Timeline of Church History

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*323 [[Constantine the Great]] builds church on the site of the martyrdom of [[Apostle Peter|Peter]] in Rome.   
 
*323 [[Constantine the Great]] builds church on the site of the martyrdom of [[Apostle Peter|Peter]] in Rome.   
 
*324 [[Constantine the Great|Constantine]] defeats Licinius and becomes sole emperor.
 
*324 [[Constantine the Great|Constantine]] defeats Licinius and becomes sole emperor.
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==Nicene era (325-451)== 
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: ''Main article:  [[Timeline of Church History (Nicene Era (325-451))]]''
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*325 [[First Ecumenical Council]] held in Nicea, condemning [[Arianism]], setting the [[Paschalion]], and issuing the first version of the [[Nicene Creed]], also establishing the supremacy of honor of the Apostolic Sees as Rome, followed by Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem.
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*326 Discovery of the [[True Cross]] by the Empress [[Helen]]a; King Miraeus of Georgia becomes Christian. 
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*328 [[Athanasius the Great]] becomes bishop of Alexandria. 
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*329 [[Athanasius of Alexandria|Athanasius]] ordains [[Frumentius]] (Abba Selama) to [[priest]]hood and commissions him to evangelize Ethiopia. 
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*330 Byzantium refounded as ''Constantinople / New Rome'', Christian capital of the Roman Empire, and is dedicated to the [[Theotokos]] by Emperor [[Constantine the Great|Constantine]]; Amoun and [[Macarius the Great]] found monasteries in the Egyptian desert.       
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*336-338 [[Athanasius the Great]] goes into exile in Treves, telling Europeans about the monastic rule of [[Pachomius the Great]], awakening interest in [[monasticism]] in Europe. 
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*337 Death of [[Constantine the Great|Constantine]].     
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*340 Conversion of [[Wulfila]] to [[Arianism]]. 
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*341 [[Council of Antioch]] held; Emperor Constans bans pagan sacrifices and magic rituals under penalty of death. 
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*345 Death of [[Nicholas of Myra]].     
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*348 Death of [[Pachomius the Great]] and [[Spyridon of Trimythous]]. 
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*350 [[Ninian]] establishes the church Candida Casa at Whithorn in Galloway, Scotland, beginning the missionary effort to the Picts. 
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*351 Apparition of the [[Cross]] over Jerusalem. 
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*355 Death of [[Nino of Cappadocia]]. 
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*356 Death of [[Anthony the Great]]. 
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*357 [[Council of Sirmium]] issues ''Blasphemy of Sirmium''. 
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*358 [[Basil the Great]] founds monastery of Annesos in Pontus, the model for Eastern [[monasticism]]. 
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*359 Councils of [[Council of Seleucia|Seleucia]] and [[Council of Rimini|Rimini]]. 
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*360 [[Martin of Tours]] founds first French monastery at Liguge; first church of [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] inaugurated by Emperor [[w:Constantius II|Constantius II]]. 
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*362 Antiochian schism (362-414). 
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*361-63 [[Julian the Apostate]] becomes Roman emperor and attempts to restore paganism. 
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*363 Emperor [[w:Jovian|Jovian]] reestablishes Christianity as the official religion of the Empire.
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*364 [[Council of Laodicea]] held.   
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*367 [[Athanasius of Alexandria]] writes [[Pascha]]l letter, listing for the first time the [[canon]] of the [[New Testament]]; death of [[Hilary of Poitiers]]. 
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*373 Death of [[Athanasius the Great]] and [[Ephrem the Syrian]].   
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*374 Election of [[Ambrose of Milan|Ambrose]] as bishop of Milan. 
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*375 [[Basil the Great]] writes ''[[On the Holy Spirit]]''. 
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*376 Visigoths convert to [[Arianism|Arian]] Christianity. 
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*379 Death of [[Basil the Great]]; Emperor Gratian's rescript ''Ordinariorum Sententias'' extends power of Bishop of Rome by allowing him authority over bishops within his own jurisdiction. 
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*380 Christianity established as the official faith of the Roman Empire by Emperor [[Theodosius the Great]]; [[Council of Saragossa]] condemns [[Priscillianism]]. 
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*381 [[Second Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople, condemning [[Pneumatomachianism|Macedonianism/Pneumatomachianism]] and [[Appollinarianism]], declaring the divinity of the Holy Spirit, confirming the previous [[Ecumenical Council]], and completing the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed]]; [[Council of Aquileia]] led by [[Ambrose of Milan]] deposes Arian bishops. 
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*382 Pope [[Siricius of Rome]] first to bear title ''Pontifex Maximus''.     
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*384 Council of Bordeaux condemns [[Priscillian]]. 
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*385 Death of [[Gregory of Nyssa]]. 
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*386 Death of [[Cyril of Jerusalem]].
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*387 [[Augustine of Hippo|Augustine]] baptized by [[Ambrose of Milan]]. 
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*391 Death of [[Gregory the Theologian]].   
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*391-92 Closing of all non-Christian temples in the Empire; [[Theodosius the Great (emperor)|Theodosius the Great]] ends pagan Eleusinian Mysteries by decree and causes surviving pagan sacrifices at Alexandria and Rome to cease. 
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*392 Death of [[Macarius the Great]].   
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*393 [[Council of Hippo]] publishes Biblical canon; Emperor Theodosius bans Olympic Games as a pagan festival. 
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*394 [[Epiphanius of Salamis]] attacks teachings of [[Origen]] as heretical; Council of Constantinople held; [[Donatism|Donatist]] [[Council of Bagai]] in Africa held. 
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*395 [[Augustine of Hippo|Augustine]] becomes bishop of Hippo in North Africa; placing of the cincture of the [[Theotokos]] in the Church of the Virgin in Halkoprateia-Constantinople. 
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*395 Re-division of Empire with death of Emperor Theodosius the Great. 
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*397 [[Council of Carthage]] publishes Biblical canon; death of [[Martin of Tours]] and [[Ambrose of Milan]]. 
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*398 [[John Chrysostom]] becomes [[Archbishop]] of Constantinople. 
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*ca. 398 Martyrdom of 10,000 Fathers of the Scetis by Patriarch [[Theophilus of Alexandria]]. 
