Timeline of Church History (Ante-Nicene Era (100-325))

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*156 Beginning of [[Montanism]].   
 
*156 Beginning of [[Montanism]].   
 
*165 Martyrdom of [[Justin Martyr|Justin]].   
 
*165 Martyrdom of [[Justin Martyr|Justin]].   
*166 Pope [[Soter]] inaugurates in Rome a separate annual feast for [[Pascha]], in addition to the weekly [[Lord's Day|Sunday]] celebrations of the [[Resurrection]], which is also held on a Sunday, in contrast to the [[Quartodeciman|Quartodecimans]].  
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*166 Pope [[Soter of Rome|Soter]] inaugurates in Rome a separate annual feast for [[Pascha]], in addition to the weekly [[Lord's Day|Sunday]] celebrations of the [[Resurrection]], which is also held on a Sunday, in contrast to the [[Quartodeciman|Quartodecimans]].
 +
*167 Death of [[w:Abercius of Hieropolis|Abercius of Hieropolis]], Wonderworker and Equal to the Apostles.
 
*ca. 170 Emergence of [[w:Muratorian fragment|Muratorian Canon]].  
 
*ca. 170 Emergence of [[w:Muratorian fragment|Muratorian Canon]].  
 
*ca. 175 Tatian’s [[w:Diatessaron|Diatessaron]] harmonizes the four canonical gospels into single narrative.
 
*ca. 175 Tatian’s [[w:Diatessaron|Diatessaron]] harmonizes the four canonical gospels into single narrative.
 
*177-180 [[w:Persecution_of_early_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire#Persecution_under_Marcus_Aurelius|Persection under Emperor Marcus Aurelius]] (161-180).
 
*177-180 [[w:Persecution_of_early_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire#Persecution_under_Marcus_Aurelius|Persection under Emperor Marcus Aurelius]] (161-180).
 +
*ca.180 Death of early Church chronicler [[w:Hegesippus (chronicler)|Hegesippus]], who wrote against the heresies of the Gnostics and of [[Marcion]].
 
*180 [[Irenaeus of Lyons]] writes ''Against Heresies'' ; Saint Dyfan first martyr in British Isles (at Merthyr Dyfan, Wales); death of [[w:Scillitan Martyrs|Scillitan Martyrs]] in North Africa.  
 
*180 [[Irenaeus of Lyons]] writes ''Against Heresies'' ; Saint Dyfan first martyr in British Isles (at Merthyr Dyfan, Wales); death of [[w:Scillitan Martyrs|Scillitan Martyrs]] in North Africa.  
 
*180-192 [[w:Theodotion|Theodotion's]] Greek translation of the [[Old Testament]].
 
*180-192 [[w:Theodotion|Theodotion's]] Greek translation of the [[Old Testament]].
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*193-211 [[w:Symmachus the Ebionite|Symmachus']] Greek translation of the [[Old Testament]].     
 
*193-211 [[w:Symmachus the Ebionite|Symmachus']] Greek translation of the [[Old Testament]].     
 
*195 Bishop Saint Elvan dies at Glastonbury.   
 
*195 Bishop Saint Elvan dies at Glastonbury.   
 +
*196 Syriac gnostic philosopher [[w:Bardaisan|Bardaisan]] writes of Christians amongst the Parthians, Bactrians (Kushans) and other peoples in the Persian Empire.
 
*197 [[Quartodeciman]] controversy; [[Tertullian]] writes ''[[w:Apologeticus|Apologeticus]],'' his most famous work, including the phrase ''"the blood of the martyrs is the seed of the Church"'' (Apologeticus, Ch.50).  
 
*197 [[Quartodeciman]] controversy; [[Tertullian]] writes ''[[w:Apologeticus|Apologeticus]],'' his most famous work, including the phrase ''"the blood of the martyrs is the seed of the Church"'' (Apologeticus, Ch.50).  
 
*200 Martyrdom of [[Irenaeus of Lyons]].   
 
*200 Martyrdom of [[Irenaeus of Lyons]].   
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*215 Conversion of [[Tertullian]] to [[Montanism]].   
 
*215 Conversion of [[Tertullian]] to [[Montanism]].   
 
*220 [[w:Sextus Julius Africanus|Sextus Julius Africanus]] writes the ''Chronographiai'', a history of the world up to year 217.
 
*220 [[w:Sextus Julius Africanus|Sextus Julius Africanus]] writes the ''Chronographiai'', a history of the world up to year 217.
*225 Death of [[Tertullian]].
+
*225 Death of [[Tertullian]]; martyrdom of [[Tatiana of Rome]].
 
*ca.225-250 ''[[w:Didascalia Apostolorum|Didascalia Apostolorum]]'', ''"Teaching of the Apostles"'', oldest extant manual of church order describes church life at that time; circulated widely in Persia, being translated early on from Greek into Syriac.
 
