Timeline of Church History

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m (Post-Roman Schism)
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*1051 [[Monastery of the Kiev Caves]] founded.     
 
*1051 [[Monastery of the Kiev Caves]] founded.     
  
==Post-Roman Schism==
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==Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453)==
  
 
*1054 Cardinal [[Humbert]] excommunicates [[Michael Cerularius]], patriarch of Constantinople, a major centerpoint in the formation of the [[Great Schism]] between East and West; First Letter of [[Michael Cerularius]] to Peter of Antioch.   
 
*1054 Cardinal [[Humbert]] excommunicates [[Michael Cerularius]], patriarch of Constantinople, a major centerpoint in the formation of the [[Great Schism]] between East and West; First Letter of [[Michael Cerularius]] to Peter of Antioch.   
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*1452 Unification of Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox Churches in [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] on West's terms, when Emperor [[Constantine XI Palaiologos]], under pressure from Rome, allows the union to be proclaimed.   
 
*1452 Unification of Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox Churches in [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] on West's terms, when Emperor [[Constantine XI Palaiologos]], under pressure from Rome, allows the union to be proclaimed.   
 
*1453 [[Fall of Constantinople|Constantinople falls]] to invasion of the Ottoman Turks, ending Roman Empire; [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] turned into a mosque; martyrdom of [[Constantine XI Palaiologos]], last of the [[List of Byzantine Emperors|Byzantine Emperors]]; many Greek scholars escape to the West with books that become translated into Latin, triggering the [[w:Renaissance|Renaissance]].
 