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*399 [[Anastasius of Rome]] and other bishops condemn doctrine of [[Origen]]. 
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*401 [[Augustine of Hippo]] writes ''Confessions''; Pope [[Innocent I of Rome]] supports [[John Chrysostom]] and condemns [[pelagianism]]. 
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*402 [[Porphyry of Gaza]] obtains imperial decree ordering closing of pagan temples in Gaza. 
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*403 Abduction of [[Patrick of Ireland|Patrick]] to Irelande; visit of [[Victricius of Rouen]] to Britain; [[Synod of the Oak]] held near Chalcedon, deposing and exiling [[John Chrysostom]]. 
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*404 Martyrdom of [[Telemachus]], resulting in Emperor Honorius' edict banning gladiator fights. 
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*405 Translation of [[Holy Scriptures]] into Latin as the [[Vulgate]] by [[Jerome]]. 
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*407 Death of [[John Chrysostom]] in exile. 
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*410 Fall of Rome to the Visigoths under Alaric I; escape of [[Patrick of Ireland|Patrick]] back to Britain; Emperor Honorius tells Britain to attend to its own affairs, effectively removing the Roman presence. 
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*410 [[Council of Seleucia]] declares Mesopotamian [[Nestorianism|Nestorian]] bishops independent of Orthodox bishops. 
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*411 [[Pelagius]] condemned at council in Carthage; [[Rabbula of Edessa|Rabbula]] becomes bishop of Edessa. 
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*412 [[Cyril of Alexandria|Cyril]] succeeds his uncle Theophilus as Pope of Alexandria; Honorius outlaws [[Donatism]]; Bishops Lazarus of Aix-en-Provence and Herod of Arles expelled from sees on a charge of [[Manichaeism]]; ''[[Byzantine Creation Era#Alexandrian Era|Alexandrian Creation Era]]'' date finalized at 25 March, 5493 BC. 
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*414 Resolution of Antiochian division. 
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*415 [[Pelagius]] cleared at [[synod]] in Jerusalem and a provincial synod in Diospolis (Lydda); [[John Cassian]] founds convent at Marseilles.   
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*416 Councils in Carthage and Milevis condemn [[Pelagius]] and convince Pope Innocent I of Rome to excommunicate him. 
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*418 Foundation of the Arian [[w:Visigothic Kingdom|Visigothic Kingdom]], as Emperor Honorius rewards Visigoth federates by giving them land in Gallia Aquitania on which to settle. 
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*418-24 Council in Carthage anathematizes [[Pelagianism]] by way of endorsing [[Augustine of Hippo|Augustinian]] [[anthropology]].   
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*426 [[Augustine of Hippo]] writes ''The City of God''. 
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*428 [[Nestorius]] becomes patriarch of Constantinople. 
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*429 Pope [[Celestine of Rome|Celestine I]] dispatches prominent Gallo-Roman Bishops [[Germanus of Auxerre]] and Lupus of Troyes to Britain as missionary bishops and to combat the [[Pelagianism|Pelagian]] heresy; death of [[Sisoes the Great]].     
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*430 [[Peter the Iberian]] founds Georgian monastery near Bethlehem. 
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*431 [[Third Ecumenical Council]] held in Ephesus, condemning [[Nestorianism]] and [[Pelagianism]], confirming the use of the term ''[[Theotokos]]'' to refer to the Virgin Mary, and confirming [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Cyprus]]; Pope Celestine sends [[Palladius]] to Ireland. 
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*432 Return of [[Patrick of Ireland|Patrick]] to Ireland to begin missionary work; death of [[Ninian]], Apostle to the Picts. 
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*433 [[Formulary of Peace]] completes work of [[Third Ecumenical Council]] by reconciling [[Cyril of Alexandria]] with [[John of Antioch]]. 
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*435 Death of [[John Cassian]] and [[Acacius of Melitene]]; [[Nestorius]] exiled by imperial edict to a monastery in a Sahara oasis. 
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*438 [[w:Codex Theodosianus|Codex Theodosianus]] published. 
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*439 Carthage falls to Vandals.   
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*444 Death of [[Cyril of Alexandria]]; Pope [[Leo the Great]] abolishes Gallican vicariate. 
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*445 Founding of monastery at Armagh in northern Ireland; Emperor Valentinian III issues decree recognizing primacy of the bishop of Rome. 
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*447 Earthquake in Constantinople, when a boy was lifted up to heaven and heard the [[Trisagion]]. 
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*449 [[Robber Synod of Ephesus]], presided over by [[Dioscorus of Alexandria]], with an order from the emperor to acquit [[Eutyches (heretic)|Eutyches]] the [[Monophysitism|Monophysite]]. 
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*450 First monasteries established in Wales; death of [[Peter Chrysologus]].
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==Byzantine era (451-843)==
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: ''Main article:  [[Timeline of Church History (Byzantine Era (451-843))]]''
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*451 [[Fourth Ecumenical Council]] meets at Chalcedon, condemning [[Eutychianism]] and [[Monophysitism]], affirming doctrine of two perfect and indivisible but distinct natures in Christ, and recognizing [[Church of Jerusalem]] as patriarchate.
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*452 [[Proterios of Alexandria]] convenes synod in Alexandria to reconcile Chalcedonians and non-Chalcedonians; second finding of the Head of [[John the Forerunner]].   
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*457 Victorius of Aquitania computes new [[Paschalion]]; first coronation of Byzantine Emperor by patriarch of Constantinople. 
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*459 Death of [[Symeon the Stylite]].   
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*461 Death of [[Leo the Great]] and [[Patrick of Ireland]]. 
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*462 [[Indiction]] moved to [[September 1]]; [[Studion Monastery]] founded. 
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*466 [[Church of Antioch]] elevates bishop of Mtskheta to rank of [[Catholicos]] of Kartli, rendering the [[Church of Georgia]] [[autocephaly|autocephalous]]. 
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*ca. 471 Patr. [[Acacius of Constantinople]] first called ''Oikoumenikos'' ("Ecumenical"). 
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*473 Death of [[Euthymius the Great]]. 
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*475 Emperor [[w:Basiliscus|Basiliscus]] issues letter to bishops of empire, supporting [[Monophysitism]].   