*ca.225-250 ''[[w:Didascalia Apostolorum|Didascalia Apostolorum]]'', ''"Teaching of the Apostles"'', oldest extant manual of church order describes church life at that time; circulated widely in Persia, being translated early on from Greek into Syriac.
 
*227 [[Origen]] begins ''Commentary on Genesis'', completes work on ''First Principles''.
 
*227 [[Origen]] begins ''Commentary on Genesis'', completes work on ''First Principles''.
 
*232 Heraclas becomes Pope of Alexandria.  
 
*232 Heraclas becomes Pope of Alexandria.  
 
*235-238 [[w:Persecution_of_early_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire#Persecution_under_Maximinus_the_Thracian|Persecution under Emperor Maximinus Thrax]]; martyrdom of St. [[Hippolytus of Rome]].
 
*235-238 [[w:Persecution_of_early_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire#Persecution_under_Maximinus_the_Thracian|Persecution under Emperor Maximinus Thrax]]; martyrdom of St. [[Hippolytus of Rome]].
 +
*236  Hieromartyr [[w:Pope Anterus|Antheros]], Bp. of Rome.
 
*238 During reigns of Gordian and [[w:Philip the Arab|Philip the Arab]] the church proclaims the faith openly and increasingly attracts well-educated converts.
 
*238 During reigns of Gordian and [[w:Philip the Arab|Philip the Arab]] the church proclaims the faith openly and increasingly attracts well-educated converts.
 
*240 Church at [[Dura-Europos]] built (earliest identified Christian church).
 
*240 Church at [[Dura-Europos]] built (earliest identified Christian church).
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*248 [[Origen]] writes in ''Against Celsus'' that the [[Pax Romana|Roman empire is a Divine Will]].  
 
*248 [[Origen]] writes in ''Against Celsus'' that the [[Pax Romana|Roman empire is a Divine Will]].  
 
*249-251 [[w:Persecution_of_early_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire#Persecution_under_Decius_Trajan|Persecution under Emperor Decius]].   
 
*249-251 [[w:Persecution_of_early_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire#Persecution_under_Decius_Trajan|Persecution under Emperor Decius]].   
*257-260 [[w:Persecution_of_early_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire#Persecution_under_Valerian|Persecution under Emperor Valerian]] (253-260).  
+
*250 Hieromartyr [[w:Pope Fabian|Fabian]], Bp. of Rome; martyrdom of [[Pionius of Smyrna]].
 +
*257-260 [[w:Persecution_of_early_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire#Persecution_under_Valerian|Persecution under Emperor Valerian]] (253-260).  
 +
*257 Hieromartyr [[w:Pope Stephen I|Stephen]], Bp. of Rome, and those martyred with him.
 
*255-256 Three Councils of Carthage.  
 
*255-256 Three Councils of Carthage.  
 
*258 Bp. [[w:Cyprian|Cyprian of Carthage]] martyred.
 
*258 Bp. [[w:Cyprian|Cyprian of Carthage]] martyred.
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*264 Excommunication of [[Paul of Samosata]].  
 
*264 Excommunication of [[Paul of Samosata]].  
 
*265 The word "[[Homoousios]]", "of the same substance", to define relationship between [[God the Father|Father]] and Son, used for first time by Modalist Monarchians of Cyrene, playing an important part in defining Orthodoxy at [[First Ecumenical Council|Nicene Council]] in 325.
 
*265 The word "[[Homoousios]]", "of the same substance", to define relationship between [[God the Father|Father]] and Son, used for first time by Modalist Monarchians of Cyrene, playing an important part in defining Orthodoxy at [[First Ecumenical Council|Nicene Council]] in 325.
 +
*268 Death of [[w:Firmilian|Firmilian]], Bp. of Caesarea.
 
*274-275 [[w:Persecution_of_early_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire#Persecution_under_Aurelian|Persecution under Emperor Aurelian]].   
 
*274-275 [[w:Persecution_of_early_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire#Persecution_under_Aurelian|Persecution under Emperor Aurelian]].   
 
*270 Before 270, Gregory Thaumaturgus sees first known apparition of the Theotokos; Death of [[Gregory the Wonderworker|Gregory Thaumaturgus]]; [[w:Porphyry of Tyre|Porphyry of Tyre]] writes ''Against the Christians'', a powerful anti-Christian book, causing several Christian contemporaries to try and refute him, and which was later banned and burned in 448; first priest ordained in [[w:Al-Mada'in|Seleucia-Ctesiphon]].  
 