*1453 [[Fall of Constantinople|Constantinople falls]] to invasion of the Ottoman Turks, ending Roman Empire; [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] turned into a mosque; martyrdom of [[Constantine XI Palaiologos]], last of the [[List of Byzantine Emperors|Byzantine Emperors]]; many Greek scholars escape to the West with books that become translated into Latin, triggering the [[w:Renaissance|Renaissance]].
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==Post-Imperial era (1453-1821)==
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:''Main article: [[Timeline of Church History (Post-Imperial Era (1453-1821))]]''
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*1455 Gutenberg makes first printed [[Bible]]. 
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*1455-56 ''Confession of Faith'' by Patr. Gennadius of Constantinople. 
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*1456-1587 Byzantine [[w:Pammakaristos Church|Church of Theotokos Pammakaristos]] became the seat of the [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]].       
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*1492 Millennialist movements in Moscow, due to end of church calendar (year 7,000, according to the [[Byzantine Creation Era|Byzantine Date of Creation]]). 
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*1503 [[Church of Russia#Non-Possessors|Possessor and Non-Possessor controversy]].     
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*1516 Desiderius Erasmus publishes "[[w:Textus Receptus|Textus Receptus]]" of New Testament on the basis of six late manuscripts of the Byzantine text-type. 
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*1517 [[Maximus the Greek]] invited to Russia to translate Greek service books and correct Russian ones; Ottomans conquer Jerusalem, Antioch and Alexandria.     
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*1526 [[Non-Possessors]] attack Tsar Vassily III for divorcing his wife and are driven underground.   
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*1529 First Ottoman [[w:Siege of Vienna|Siege of Vienna]], marking Ottoman Empire's apex and end of Ottoman expansion in central Europe.               
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*1551 [[Council of the Hundred Chapters]] in Russia. 
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*1552 Death of [[Basil the Blessed]].   
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*1555 Abp. Gurian begins mission to Kazan.     
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*1568 Pope Pius V recognizes four Great [[w:Doctor of the Church|Doctors]] of the Eastern Church, [[John Chrysostom]], [[Basil the Great]], [[Gregory the Theologian|Gregory of Nazianzus]], and [[Athanasius of Alexandria|Athanasius]].     
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*1569 [[w:Union of Lublin|Union of Lublin]] unites Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania into a single state, the [[w:Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth|Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth]], placing the [[w:Ruthenians|Ruthenian]] Orthodox lands of Belarus, and modern Ukraine under direct Roman Catholic rule. 
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*1571 Restoration of [[Church of Cyprus]] to Orthodox rule.   
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*1573-81 Correspondence of Patr. [[Jeremias II of Constantinople]] with Lutherans. 
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*1575 [[Church of Constantinople]] grants [[autonomy]] to [[Church of Sinai]].       
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*1582 Institution of the [[Gregorian Calendar]] by Pope Gregory XIII.
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*1583 [[Sigillion of 1583]] issued against [[Gregorian Calendar]] by council convened in Constantinople. 
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*1587-Present. The relatively modest [[w:Church of St. George, Istanbul|Church of St George]] in the Phanar district of Istanbul becomes the seat of the [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]]. 
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*1589 [[Autocephaly]] and [[canonical territory]] of [[Church of Russia]] recognized, as Patr. Jeremias II of Constantinople raises Metr. Job of Moscow to the rank of [[Patriarch]] of Moscow and of All Russia. 
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*1596 [[Union of Brest-Litovsk]], several million Ukrainian and Byelorussian Orthodox Christians, living under Polish rule, leave the [[Church of Constantinople]] and recognize the Pope of Rome, without giving up their Byzantine liturgy and customs, creating the [[Uniate]] church. 
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*ca. 1600-1700 Conversion of Albania to Islam mainly through discriminatory tax system, the ''Djize''.         
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*1625 ''Confession of Faith'' by Metrophanes Kritopoulos written. 
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*1627 Pope [[Cyril Lukaris]] of Alexandria presents [[Codex Alexandrinus]] to King Charles I of England for safe keeping. 
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*1633 Ethiopian emperor [[w:Fasilides of Ethiopia|Fasilides]] expels Jesuits and other Roman Catholic missionaries from Ethiopia. 
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*1642 [[Council of Jassy]] (Iaşi) revises [[Peter Mogila]]'s confession to remove overtly Roman Catholic theology and confirms canonicity of certain [[Deuterocanon|deuterocanonical]] books.     
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*1646 [[w:Union of Uzhhorod|Union of Uzhhorod]] joins 63 Ruthenian Orthodox priests from the Carpathian Mountains to Roman Catholic Church on terms similar to [[Union of Brest]].           
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*1652-1658 Patriarch [[Nikon of Moscow]] revises liturgical books to bring them into conformity with the Greek liturgical customs, leading to mass excommunication and schism of dissenters, who become known as [[Old Believers]].           
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*1672 [[w:Synod of Jerusalem|Synod of Jerusalem]] convened by Patr. [[Dositheos II of Jerusalem|Dositheos Notaras]], refuting article by article the Calvinistic confession of [[Cyril Lucaris]], defining Orthodoxy relative to Roman Catholicism and Protestantism, and defining the Orthodox Biblical canon; acts of this council are later signed by all five patriarchates (including Russia).
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*1682 The ''Sabaite [[Typikon]]'' was published in its final form in Russia; from 1682 to 1888 the Greek and Russian Churches shared a common [[Typikon]]. 
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*1685 Orthodoxy introduced in Beijing by [[Church of Russia]].     