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*477 [[Timothy Aelurus]] of Alexandria exiles Chalcedonian bishops from Egypt. 
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*482 Byzantine emperor [[Zeno|Zeno I]] issues ''[[Henotikon]]''. 
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*484 [[Acacian Schism]]. 
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*484 Founding of [[Holy Lavra of St. Savas (Jerusalem)|Mar Sabbas Monastery]] by [[Sabbas the Sanctified]]; [[Synod of Beth Lapat]] in Persia declares [[Nestorianism]] as official theology of [[Assyrian Church of the East]], effectively separating the Assyrian church from the Byzantine church.   
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*489 Emperor [[Zeno I]] closes [[w:School of Nisibis|Nestorian academy in Edessa]], which was then transferred under Sassanian Persian auspices to Nisibis, becoming the spiritual center of the [[Assyrian Church of the East]]. 
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*490 [[Brigid of Kildaire]] founds monastery of Kildare in Ireland. 
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*494 Pope [[Gelasius I of Rome]] delineates relationship between Church and state in his letter ''Duo sunt'', written to Emperor [[Anastasius I]]. 
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*496 [[Remigius of Rheims]] baptizes Franks into Orthodox Christianity. 
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*ca. 500 [[Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite]] writes ''The Mystical Theology''.   
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*506 [[Church of Armenia]] separates from Chalcedonian Orthodoxy. 
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*507 Clovis I defeats the Arian Visigoths at [[w:Battle of Vouillé|Battle of Vouillé]] near Poitiers, ending their power in Gaul.   
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*518 [[Severus of Antioch]] deposed by Emperor [[Justin I]] for Monophysitism; Patr. [[John II of Constantinople]] is addressed as ''Oikoumenikos Patriarches'' ("Ecumenical Patriarch"). 
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*519 Eastern and Western churches reconciled with end of [[Acacian Schism]].   
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*521 Birth of [[Columba of Iona]].   
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*527 [[Dionysius Exiguus]] calculates the date of birth of Jesus incorrectly; foundation of [[St. Catherine's Monastery (Sinai)|St. Catherine's Monastery]] on the Sinai peninsula by [[Justinian the Great]].     
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*529 Pagan University of Athens closed and replaced by Christian university in Constantinople; [[Benedict of Nursia]] founds monastery of [[Monte Cassino]] and codifies Western [[monasticism]]; [[Council of Orange]] condemns [[Pelagianism]]; death of [[Theodosius the Great]].   
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*529-534 [[Justinian the Great|Justinian]]'s ''[[w:Corpus Juris Civilis|Corpus Juris Civilis]]'' issued. 
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*530 [[Brendan the Navigator]] lands in Newfoundland, Canada, establishing a short-lived community of Irish monks. 
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*532 [[Justinian the Great]] orders building of [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]]; death of [[Sabbas the Sanctified]]. 
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*533 Mercurius elected Pope of Rome and takes the name of [[John II of Rome|John II]], first pope to change name upon election.   
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*534 Roman Empire destroys the Arian kingdom of Vandals. 
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*536 [[Mennas of Constantinople]] summons a synod anathematizing [[Severus of Antioch]]. 
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*537 Construction of [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] in Constantinople completed.
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*539 [[Ravenna]] becomes exarchate of [[Byzantine Empire]]. 
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*541 [[Jacob Baradeus]] organizes the [[Oriental Orthodox|Non-Chalcedonian Church]] in western Syria (the "Jacobites"), which spreads to Armenia and Egypt. 
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*543 Doctrine of [[apokatastasis]] condemned by Synod of Constantinople.   
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*544 [[Jacob Baradeus]] consecrates Sergius of Tella as bishop of Antioch, opening the lasting schism between the [[Church of Antioch (Syriac)|Syriac Orthodox Church]] and the Chalcedonian [[Church of Antioch]]; founding of the monastery at Clonmacnoise in Ireland by [[Ciaran of Clonmacnoise|Ciaran]]. 
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*545 [[David of Wales]] moves primatial see of Britain from Caerleon to Menevia (St. Davids's). 
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*546 [[Columba of Iona|Columba]] founds monastery of Derry in Ireland. 
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*547 [[David of Wales]] does obeisance to the Patriarch of Jerusalem. 
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*553 [[Fifth Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople in an attempt to reconcile Chalcedonians with non-Chalcedonians— ''[[Three Chapters]]'' of [[Theodore of Mopsuestia]], [[Theodoret of Cyrrhus]], and [[Ibas of Edessa]] are condemned for their [[Nestorianism]], and [[Origen]] and his writings are also condemned. 
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*553 Bishops of Aquileia, Milan, Venetia and the Istrian peninsula in Italy all refuse to condemn the ''Three Chapters'', causing [[Schism of the Three Chapters]] in those areas, leading to independence of [[Patriarch of Venice]] from [[Patriarch of Aquileia]]; Ostrogoth kingdom conquered by the Byzantines after the [[w:Battle of Mons Lactarius|Battle of Mons Lactarius]]. 
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*554 [[Church of Armenia]] officially [[schism|breaks]] with West in 554, during the second Council of Dvin where the dyophysite formula of [[Fourth Ecumenical Council|Chalcedon]] was rejected. 
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*556 [[Columba of Iona|Columba]] founds monastery of Durrow in Ireland; death of [[Roman the Melodist]]. 
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*557 [[Brendan the Navigator]] founds monastery at Clonfert, Ireland. 
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*563 [[Columba of Iona|Columba]] arrives on [[Iona]] and establishes [[monastery]] there, founding mission to the Picts.     
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*569 Final schism between Chalcedonians and non-Chalcedonians in Egypt; [[David of Wales]] holds [[Synod of Victoria]] to re-assert anti-Pelagian decrees of Brefi.   
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*579 400 Martyrs slain by Lombards in Sicily. 
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*580 [[Monte Cassino]] sacked by Lombards, sending its monks fleeing to Rome; Slavs begin to migrate into the Balkans and Greece. 
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*587 Visigoth King [[w:Reccared I|Reccared]] renounces [[Arianism]] in favor of [[Orthodoxy]]. 
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*589 [[Council of Toledo]] adds [[Filioque]] to [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed]] in an attempt to combat [[Arianism]].     
