman [[Paschalion]] for northern Ireland; at this synod, [[Adomnán of Iona]] promulgates his [[w:Cáin Adomnáin|Cáin Adomnáin]].   
 
*697 [[Council of Birr]] accepts Roman [[Paschalion]] for northern Ireland; at this synod, [[Adomnán of Iona]] promulgates his [[w:Cáin Adomnáin|Cáin Adomnáin]].   
*698 Muslim conquest of Carthage; at [[Synod of Aquileia]], bishops of the diocese of Aquileia end the [[Schism of the Three Chapters]] and return to communion with Rome.  
+
*698 Muslim conquest of Carthage; at [[Synod of Aquileia]], bishops of the diocese of Aquileia end the [[Schism of the Three Chapters]] and return to communion with Rome; persecution of Christians in China under Empress Wu's strong pro-Buddhist policies (China had declared Buddhism the state religion in 691).
 
*ca. 700 Death of [[Isaac of Syria]].     
 
*ca. 700 Death of [[Isaac of Syria]].     
 
*705 Long period of fighting begins between Trebizond in eastern Asia Minor and the Arabs.     
 
*705 Long period of fighting begins between Trebizond in eastern Asia Minor and the Arabs.     
 
*706 Greek replaced by Arabic as administrative language in Egypt.   
 
*706 Greek replaced by Arabic as administrative language in Egypt.   
 
*707 Byzantines lose Balearic Islands to Moors; death of [[John Maron]].   
 
*707 Byzantines lose Balearic Islands to Moors; death of [[John Maron]].   
 +
*709 Bp. [[w:Aubert of Avranches|Aubert of Avranches]] founds the monastery of [[w:Mont Saint-Michel|Mont Saint-Michel]], after the [[Archangel Michael]] appeared him in 708, instructing him to build a church on the rocky islet; [[w:Mont Saint-Michel|Mont Saint-Michel]] becomes popular and prestigious as a centre of pilgrimage.
 
*710 Pope [[Constantine of Rome|Constantine]] makes last papal visit to Constantinople before 1967.   
 
*710 Pope [[Constantine of Rome|Constantine]] makes last papal visit to Constantinople before 1967.   
 
*711 Umayyad Islamic invasion of Spain.     
 
*711 Umayyad Islamic invasion of Spain.     
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*800 Ambassadors of Caliph Harunu al-Rashid give keys to the [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Holy Sepulchre]] to Charlemagne, acknowledging some Frankish control over the interests of Christians in Jerusalem ; establishment of the [[Western Rite]] Monastery of Saint Mary in Jerusalem.   
 
*800 Ambassadors of Caliph Harunu al-Rashid give keys to the [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Holy Sepulchre]] to Charlemagne, acknowledging some Frankish control over the interests of Christians in Jerusalem ; establishment of the [[Western Rite]] Monastery of Saint Mary in Jerusalem.   
 
*801 Controversy in Jerusalem over Frankish pilgrims using [[Filioque]].   
 
*801 Controversy in Jerusalem over Frankish pilgrims using [[Filioque]].   
 +
*802-803 ''[[w:Lex Saxonum|Lex Saxonum]]'' is issued by Charlemagne at the Council of Aachen, officially determining the laws of the Saxons and other tribes.
 
*803 [[Council of Clovesho II]] abolishes archbishopric of Lichfield, restoring the pattern of the two metropolitan archbishoprics (Canterbury and York) which had prevailed before 787, and requires the use of the [[Western Rite]] amongst the English speaking peoples.   
 
*803 [[Council of Clovesho II]] abolishes archbishopric of Lichfield, restoring the pattern of the two metropolitan archbishoprics (Canterbury and York) which had prevailed before 787, and requires the use of the [[Western Rite]] amongst the English speaking peoples.   
 +
*809 Heretical [[w:Council of Aachen|Council of Aachen]] decreed belief in [[Filioque]] as necessary for salvation.
 