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*1698 Consecration of the first Orthodox [[Church of China|Church in China]], in the name of Sophia (Divine Wisdom), when Emperor Kangxi ordered a Buddhist temple to be cleared for Russian inhabitants in Beijing.
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*1700 The ''[[Byzantine Creation Era|Creation Era]]'' calendar in Russia, in use since AD 988 was changed to the [[Julian Calendar]] by Peter the Great.
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*1700-02 Submission of the dioceses of Lemberg (Lviv) and Luzk (Lutsk) in the [[w:Galicia (Central Europe)|Galician]] area of Ukraine to Roman Catholic Church completes [[Union of Brest-Litovsk]], so that two-thirds of the Orthodox in western Ukraine had become Greek Catholic.     
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*1715 Metr. [[Arsenios of Thebaid]] sent to England by Pope [[Samuel of Alexandria]] to negotiate with [[Non-Jurors|Non-Juror]] Anglican bishops. 
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*1716-25 Correspondence of Ecumenical Patriarch and Russian Czar with English Non-Jurors. 
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*1721 Czar [[Peter I of Russia]] replaces Russian patriarchate with a ruling [[holy synod]]. 
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*1724 [[Melkite Greek Catholic Church|Melkite]] schism, in which many faithful from the [[Church of Antioch]] become [[Uniate]]s.
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*1728 The [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]] formally replaced the ''[[Byzantine Creation Era|Creation Era]]'' (AM) calendar with the ''[[w:Anno Domini|Christian Era]]'' (AD).
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*1731 Death of [[Innocent of Irkutsk]]. 
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*1754 Hesychast Renaissance begins with the [[Kollyvades Movement]]. 
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*1755 Synod of Constantinople declares Roman Catholic baptism invalid and ordered baptism of converts from Roman Catholicism.   
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*1756 ''[[Sigillion of 1756]]'' issued against the [[Gregorian Calendar]] by Patr. [[Cyril V of Constantinople]].     
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*1767 Ottoman Empire legally divides [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] among claimants. 
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*1767-1815 [[w:Suppression of the Society of Jesus|Suppression of the Jesuits]] in Roman Catholic countries, subsequently finding refuge in Orthodox nations, particularly in Russia. 
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*1768 Jews are massacred during riots in Russia-occupied Poland. 
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*ca. 1770 About 1,200 Kiev region Uniate churches return to Orthodoxy under political pressure from Russia. 
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*1774 Russia and Ottoman Empire sign [[w:Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca|treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji]], bringing Russia for the first time into the Mediterranean as the acknowledged protector of Orthodox Christians. 
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*1779 Death of [[Kosmas Aitolos]]. 
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*1782 First publication of ''[[Philokalia]]''; [[autonomy]] of [[Church of Sinai]] confirmed by [[Church of Constantinople]]. 
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*1793-95 Over 2,300 Uniate churches became Orthodox under Tsarina Catherine the Great.   
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*1794 Missionaries, including [[Herman of Alaska]], arrive at Kodiak Island, bringing Orthodoxy to Russian Alaska; death of [[Paisius Velichkovsky]] of Moldova and Mt. Athos. 
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*1796 [[Nicodemus of the Holy Mountain|Nicodemus the Hagiorite]] publishes ''[[Unseen Warfare]]'' in Venice. 
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*1798 Patriarch [[Anthimios of Jerusalem]] contended that the [[w:Ottoman Empire|Ottoman Empire]] was part of the [[w:Divine Providence|Divine Dispensation]] granted by [[God]] to protect [[Orthodoxy]] from the taint of [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholicism]] and of Western [[w:Secularism|secularism]] and [[w:Irreligion by country|irreligion]].
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*1800 ''[[The Rudder]]'' published and printed in Athens.       
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*1805 Death of [[Makarios of Corinth]], a central figure in the Kollyvades movement.     
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*1811 [[Autocephaly]] of the [[Church of Georgia]] revoked by the Russian imperial state after Georgia's annexation, making it subject to the [[Church of Russia]].     
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*1819 Council at Constantinople endorses views of Kollyvades fathers.
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==Modern era (1821-1917)==
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:''Main article: [[Timeline of Church History (Modern Era (1821-1917))]]''
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*1821 Metr. [[Germanos of Patra]] declares Greek independence on Day of [[Annunciation]] ([[March 25]]), also [[Kyriopascha]]; martyrdom of Patr. [[Gregory V of Constantinople]], Abp. [[Kyprianos of Cyprus]], and Abp. [[Gerasimos of Crete]] in retaliation.     
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*ca. 1830 [[Slavophile movement]] begins in Russia. 
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*1831 Return of 3,000,000 [[Uniate]]s with the [[Orthodox Church]] at Vilnius in 1831. 
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*1832 [[Church of Serbia]] becomes ''de facto'' [[autocephaly|autocephalous]]. 
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*1833 [[Church of Greece]] declares [[autocephaly]], making it independent of the [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]]; death of [[Seraphim of Sarov]]. 
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*1839 Synod of Polotsk abolishes [[Union of Brest-Litovsk]] in all areas under Russian rule as Greek Catholic dioceses in Lithuania and Belarus re-enter the Orthodox Church.   
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*1848 ''[[Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs]]'' sent by the primates and synods of the four ancient patriarchates of the Orthodox Church, condemning the [[Filioque]] as [[heresy]], declaring the [[Roman Catholic Church]] to be [[heresy|heretical]], [[schism]]atic, and in [[apostasy]], repudiating [[Ultramontanism]] and referring to the Photian Council of 879-880 as the "[[Eighth Ecumenical Council]]." 