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*590 [[Columbanus]] founds monasteries in France. 
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*593 [[Anastasius I of Antioch|Anastasius the Sinaite]] restored as Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch. 
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*596 [[Gregory the Dialogist]] sends [[Augustine of Canterbury|Augustine]] along with forty other monks to southern Britain to convert pagans. 
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*597 Death of [[Columba of Iona]]. 
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*598 [[Glastonbury Abbey]] founded. 
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*ca. 600 ''[[The Ladder of Divine Ascent]]'' written by [[John Climacus]]; [[Gregory the Dialogist]] inspires development of [[Gregorian Chant]] through his liturgical reforms. 
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*601 [[Augustine of Canterbury]] converts King [[Ethelbert of Kent]] and establishes see of Canterbury. 
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*602 [[Augustine of Canterbury]] meets with Welsh bishops to bring them under Canterbury. 
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*604 [[Mellitus]] becomes first bishop of London and founds first [[w:St Paul's Cathedral|St. Paul's Cathedral]]; death of [[Gregory the Dialogist]]. 
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*605 Death of [[Augustine of Canterbury]].     
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*610 [[Heraclius]] changes official language of the Empire from Latin to [[w:Medieval Greek|Greek]], already the ''lingua franca'' of the vast majority of the population. 
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*612 [[Holy Sponge]] and [[Holy Lance]] brought to Constantinople from Palestine. 
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*614 Persians sack Jerusalem under Chosroes II of Persia; [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] damaged by fire, [[True Cross]] captured, and over 65,000 Christians in Jerusalem massacred. 
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*615 Death of [[Columbanus]] in Italy. 
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*617 Persian Army conquers Chalcedon after a long siege.           
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*626 [[Akathist|Akathist Hymn]] to the Virgin Mary written.   
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*627 Emperor [[Heraclius]] defeats Sassanid Persians at [[w:Battle of Nineveh (627)|Battle of Nineveh]], recovering [[True Cross]] and breaking Sassanid power.     
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*630 Second [[Elevation of the Holy Cross]]. 
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*633 Death of [[Modestus of Jerusalem]].   
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*635 Founding of [[Lindisfarne]] Monastery by [[Aidan of Lindisfarne|Aidan]]; Cynegils, king of Wessex, converts to Christianity. 
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*636 Capture of [[Jerusalem]] by Muslim Arabs after [[w:Battle of Yarmouk|Battle of Yarmuk]].   
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*640 [[w:Muslim conquest of Syria|Muslim conquest of Syria]]; [[w:Battle of Heliopolis|Battle of Heliopolis]] between Arab Muslim armies and Byzantium opens door for Muslim conquest of Byzantine [[w:Exarchate of Africa|Exarchate of Africa]]. 
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*641 Capture of Alexandria by Muslim Arabs. 
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*642 Muslim conquest of Egypt.
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*646 Alexandria recaptured by Muslim Arabs after Byzantine attempt to retake Egypt fails, ending nearly ten centuries of [[w:Greco-Roman|Greco-Roman]] civilization in Egypt. 
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*648 Pope [[Theodore I of Rome]] excommunicates patriarch [[Paul II of Constantinople]]. 
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*649 Arabs invade and conquer Cyprus. 
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*650 Final defeat of [[Arianism]] as Lombards convert to Orthodoxy.   
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*653 Pope [[Martin the Confessor]] arrested on orders of Byzantine Emperor [[Constans II]].   
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*654 Invasion of Rhodes by Arabs. 
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*655 Martyrdom of [[Martin the Confessor]]. 
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*657 Founding of [[Whitby Abbey]] in Yorkshire, England. 
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*662 Death of [[Maximus the Confessor]]. 
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*663 Emperor [[Constans II]] is last Eastern emperor to set foot in Rome; [[Constans II]] declares Pope of Rome to have no jurisdiction over Archbishop of Ravenna, since that city was the seat of the exarch, his immediate representative. 
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*664 [[Synod of Whitby]] held in northern England, adopting Roman calendar and tonsures in Northumbria; [[Iona|Ionian]] monk [[Wilfrid of York|Wilfrid]] appointed as Archbishop of York.     
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*669-78 [[w:Siege of Constantinople (674)|First Arab siege of Constantinople]]; at [[w:Battle of Syllaeum|Battle of Syllaeum]] Arab fleet destroyed by Byzantines through use of [[w:Greek Fire|Greek Fire]], ending immediate Arab threat to eastern Europe. 
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*670 Composition of ''Caedmon's Hymn'' by [[Caedmon]] of [[Whitby Abbey|Whitby]]. 
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*672 First Synod of Hertford called by [[Theodore of Tarsus]], adopting of ten decrees paralleling the canons of the Council of Chalcedon. 
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*673 Second Council of Hatfield upholds Orthodoxy against [[Monothelitism]]. 
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*680-681 [[Sixth Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople, condemning [[Monothelitism]] and affirming [[Christology]] of [[Maximus the Confessor]], affirming that Christ has both a human will and a divine will; Patr. [[Sergius of Constantinople]] and Pope [[Honorius of Rome]] are both explicitly [[anathema]]tized for their support of Monothelitism.   
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*682 Foundation of [[Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Abbey]] in England. 
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*685 First monastics come to [[Mount Athos]]; death of [[Anastasius of Sinai]]. 
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*685 [[John Maron]] elected first Maronite patriarch, founding the [[Maronite Catholic Church]], which embraced [[Monothelitism]], rejected the teaching of the [[Fifth Ecumenical Council]], and separated from the [[Orthodox Church]]. 
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*687 Destruction of [[Whitby Abbey]] by Danish Vikings; death of [[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne]]. 
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*688 Emperor [[Justinian II]] and Caliph [[w:Abd al-Malik|al-Malik]] sign treaty neutralizing Cyprus. 
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*ca. 690 Witenagamot of England forbids church appeals to Rome. 
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*691 [[w:Dome of the Rock|Dome of the Rock]] completed in Jerusalem. 
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*692 [[Quinisext Council]] (also called the ''Penthekte Council'' or ''Council in Trullo'') held in Constantinople, issuing [[canon]]s completing the work of the Fifth and Sixth [[Ecumenical Councils]], and declaring the [[Church of Jerusalem]] to be a [[patriarchate]]. 