*270 Before 270, Gregory Thaumaturgus sees first known apparition of the Theotokos; Death of [[Gregory the Wonderworker|Gregory Thaumaturgus]]; [[w:Porphyry of Tyre|Porphyry of Tyre]] writes ''Against the Christians'', a powerful anti-Christian book, causing several Christian contemporaries to try and refute him, and which was later banned and burned in 448; first priest ordained in [[w:Al-Mada'in|Seleucia-Ctesiphon]].  
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*285 [[Anthony the Great]] flees to the desert to pursue a life of prayer.   
 
*285 [[Anthony the Great]] flees to the desert to pursue a life of prayer.   
 
*286 Martrydom of [[Maurice]] and the [[w:Theban Legion|Theban Legion]].
 
*286 Martrydom of [[Maurice]] and the [[w:Theban Legion|Theban Legion]].
 +
*290 Brief persecution of Persian Christians under [[w:Bahram II|Bahram II]].
 +
*ca.300 Bp. [[w:David of Basra|David of Basra]] undertook missionary work in India, among the earliest documented Christian missionaries in India.
 
*300 By this date, the Chrisitan population is about 6,200,000, or 10.5% of the population of the Roman Empire (based on population of 60 million).
 
*300 By this date, the Chrisitan population is about 6,200,000, or 10.5% of the population of the Roman Empire (based on population of 60 million).
*301 [[Gregory the Illuminator]] converts King Tiridates I of Armenia to the Christian faith.   
+
*301 [[Gregory the Enlightener|Gregory the Illuminator]] converts King Tiridates I of Armenia to the Christian faith.   
 
*302 20,000 Martyrs burned at Nicomedia.   
 
*302 20,000 Martyrs burned at Nicomedia.   
*303 Outbreak of the [[w:Diocletianic Persecution|Great Persecution]] (303-311), as Diocletian and Galerius launch the last and most severe persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire; martyrdom of [[George the Trophy-bearer]].  
+
*303 Outbreak of the [[w:Diocletianic Persecution|Great Persecution]] (303-311), as Diocletian and Galerius launch the last and most severe persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire; martyrdom of [[George the Trophy-bearer]]; martyrdom of [[Genesius of Rome|Genesios of Rome]].
 
*305 Martyrdom of [[Panteleimon]] and [[Catherine of Alexandria]]. Martyrdom of Bishop Ianouarios of Beneventio of Campania and his Companions.   
 
*305 Martyrdom of [[Panteleimon]] and [[Catherine of Alexandria]]. Martyrdom of Bishop Ianouarios of Beneventio of Campania and his Companions.   
 
*ca.305-311 [[Lactantius]] writes ''Divinae Institutiones'', the first systematic Latin account of the Christian view of life.  
 
*ca.305-311 [[Lactantius]] writes ''Divinae Institutiones'', the first systematic Latin account of the Christian view of life.  
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*312 Vision and conversion of [[Constantine the Great]]; defeat of Maxentius at the [[Battle of Milvian Bridge]], making Constantine Emperor of the West; martyrdom of [[Lucian of Antioch]], who had completed a recension of the [[Septuagint]] and the Four [[Gospels]] in Greek, and inspired the development of the [[w:School of Antioch|School of Antioch]] and Biblical textual study.
 
*312 Vision and conversion of [[Constantine the Great]]; defeat of Maxentius at the [[Battle of Milvian Bridge]], making Constantine Emperor of the West; martyrdom of [[Lucian of Antioch]], who had completed a recension of the [[Septuagint]] and the Four [[Gospels]] in Greek, and inspired the development of the [[w:School of Antioch|School of Antioch]] and Biblical textual study.
 
*313 [[Edict of Milan]] issued by [[Constantine the Great]] and co-emperor Licinius, officially declaring religious freedom in the Roman Empire, specifically naming religious toleration for Christianity, restoration of property to Christian churches, and legal recognition.   
 
*313 [[Edict of Milan]] issued by [[Constantine the Great]] and co-emperor Licinius, officially declaring religious freedom in the Roman Empire, specifically naming religious toleration for Christianity, restoration of property to Christian churches, and legal recognition.   
*314 [[Council of Ancyra]] held; [[Council of Arles]] condemns [[Donatism]].   
+
*314 [[Council of Ancyra]] held; [[Council of Arles of 314|Council of Arles]] condemns [[Donatism]].   
 
*315 [[Council of Neo-Caesaria]] held; [[Constantine the Great]] abolished crucifixion in the Roman Empire.
 
*315 [[Council of Neo-Caesaria]] held; [[Constantine the Great]] abolished crucifixion in the Roman Empire.
 
*316 Lactantius writes ''"De Mortibus Persecutorum"'', a graphic account of the lives and horrible deaths of those who persecuted the church.   
 
*316 Lactantius writes ''"De Mortibus Persecutorum"'', a graphic account of the lives and horrible deaths of those who persecuted the church.   
 