*810 Pope Leo III refused permission for the [[Filioque]] to be inserted in the Creed.   
 
*810 Pope Leo III refused permission for the [[Filioque]] to be inserted in the Creed.   
 
*814 Bulgarians lay siege to Constantinople; conflict erupts between Emperor [[Leo V the Armenian|Leo V]] and Patr. [[Nicephorus I of Constantinople|Nicephorus]] on the subject of iconoclasm; Leo deposes Nicephorus, Nicephorus excommunicates Leo.   
 
*814 Bulgarians lay siege to Constantinople; conflict erupts between Emperor [[Leo V the Armenian|Leo V]] and Patr. [[Nicephorus I of Constantinople|Nicephorus]] on the subject of iconoclasm; Leo deposes Nicephorus, Nicephorus excommunicates Leo.   
Line 194: Line 209:
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in America]]   
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in America]]   
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in Australia]]  
+
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in Australia]]
 +
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in China]]
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in Greece]]   
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in Greece]]   
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in New Zealand]]   
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in New Zealand]]   
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in Japan]]
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in Japan]]
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic relations]]
 
*[[Timeline of Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic relations]]
 +
 +
==Notes==
 +
<references group="note" />
  
 
==Published works==   
 
==Published works==   
Line 204: Line 223:
 
The following are published writings that provide an overview of Church history:   
 
The following are published writings that provide an overview of Church history:   
 
      
 
      
'''From an Orthodox perspective'''  
+
'''From an Orthodox perspective'''
   
+
* Ekonomou, Andrew J. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=zomZk6DbFTIC&source=gbs_navlinks_s Byzantine Rome and the Greek popes: Eastern influences on Rome and the Papacy from Gregory the Great to Zacharias, A.D. 590-752].'' Lexington Books, 2007. 347 pp. (ISBN 9780739119778)
 +
* Heiska, Nina. ''[https://oa.doria.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/915/theecono.pdf?sequence=1 The Economy and Livelihoods of the Early Christian Monasteries in Palestine].'' Master of Arts Thesis. University of Helsinki: Institute for Cultural Studies, Archaeology. November 2003 ''  (Period covered: AD 324-636)''
 +
* Keegan, Paul, and B.J. Kidd. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=Ufw_AAAACAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Churches of Eastern Christendom: From A.D. 451 to the Present Time].'' Ed. Prof. Daniel Herwitz. Publ. Paul Kegan, 2006. 541 pp. (ISBN 9780710310811)
 +
* Meyendorff, John. ''Imperial Unity and Christian Divisions: The Church, 450-680 AD''. '''The Church in History Vol. II'''. Crestwood, N.Y. : St. Vladimirs Seminary Press, 1989. ISBN 9780881410563   
 +
* Meyendorff, John. ''Justinian, the Empire and the Church.'' '''Dumbarton Oaks Papers.''' Vol. 22, (1968), pp.43-60.
 
* [[Alexander Schmemann|Schmemann, Alexander]]. ''The Historical Road of Eastern Orthodoxy''.   
 
* [[Alexander Schmemann|Schmemann, Alexander]]. ''The Historical Road of Eastern Orthodoxy''.   
 +
* Tsai, Dr. Kathryn. ''A Timeline of Eastern Church History.'' [[St. John of San Francisco Monastery (Manton, California)|Divine Ascent Press]], CA, 2004. ISBN 0971413924
 
* [[Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia|Ware, Timothy]]. ''The Orthodox Church: New Edition''. (ISBN 0140146563)  
 
* [[Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia|Ware, Timothy]]. ''The Orthodox Church: New Edition''. (ISBN 0140146563)  
* Dr. Kathryn Tsai. ''A Timeline of Eastern Church History.'' [[St. John of San Francisco Monastery (Manton, California)|Divine Ascent Press]], CA, 2004. ISBN 0971413924 
+
 