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*694 Byzantine army of [[Justinian II]] defeated by [[Maronite Catholic Church|Maronites]], who became fully independent. 
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*697 [[Council of Birr]] accepts Roman [[Paschalion]] for northern Ireland; at this synod, [[Adomnán of Iona]] promulgates his [[w:Cáin Adomnáin|Cáin Adomnáin]]. 
 +
*698 Muslim conquest of Carthage; at [[Synod of Aquileia]], bishops of the diocese of Aquileia end the [[Schism of the Three Chapters]] and return to communion with Rome. 
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*ca. 700 Death of [[Isaac of Syria]].         
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*707 Death of [[John Maron]]. 
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*710 Pope [[Constantine of Rome|Constantine]] makes last papal visit to Constantinople before 1967.     
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*712 Death of [[Andrew of Crete]]. 
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*ca. 715 [[Lindisfarne Gospels]] produced in Northumbria (Northern England). 
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*715 [[w:Umayyad Mosque|Grand Mosque of Damascus]] built over the Cathedral of St. John the Baptist; Al-Aqsa Mosque constructed over site of [[Church of St. Mary of Justinian (Temple Mount, Jerusalem)|Church of St. Mary of Justinian]]; Pictish [[w:Nechtan IV of the Picts|King Nechtan]] invites Northumbrian clergy to establish Christianity amongst the Picts.   
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*716 Monastery at [[Iona]] conforms to Roman liturgical usage; [[Boniface]]'s first missionary journey to Frisia. 
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*717 Pictish king Nechtan expels monks from [[Iona]].   
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*717-18 [[w:Siege of Constantinople (718)|Second Arab siege of Constantinople]]. 
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*719 [[w:Nubia#Christian Nubia|Nubian Christians]] transfer allegiance from [[Church of Alexandria|Chalcedonian church]] to [[Church of Alexandria (Coptic)|Coptic church]]. 
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*723 [[Boniface]] fells Thor's Oak near Fritzlar. 
 +
*726 [[Iconoclasm|Iconoclast]] Emperor [[Leo the Isaurian]] starts campaign against [[iconography|icons]]. 
 +
*730 [[Leo the Isaurian]] orders destruction of all icons, beginning the First Iconoclastic Period. 
 +
*731 [[Bede]] completes ''[[Ecclesiastical History of the English People]]''. 
 +
*732 Muslim invasion of Europe stopped by Franks at [[w:Battle of Tours|Battle of Tours]], establishing a balance of power between Western Europe, Islam and the [[Byzantine Empire]]. 
 +
*733 Byzantine Emperor [[Leo the Isaurian]] withdraws the Balkans, Sicily and Calabria from the jurisdiction of the Pope in response to Pope [[Gregory III of Rome]]'s support of a revolt in Italy against iconoclasm.
 +
*734 [[Egbert of York|Egbert]] becomes bishop of York, founding a library and making the city a renowned centre of learning.   
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*735 Death of [[Bede]]; See of York achieves archepiscopal status. 
 +
*739 Emperor Leo III (717-41) publishes his ''[[w:Byzantine law#Ecloga|Ecloga]]'' , designed to introduce Christian principle into law; death of [[Willibrord]].   
 +
*742 After a forty-year vacancy, [[Stephen IV of Antioch|Stephen IV]] becomes Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch, at the suggestion of Umayyad caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik.     
 +
*747 Witenagamot of England again forbids appeals to the Roman Pope; [[Council of Clovesho I]] adopts Roman calendar, observance of the feasts of Gregory the Great and Augustine of Canterbury, and adopts the Rogation Days.
 +
*749 Death of [[John of Damascus]]. 
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*750 ''[[Donation of Constantine]]'' accepted as a legitimate document, used by Pope [[Stephen II of Rome|Stephen II]] to prove territorial and jurisdictional claims. 
 +
*751 Lombard king Aistulf captures [[Ravenna]] and the Romagna, ending Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna. 
 +
*752 Death of Pope [[Zacharias of Rome]]. 
 +
*754 [[Iconoclastic Council]] held in Constantinople under the authority of Emperor [[Constantine V Copronymus]], condemning icons and declaring itself to be the Seventh Ecumenical Council; Constantine begins dissolution of monasteries. 
 +
*754 Death of [[Boniface]]. 
 +
*756 [[w:Donation of Pepin|Donation of Pepin]] cedes lands including Ravenna that became basis of [[w:Papal States|Papal States]]. 
 +
*768 Wales adopts Orthodox [[Paschalion]] and other decrees of the Synod of Whitby at teaching of Elfoddw of Gwynedd.   
 +
*769 Pope [[Stephen III of Rome]] holds a council changing papal election procedure and confirming veneration of icons. 
 +
*772 Charlemagne starts fighting Saxons and Frisians; Saxony is subdued and converted to Christianity. 
 +
*781 King [[Charlemagne]] of the Franks summons [[Alcuin]] of York to head palace school at Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) to inspire revival of education in Europe. 
 +
*785 Synod of Cealchythe erects the Archbishopric of Lichfield.   
 +
*787 [[Seventh Ecumenical Council]] held in Nicea, condemning [[iconoclasm]] and affirming [[veneration]] of [[iconography|icons]]; two councils held in England, one in the north at Pincanhale, and the other in the south at Chelsea, reaffirming the faith of the first Six Ecumenical Councils (the decrees of the Seventh having not yet been received), and establishing a third archbishopric at Lichfield. 
 +
*792 Synod of Regensburg condemned Adoptionism. 
 +
*793 Sack of [[Lindisfarne|Lindisfarne Priory]], beginning Viking attacks on England. 
 +
*794 Charlemagne convenes council in Frankfurt-in-Main, rejecting decrees of Seventh Ecumenical Council and inserting [[Filioque]] into [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed]].     
 +
*800 [[Charlemagne]] crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by [[Leo III of Rome]] on [[Christmas]] day, marking the break of Frankish civilization away from the Orthodox Christian Roman Empire; [[Book of Kells]] produced in Ireland.
 +
*800 Ambassadors of Caliph Harunu al-Rashid give keys to the [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Holy Sepulchre]] to Charlemagne, acknowledging some Frankish control over the interests of Christians in Jerusalem ; establishment of the [[Western Rite]] Monastery of Saint Mary in Jerusalem. 