*318 Publication of ''[[On the Incarnation]]'' by [[Athanasius the Great]], influencing the condemnation of [[Arianism]]; beginnings of [[Arianism|Arian Controversy]].   
 
*318 Publication of ''[[On the Incarnation]]'' by [[Athanasius the Great]], influencing the condemnation of [[Arianism]]; beginnings of [[Arianism|Arian Controversy]].   
 
*318 [[Pachomius the Great]], disciple of [[Anthony the Great]], organizes a community of ascetics at Tabennis in Egypt, founding [[cenobitic]] [[monasticism]].   
 
*318 [[Pachomius the Great]], disciple of [[Anthony the Great]], organizes a community of ascetics at Tabennis in Egypt, founding [[cenobitic]] [[monasticism]].   
*319 Translation of relics of [[Theodore the General|Theodore Stratelates]] ("the General").   
+
*319 Translation of relics of [[Theodore the Stratelates|Theodore Stratelates]] ("the General").   
 
*320 Expulsion of [[Arius]] by [[Alexander of Alexandria]]; martyrdom of [[Forty Martyrs of Sebaste]].   
 
*320 Expulsion of [[Arius]] by [[Alexander of Alexandria]]; martyrdom of [[Forty Martyrs of Sebaste]].   
 
*320-21 Licinius' measures against Christians in the east enforced.
 
*320-21 Licinius' measures against Christians in the east enforced.
 
*321 [[Constantine the Great|Constantine]] declares [[Lord's Day|Sunday]] a holiday in honor of the [[Resurrection]].
 
*321 [[Constantine the Great|Constantine]] declares [[Lord's Day|Sunday]] a holiday in honor of the [[Resurrection]].
 
*323 [[Constantine the Great]] builds church on the site of the martyrdom of [[Apostle Peter|Peter]] in Rome.   
 
*323 [[Constantine the Great]] builds church on the site of the martyrdom of [[Apostle Peter|Peter]] in Rome.   
*324 [[Constantine the Great|Constantine]] defeats Licinius and becomes sole emperor.
+
*324 [[Constantine the Great|Constantine]] defeats Licinius and becomes sole emperor; the [[Labarum]] with the "Chi-Rho" Christogram became the official standard of the Roman Empire.
  
 
==Notes==   
 
==Notes==   
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'''From a [[Heterodox]] perspective'''     
 
'''From a [[Heterodox]] perspective'''     
 +
* Andrew Brian McGowan, Brian E. Daley (S.J.), Timothy J. Gaden (Eds.). ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=9bAyYn_QkbkC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false God in Early Christian Thought: Essays in Memory of Lloyd G. Patterson].'' Volume 94 of Supplements to Vigiliae Christianae. BRILL, 2009. 407pp. (ISBN 9789004174122)
 +
* Bainton, Roland H. ''"The Early Church and War."'' '''The Harvard Theological Review.''' Vol. 39, No. 3 (Jul., 1946), pp.189-212.
 
* Boer, Harry R. ''A Short History of the Early Church''. (ISBN 0802813399)   
 
* Boer, Harry R. ''A Short History of the Early Church''. (ISBN 0802813399)   
 
* Cairns, Earle E. ''Christianity Through the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church''. (ISBN 0310208122)   
 
* Cairns, Earle E. ''Christianity Through the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church''. (ISBN 0310208122)   

Latest revision as of 17:24, November 20, 2012

Timeline of Church History
Eras Timeline of Church History (Abridged article)
Eras New Testament Era | Apostolic Era (33-100) | Ante-Nicene Era (100-325) | Nicene Era (325-451) | Byzantine Era (451-843) | Late Byzantine Era (843-1054) | Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453) | Post-Imperial Era (1453-1821) | Modern Era (1821-1917) | Communist Era (1917-1991) | Post-Communist Era (1991-Present) |
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The History of the Church is a vital part of the Orthodox Christian faith. Orthodox Christians are defined significantly by their continuity with all those who have gone before, those who first received and preached the truth of Jesus Christ to the world, those who helped to formulate the expression and worship of our faith, and those who continue to move forward in the unchanging yet ever-dynamic Holy Tradition of the Orthodox Church.

Contents

Ante-Nicene era (100-325)

Notes

  • Some of these dates are necessarily a bit vague, as records for some periods are particularly difficult to piece together accurately.
  • The division of Church History into separate eras as done here will always be to some extent arbitrary, though it was attempted to group periods according to major watershed events.
  • This timeline is necessarily biased toward the history of the Orthodox Church, though a number of non-Orthodox or purely political events are mentioned for their importance in history related to Orthodoxy or for reference.

See also

Published works

The following are published writings that provide an overview of Church history:

From an Orthodox perspective

From a Heterodox perspective

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