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*1850 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Greece]]. 
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*1851 Translation into English of [[Septuagint]] by Lancelot C. L. Brenton; Ottoman Empire recognizes France as supreme Christian authority in Holy Land and grants it possession of the [[Church of the Nativity (Bethlehem)|Church of the Nativity]]. 
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*1852 Ottoman Empire makes division of [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] permanent. 
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*1853-56 [[w:Crimean War|Crimean War]] fought between Russia and the Ottoman Empire together with Britain and France, beginning over which church would be recognized as the "sovereign authority" of the Christian faith in the Holy Land. 
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*1854 [[Immaculate Conception]] declared [[dogma]] by [[Roman Catholic Church]]. 
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*1859 [[w:Constantin von Tischendorf|Constantin von Tischendorf]] discovers [[w:Codex Sinaiticus|Codex Sinaiticus]] at [[St. Catherine's Monastery (Sinai)|St. Catherine's Monastery]].
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*1860 Death of [[Alexei Khomiakov]], co-founder of the [[Slavophile movement]]. 
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*1864 First Orthodox [[parish]] established on American soil in New Orleans, Louisiana, by Greeks; death of [[Jacob Netsvetov]].
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*1865 [[Church of Romania]] declares its [[autocephaly|independence]] from the [[Church of Constantinople]]. 
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*1869 Russian synod authorizes corrected text of [[Western Rite]] liturgy and Benedictine offices. 
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*1870 [[Papal Infallibility]] declared [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] dogma necessary for salvation by First Vatican Council. 
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*1871 [[Nicholas of Japan|Nikolai Kasatkin]] establishes Orthodox mission in Japan. 
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*1872 Council in Jerusalem declares [[phyletism]] to be [[heresy]]; [[Church of Bulgaria]] gains ''de facto'' [[autocephaly]] by a decree of the Sultan.   
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*1875 Uniate diocese of [[w:Chełm|Chelm]] in Poland incorporated into Russian Orthodox Church under Alexander II, with all of the local Uniates converted to Orthodoxy. 
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*1876 [[Theophan the Recluse]] begins issuing a translation of the ''[[Philokalia]]'' in Russian.   
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*1879 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Serbia]]; death of [[Innocent of Alaska]]. 
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*1882 Synod of Constantinople gives conditional approval to use of Roman liturgy and Benedictine offices. 
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*1885 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Romania]]; [[w:Revised Version|English Revised Version]] published; [[Archbishop of Canterbury]] officially removes all of [[Apocrypha]] from [[w:Authorized King James Version|King James Bible]].
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*1888  ''[[Typikon]] of the Great Church of Christ'' is published with revised church services, prepared by Protopsaltis George Violakis, issued with the approval and blessing of the Ecumenical Patriarch, while the ''Sabaite (monastic) [[Typikon]]'' continues to be used in Russia.
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*1889 Federation of [[w:Old Catholic Church|Old Catholic Churches]], not in communion with Rome, at the [[w:Utrecht Union|Union of Utrecht]]. 
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*ca. 1890 ''[[Unseen Warfare]]'' further revised by [[Theophan the Recluse]].   
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*1891 Death of [[Ambrose of Optina]].     
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*1895 Reply of Synod of Constantinople to Pope Leo XIII.       
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*1898 Last ethnically Greek patriarch of [[Church of Antioch|Antioch]] deposed; [[Western Rite]] diocese organized in Czechoslovakia by [[Church of Russia]]. 
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*1899 Restoration of Arabs to the [[Church of Antioch|Patriarchal throne of Antioch]]. 
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*1900 [[Martyrs of China|Martyrdom of Orthodox Christians]] in Chinese Boxer Rebellion (Yihetuan Movement). 
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*1901 [[Evangelakia Events (Athens, 1901)|"Evangelakia" riots]] in Athens Greece in November, over translations of [[New Testament]] into [[w:Dimotiki|Demotic (Modern) Greek]], resulting in fall of both government and Metropolitan of Athens.   
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*1904 [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]] publishes the [http://kainh.homestead.com/files/noteptxt.pdf "Patriarchal" Text of the Greek New Testament], based on about twenty Byzantine manuscripts; petition to Russian synod by Abp. [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon (Belavin)]], Bp. [[Raphael of Brooklyn|Raphael (Hawaweeny)]], and Fr. [[John Kochurov]] to permit adaption of services taken from Anglican Book of Common Prayer for use by Orthodox people. 
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*1905 Death of [[Apostolos Makrakis]]; Tsar [[Nicholas II of Russia|Nicholas Romanov's]] decree on freedom of religion results in about 250,000 [[w:Ruthenians|Ruthenians]] returning to [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniatism]]; seat of Russian Orthodox bishop in America moved from San Francisco to New York, as immigration from Eastern Europe and the reception of ex-[[Uniate]]s shifts the balance of Orthodox population to eastern North America. 
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*1907 Archim. [[Eusebius Matthopoulos]] founds [[Brotherhood of Theologians Zoe|Zoe Brotherhood]]; Commission on Anglican and Old Catholic Affairs of Russian synod reports in favor of adaptation of services from Book of Common Prayer and sets out criteria. 
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*1908 Fr. Nikodemos Sarikas sent to Johannesburg, Transvaal, by Ecumenical Patriarchate as first Orthodox priest there, leaving after a short time for German East Africa (later Tanzania) because of the opposition of Johannesburg Greeks to mission among Africans. 
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*1908 Death of [[John of Kronstadt]].     
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*1912 Death of [[Nicholas of Japan]].