 +
*801 Controversy in Jerusalem over Frankish pilgrims using [[Filioque]]. 
 +
*803 [[Council of Clovesho II]] abolishes archbishopric of Lichfield, restoring the pattern of the two metropolitan archbishoprics (Canterbury and York) which had prevailed before 787, and requires the use of the [[Western Rite]] amongst the English speaking peoples. 
 +
*810 Pope Leo III bans use of [[Filioque]]. 
 +
*814 Conflict between Emperor [[Leo V the Armenian|Leo V]] and Patr. [[Nicephorus I of Constantinople|Nicephorus]] over iconoclasm; Leo deposes Nicephorus, Nicephorus excommunicates Leo.   
 +
*826 [[Ansgar]] arrives in Denmark and begins preaching; King Harald Klak of Denmark converts to Christianity. 
 +
*828 Death of Patr. [[Nicephorus I of Constantinople]]. 
 +
*ca. 829-842 Icon of the [[Panagia Portaitissa]] appears on [[Mount Athos]] near [[Iviron Monastery (Athos)|Iviron Monastery]].   
 +
*836 Death of [[Theodore the Studite]].
 +
 +
==Late Byzantine era (843-1453)==
 +
:''Main article: [[Timeline of Church History (Late Byzantine Era (843-1453))]]''
 +
*843 [[Triumph of Orthodoxy]] occurs on first Sunday of [[Great Lent]], restoring [[iconography|icons]] to churches.     
 +
*850 [[Third Finding of the Head of St. John the Forerunner|Third Finding]] of the head of [[John the Forerunner]]. 
 +
*852 [[Ansgar]] founds churches at Hedeby and Ribe in Denmark. 
 +
*858 [[Photius the Great]] becomes patriarch of Constantinople.     
 +
*ca. 860 [[w:Christianization of the Rus' Khaganate|Christianization of the Rus' Khaganate]]. 
 +
*861 [[Cyril and Methodius]] depart from Constantinople to [[Church of Russia#Conversion of the Slavs|missionize the Slavs]]; Council of Constantinople attended by 318 fathers and presided over by papal legates confirms [[Photius the Great]] as patriarch and passes 17 canons. 
 +
*862 [[Rastislav of Moravia]] converts to Christianity. 
 +
*863 First translations of [[Holy Scripture|Biblical]] and liturgical texts into [[Church Slavonic]] by [[Cyril and Methodius]]. 
 +
*863 Venetians steal relics of [[Apostle Mark]] from Alexandria. 
 +
*864 Baptism of Prince [[Boris of Bulgaria]]; [[Synaxis]] of the [[Theotokos]] in Miasena in memory of the return of her icon. 
 +
*865 Bulgaria under Khan [[Boris of Bulgaria|Boris I]] converts to [[Orthodox Church|Orthodox Christianity]].   
 +
*866 Vikings raid and capture York in England. 
 +
*867 Council in Constantinople held, presided over by [[Photius the Great|Photius]], which anathematizes Pope [[Nicholas I of Rome]] for his attacks on work of Greek missionaries in Bulgaria and use by papal missionaries of [[Filioque]]; Pope Nicholas dies before hearing news of excommunication; [[Basil the Macedonian]] has Emperor [[Michael III]] murdered and usurps Imperial throne, reinstating Ignatius as patriarch of Constantinople. 
 +
*867 Death of [[Kassiani the Hymnographer|Kassiani]], Greek-Byzantine poet and hymnographer, who composed the ''[[Hymn of Kassiani]]'', chanted during [[Holy Week]] on Holy Wednesday. 
 +
*869-870 [[Robber Council of 869-870]] held, deposing [[Photius the Great]] from the Constantinopolitan see and putting the rival claimant Ignatius on the throne, declaring itself to be the "Eighth Ecumenical Council." 
 +
*870 Conversion of Serbia; death of [[Rastislav of Moravia]]; martyrdom of [[w:Edmund the Martyr|Edmund]], King of East Anglia.   
 +
*877 Death of [[Ignatius I of Constantinople]], who appoints [[Photius the Great|Photius]] to succeed him.     
 +
*878 King [[w:Alfred the Great|Alfred the Great]] of Wessex defeats Vikings; the Treaty of Wedmore divides England between the Anglo-Saxons and the Danes (the [[w:Danelaw|Danelaw]]). 
 +
*879-880 [[Eighth Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople attended by 383 fathers passing 3 canons, confirms [[Photius the Great|Photius]] as Patriarch of Constantinople, anathematizes additions to the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed]], and declares that the prerogatives and jurisdiction of the Roman pope and the Constantinopolitan patriarch are essentially equal; the council is reluctantly accepted by Pope [[John VIII of Rome]].   
 +
*885 [[Mount Athos]] gains political autonomy. 
 +
*885 Death of [[Cyril and Methodius|Methodius]]. 
 +
*886 [[w:Glagolitic alphabet|Glagolitic alphabet]], (now called [[w:Old Church Slavonic|Old Church Slavonic]]) adopted in Bulgarian Empire; St [[w:Alfred the Great|Alfred the Great]], King of Wessex, captures London from the Danes.         
 +
*910 [[Benedict of Nursia|Benedictine]] [[w:Cluny Abbey|Abbey of Cluny]] founded in France.
 +
*899 Death of [[Alfred the Great]]. 
 +
*911 [[Protection of the Mother of God|Holy Protection of the Virgin Mary]]. 
 +
*912 Normans become Christian; [[w:Nicholas Mystikos|Nicholas I Mysticus]] becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.   
 +
*927 [[Church of Bulgaria]] recognized as [[autocephaly|autocephalous]] by [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]]. 
 +
*931 Abbott [[w:Odo of Cluny|Odo of Cluny]] reforms monasteries in Aquitaine, northern France, and Italy, starting the [[w:Cluniac Reforms|Cluniac Reform movement]] within the [[Benedict of Nursia|Benedictine order]], focused on restoring the traditional monastic life, encouraging art and caring for the poor.     
 +
*935 Martyrdom of [[Wenceslaus]], prince of the Czechs.   