   
+
'''From a [[Heterodox]] perspective'''     
'''From a [[Heterodox]] perspective'''  
+
* Cairns, Earle E. ''Christianity Through the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church''. (ISBN 0310208122)    
      
+
* Collins, Michael, ed.; Price, Matthew Arlen. ''Story of Christianity: A Celebration of 2000 Years of Faith''. (ISBN 0789446057)      
* Boer, Harry R. ''A Short History of the Early Church''. (ISBN 0802813399) 
+
* Gonzalez, Justo L. ''A History of Christian Thought, Volume 2: From Augustine to the Eve of the Reformation''. (ISBN 0687171830)    
* Cairns, Earle E. ''Christianity Through the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church''. (ISBN 0310208122)  
+
* Gonzalez, Justo L. ''The Story of Christianity, Volume 1: The Early Church to the Reformation''. (ISBN 0060633158)  
* Chadwick, Henry. ''The Early Church''. (ISBN 0140231994) 
+
* Collins, Michael, ed.; Price, Matthew Arlen. ''Story of Christianity: A Celebration of 2000 Years of Faith''. (ISBN 0789446057)  
+
* Eusebius Pamphilus; Cruse, C.F. (translator). ''Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History''. (ISBN 1565633717) 
+
* Gonzalez, Justo L. ''A History of Christian Thought, Volume 1: From the Beginnings to the Council of Chalcedon''. (ISBN 0687171822) 
+
* Gonzalez, Justo L. ''A History of Christian Thought, Volume 2: From Augustine to the Eve of the Reformation''. (ISBN 0687171830)  
+
* Gonzalez, Justo L. ''A History of Christian Thought, Volume 3: From the Protestant Reformation to the Twentieth Century''. (ISBN 0687171849) 
+
* Gonzalez, Justo L. ''The Story of Christianity, Volume 1: The Early Church to the Reformation''. (ISBN 0060633158)  
+
* Gonzalez, Justo L. ''The Story of Christianity, Volume 2: Reformation to the Present Day''. (ISBN 0060633166) 
+
* Hall, Stuart G. ''Doctrine and Practice in the Early Church''. (ISBN 0802806295) 
+
 
* Hastings, Adrian, ed. ''A World History of Christianity''. (ISBN 0802848753)   
 
* Hastings, Adrian, ed. ''A World History of Christianity''. (ISBN 0802848753)   
 
* Hussey, J. M. ''The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire: Oxford History of the Christian Church''. (ISBN 0198264569)   
 
* Hussey, J. M. ''The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire: Oxford History of the Christian Church''. (ISBN 0198264569)   
Line 229: Line 244:
 
* [[Jaroslav Pelikan|Pelikan, Jaroslav]]. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 1: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600)''. (ISBN 0226653714)   
 
* [[Jaroslav Pelikan|Pelikan, Jaroslav]]. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 1: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600)''. (ISBN 0226653714)   
 
* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 2: The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600-1700)''. (ISBN 0226653730)   
 
* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 2: The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600-1700)''. (ISBN 0226653730)   
* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 3: The Growth of Medieval Theology (600-1300)''. (ISBN 0226653749)  
+
* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 3: The Growth of Medieval Theology (600-1300)''. (ISBN 0226653749)    
* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 4: Reformation of Church and Dogma (1300-1700)''. (ISBN 0226653773) 
+
* Schaff, Philip. ''History of the Christian Church''. (ISBN 156563196X)    
* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 5: Christian Doctrine and Modern Culture (since 1700)''. (ISBN 0226653803) 
+
* Schaff, Philip. ''History of the Christian Church''. (ISBN 156563196X)  
+
* Wace, Henry; Piercy, William C., ed. ''A Dictionary of Christian Biography: Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A.D. With an Account of the Principal Sects and Heresies''. (ISBN 1565630572) 
+
 
* Walton, Robert C. ''Chronological and Background Charts of Church History''. (ISBN 0310362814)
 