Revision as of 23:43, February 20, 2009

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Timeline of Church History
Eras Timeline of Church History (Abridged article)
Eras New Testament Era | Apostolic Era (33-100) | Ante-Nicene Era (100-325) | Nicene Era (325-451) | Byzantine Era (451-843) | Late Byzantine Era (843-1054) | Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453) | Post-Imperial Era (1453-1821) | Modern Era (1821-1917) | Communist Era (1917-1991) | Post-Communist Era (1991-Present) |
(Main articles)


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The History of the Church is a vital part of the Orthodox Christian faith. Orthodox Christians are defined significantly by their continuity with all those who have gone before, those who first received and preached the truth of Jesus Christ to the world, those who helped to formulate the expression and worship of our faith, and those who continue to move forward in the unchanging yet ever-dynamic Holy Tradition of the Orthodox Church.

Contents

New Testament era

Main article: Timeline of Church History (New Testament Era)

Apostolic era (33-100)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Apostolic Era (33-100))

Ante-Nicene era (100-325)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Ante-Nicene Era (100-325))

Nicene era (325-451)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Nicene Era (325-451))

Byzantine era (451-843)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Byzantine Era (451-843))

Late Byzantine era (843-1453)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Late Byzantine Era (843-1453))

Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453)

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Post-Imperial era (1453-1821)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Post-Imperial Era (1453-1821))

Modern era (1821-1917)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Modern Era (1821-1917))
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