 +
*944 City of Edessa recovered by Byzantine army, including [[Icon Not Made By Hands]].
 +
*945 [[Dunstan of Canterbury|Dunstan]] becomes Abbot of [[w:Glastonbury Abbey|Glastonbury]].         
 +
*957 [[Olga of Kiev]] baptized in Constantinople.   
 +
*960 Emperor [[Nicephorus II]] Phocas re-captures [[w:Crete|Crete]] for Byzantines; [[Dunstan of Canterbury|Dunstan]] becomes [[Archbishop of Canterbury]], reforming monasteries and enforcing rule of [[Benedict of Nursia|Benedict]].   
 +
*962 Denmark becomes Christian nation with [[baptism]] of King Harald Blaatand ("Bluetooth"); [[w:Holy Roman Empire|Holy Roman Empire]] formed, with Pope John XII crowning Otto I the Great Holy Roman Emperor.
 +
*963 [[Athanasius of Athos]] establishes first major monastery on [[Mount Athos]], the [[Great Lavra (Athos)|Great Lavra]]. 
 +
*965 Emperor [[Nicephorus II]] Phocas gains Cyprus completely for the Byzantines.     
 +
*969 Death of [[Olga of Kiev]]; Emperor [[w:Nikephoros II|Nikephoros II Phokas]] captures Antioch and Aleppo from Arabs. 
 +
*972 Emperor [[w:John I Tzimiskes|John I Tzimiskes]] grants [[Mount Athos]] its first charter ([[Typikon]]). 
 +
*973 [[w:Great Moravia|Moravia]] assigned to the Diocese of Prague, putting the West Slavic tribes under jurisdiction of German church. 
 +
*975 Emperor [[w:John I Tzimiskes|John I Tzimiskes]] in a Syrian campaign takes Emesa, Baalbek, Damascus, Tiberias, Nazareth, Caesarea, Sidon, Beirut, Byblos and Tripoli, but fails to take Jerusalem. 
 +
*978 Death of King [[Edward the Martyr]]. 
 +
*980 Revelation of the ''[[Axion Estin]]'' (the hymn "It Is Truly Meet"), with the appearance of the [[Archangel Gabriel]] to a monk on [[Mount Athos]]. 
 +
*980-5 The [[Western Rite|Western Rite]] Monastery of Amalfion is founded on [[Mount Athos|Mount Athos]].     
 +
*987 Sixth [[w:Rus'-Byzantine War (987)#Baptism of Vladimir|Rus-Byzantine War]], where [[Vladimir of Kiev]] dispatches troops to the Byzantine Empire to assist Emperor [[w:Basil II|Basil II]] with an internal revolt, agreeing to accept [[Orthodox Christianity]] as his religion and bring his people to the new faith.   
 +
*988 '[[Baptism of Rus']] begins with the conversion of [[Vladimir of Kiev]] who is baptized at [[w:Chersonesos|Chersonesos]], the birthplace of the Russian and Ukrainian Orthodox churches; Vladimir marries Anna, sister of Byzantine emperor Basil II. 
 +
*992 Death of [[Michael of Kiev|Michael]], first Metropolitan of Kiev. 
 +
*995 [[Olaf of Norway]] proclaims Norway to be a Christian kingdom.
 +
*1000 Conversion of Greenland and Iceland. 
 +
*1008 Conversion of Sweden. 
 +
*1009 Patr. [[Sergius II of Constantinople]] removes name of Pope [[Sergius IV of Rome]] from [[diptychs]] of [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]], because the pope had written a letter to the patriarch including the [[Filioque]].   
 +
*1009 [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] in Jerusalem destroyed by the "mad" Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, founder of the [[w:Druze|Druze]]. 
 +
*1012 Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah issues oppressive decrees against Jews and Christians including the destruction of all Christian and Jewish houses of worship.     
 +
*1014 [[Filioque]] used for first time in Rome by Pope [[Benedict VIII of Rome|Benedict VIII]] at coronation of Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor. 
 +
*1015 Death of [[Vladimir of Kiev]]. 
 +
*1017 Danish king Canute converts to Christianity. 
 +
*1022 Death of [[Simeon the New Theologian]].     
 +
*1027 Frankish protectorate over Christian interests in Jerusalem is replaced by a Byzantine protectorate, which begin reconstruction of [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Holy Sepulchre]].
 +
*1034 Patriarch [[Alexius I of Constantinople|Alexius I Studites]] writes the first complete ''Studite [[Typikon]],'' for a monastery he established near Constantinople; this was the [[Typikon]] introduced into the Rus' lands by [[Theodosius of the Kiev Caves]].
 +
*1036 Byzantine [[w:Michael IV the Paphlagonian|Emperor Michael IV]] makes a truce with the Caliph of Egypt to allow rebuilding of the [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] by Byzantine masons; [[w:Varangian Guard|Varangian Guard]] of the Byzantine Emperor sent to protect pilgrims.
 +
*1043 [[Edward the Confessor|Edward the Confessor]] crowned King of England at Winchester Cathedral.
 +
*1045-50 [[St. Sophia Cathedral (Novgorod)|Cathedral of Saint Sophia in Novgorod]] built, the oldest Orthodox church building in Russia, executed in an architectural style more austere than the Byzantine, reminiscent of the [[w:Romanesque architecture|Romanesque]]. 
 +
*1048 Re-consecration of [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Holy Sepulchre]]. 
 +
*1051 [[Monastery of the Kiev Caves]] founded.   
 +
 +
==Post-Roman Schism==
 +
 +
*1054 Cardinal [[Humbert]] excommunicates [[Michael Cerularius]], patriarch of Constantinople, a major centerpoint in the formation of the [[Great Schism]] between East and West; First Letter of [[Michael Cerularius]] to Peter of Antioch. 
 +
*1059 Errors of Berengar of Tours condemned in Rome; term ''transubstantiation'' begins to come in to use, ascribed to [[Peter Damian]]. 
 +
*1064 [[w:Seljuk Turks|Seljuk Turks]] storm Anatolia taking Caesarea and Ani, conquering Armenia. 
 +
*1066 Normans invade England flying banner of Pope of Rome, defeating King [[Harold of England]] at Battle of Hastings. 