* Walton, Robert C. ''Chronological and Background Charts of Church History''. (ISBN 0310362814)
  

Latest revision as of 15:41, January 26, 2012

Timeline of Church History
Eras Timeline of Church History (Abridged article)
Eras New Testament Era | Apostolic Era (33-100) | Ante-Nicene Era (100-325) | Nicene Era (325-451) | Byzantine Era (451-843) | Late Byzantine Era (843-1054) | Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453) | Post-Imperial Era (1453-1821) | Modern Era (1821-1917) | Communist Era (1917-1991) | Post-Communist Era (1991-Present) |
(Main articles)


This article forms part of the series
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The History of the Church is a vital part of the Orthodox Christian faith. Orthodox Christians are defined significantly by their continuity with all those who have gone before, those who first received and preached the truth of Jesus Christ to the world, those who helped to formulate the expression and worship of our faith, and those who continue to move forward in the unchanging yet ever-dynamic Holy Tradition of the Orthodox Church.

Contents

Byzantine era (451-843)

Notes

  • Some of these dates are necessarily a bit vague, as records for some periods are particularly difficult to piece together accurately.
  • The division of Church History into separate eras as done here will always be to some extent arbitrary, though it was attempted to group periods according to major watershed events.
  • This timeline is necessarily biased toward the history of the Orthodox Church, though a number of non-Orthodox or purely political events are mentioned for their importance in history related to Orthodoxy or for reference.

See also

Notes

  1. Allied with the Romans under General Flavius Aetius ("Last of the Romans") were the Christian Visigoths of King Theodoric, the Alans under Sangiban, Salian Franks, Burgundians, Saxons, Armoricans and Sarmatians.
    Allied with the Hunnic army of Attila ("The Scourge of God") were the Gepids under their king Ardaric, an Ostrogothic army led by the brothers Valamir and Theodemir (the father of the later Ostrogothic king Theodoric the Great), Vandals, Thuringians, Scythians, and Alamanni; the Ripuarian Franks fought on both sides as some of them lived outside the Empire.
    This was the first major battle since the death of Constantine I where a predominantly Christian force faced a predominantly pagan opponent. This factor was very much apparent to the contemporaries, who often mention prayer playing a factor in this battle (e.g., Gregory of Tours' story of the prayers of Aetius' wife saving the Roman's life in Historia Francorum 2.7).
  2. Charles Bryant-Abraham (PhD), and The Hon. Knight de Bryan (OAA). "An Interview with the Venerable Getahun Atlaw, Archdeacon of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, Israel." Courtesy of the Augustan Society.
  3. The Ethiopian Jews (Beta-Israel, Falashas) are the only Jewish community in the world today who accept the Septuagint (minus Ecclesiasticus). (Septuagint. BiblicaHebraica.org, BiblicaGreece.org.)

Published works

The following are published writings that provide an overview of Church history:

From an Orthodox perspective

From a Heterodox perspective

  • Cairns, Earle E. Christianity Through the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 0310208122)
  • Collins, Michael, ed.; Price, Matthew Arlen. Story of Christianity: A Celebration of 2000 Years of Faith. (ISBN 0789446057)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 2: From Augustine to the Eve of the Reformation. (ISBN 0687171830)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity, Volume 1: The Early Church to the Reformation. (ISBN 0060633158)
  • Hastings, Adrian, ed. A World History of Christianity. (ISBN 0802848753)
  • Hussey, J. M. The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire: Oxford History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 0198264569)
  • Jones, Timothy P. Christian History Made Easy. (ISBN 1890947105)
  • Noll, Mark A. Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity. (ISBN 080106211X)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 1: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600). (ISBN 0226653714)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 2: The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600-1700). (ISBN 0226653730)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 3: The Growth of Medieval Theology (600-1300). (ISBN 0226653749)
  • Schaff, Philip. History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 156563196X)
  • Walton, Robert C. Chronological and Background Charts of Church History. (ISBN 0310362814)

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