 +
*1066-1171 Beginning reformation of English church and society to align with Latin continental ecclesiology and politics. 
 +
*1071 [[w:Seljuk Turks|Seljuk Turks]] defeat Byzantines at the [[w:Battle of Manzikert|Battle of Manzikert]], beginning Islamification of Asia Minor; Norman princes led by [[w:Robert Guiscard|Robert Guiscard]] capture Bari, the last Byzantine stronghold in Italy, bringing to an end over five centuries of [[w:Catapanate of Italy|Byzantine rule in the south]].   
 +
*1073 Hildebrand becomes Pope [[Grgeory VII of Rome|Gregory VII]] and launches the [[w:Gregorian Reform|Gregorian reforms]] (celibacy of the clergy, primacy of papacy over empire, right of Pope to depose emperors); Seljuk Turks conquer Ankara. 
 +
*1074 Death of [[Theodosius of the Kiev Caves]]. 
 +
*1075 ''[[w:Dictatus papae|Dictatus Papae]]'' document advances Papal supremacy. 
 +
*1077 The Seljuk Turks capture Jerusalem and kill 3,000 citizens; Seljuks capture Nicea. 
 +
*1084 Antioch is captured by the Seljuk Turks. 
 +
*1088 Founding of monastery of [[Apostle John|John the Theologian]] on Patmos; election of Pope [[w:Pope Urban II|Urban II]], a prominent member of the [[w:Cluniac Reforms|Cluniac Reform movement]] . 
 +
*1095 Launching of the [[w:First Crusade|First Crusade]].     
 +
*1098 Anselm of Canterbury completes ''Cur Deus homo'', marking a radical divergence of Western theology of the atonement from that of the East.   
 +
*1098 Crusaders capture Antioch. 
 +
*1099 Crusaders capture Jerusalem founding the [[w:Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem|Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem]] and other crusader states known collectively as "[[w:Outremer|Outremer]]." 
 +
*1108 Death of Nicetas of [[Monastery of the Kiev Caves|Kiev Caves]], Bishop of Novgorod. 
 +
*ca. 1131-45 Coptic Pope of Alexandria [[w:Pope Gabriel II of Alexandria|Gabriel II]] initiates addition of Arabic as a liturgical language with his Arabic translation of the [[Divine Liturgy|Liturgy]].           
 +
*1144 [[w:Second Crusade|Second Crusade]]; Muslims take Christian stronghold of Edessa.   
 +
*1149 Crusaders begin to renovate [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] in Romanesque style, adding a bell tower. 
 +
*1159 [[w:John of Salisbury|John of Salisbury]] authors ''[[w:Policraticus|Policraticus]]'', a treatise on government drawing from the [[Holy Scripture|Bible]], the [[w:Corpus Juris Civilis|Codex Justinianus]], and arguing for [[w:Divine Right of Kings|Divine Right of Kings]].     
 +
*1170 Miracle of the weeping icon of the [[Theotokos]] "of the Sign" at Novgorod; Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland; city of Dublin captured by the Roman Catholic Normans.   
 +
*1176 [[w:Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm|Sultanate of Rum]] defeats Byzantine Empire in the [[w:Battle of Myriokephalon|Battle of Myriokephalon]], marking end of Byzantine attempts to recover Anatolian plateau; Al-Adil I, Muslim ruler of Egypt, suppresses a revolt by Christian Copts in city of Qift, hanging nearly 3,000 of them.       
 +
*1180 Last formal acceptance of Latins to communion at an Orthodox altar in Antioch. 
 +
*1182 [[Maronite Catholic Church|Maronites]], who assisted the Crusaders during the Crusades, reaffirm their affiliation with Rome in 1182; dedication of [[w:Monreale#The_Cathedral|Monreale Cathedral]] in Sicily, containing the largest cycle of Byzantine mosaics extant in Italy.   
 +
*1186 Byzantine Empire recognizes independence of Bulgaria and Serbia. 
 +
*1187 [[w:Saladin|Saladin]] retakes Jerusalem after destroying crusader army at [[w:Battle of Hattin (1187)|Battle of Hattin]], and returns Christian holy places to [[Church of Jerusalem|Orthodox Church]]. 
 +
*1189 [[w:Third Crusade|Third Crusade]] led by King Richard the Lion-Hearted of England, King Philip Augustus II of France, and Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. 
 +
*ca. 1189 Ethiopian Emperor [[w:Gebre Mesqel Lalibela|Gebre Mesqel Lalibela]] orders construction of [[w:Lalibela|Lalibela]].   
 +
*1204 [[Fourth Crusade]] [[Sacking of Constantinople|sacks Constantinople]], laying waste to the city and stealing many [[relics]] and other items; [[Great Schism]] generally regarded as having been completed by this act; [[w:Theodore I Laskaris|Theodore I Lascaris]] establishes the [[w:Empire of Nicaea|Empire of Nicaea]].     
 +
*ca.1207 [[w:Stephen Langton|Stephen Langton]] divides the Bible into the defined modern chapters in use today.       
 +
*ca.1220 English Bp. [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Poore Richard Le Poore ] is said to have been responsible for the final form of the "[[Sarum Use|Use of Sarum]]", which had the sterling reputation of being the best liturgy anywhere in the West.     
 +
*1228 [[w:Sixth Crusade|Sixth Crusade]] results in 10-year treaty starting in 1229 between Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and Egyptian sultan; Jerusalem ceded to Franks, along with a narrow corridor to the coast, as well as Nazareth, Sidon, Jaffa and Bethlehem.
 +
*1231 [[w:Medieval Inquisition|Papal Inquisition]] initiated by Pope Gregory IX, charged with suppressing heresy.
 +
*1235 Death of [[Sava of Serbia]]. 
 +
*1237 Golden Horde begin [[Church of Russia#Mongol Tartars over Russia (1237-1448)|subjugation of Russia]]. 
 +
*1240 Mongols sack Kiev; Prince [[Alexander Nevsky]] defeats Swedish army at [[Battle of the Neva]]. 
 +
*1242 [[Alexander Nevsky]]'s Novgorodian force defeats Teutonic Knights in [[w:Battle of the Ice|Battle of Lake Peipus]], a major defeat for the Catholic crusaders. 
 +
*1244 Jerusalem conquered and razed by [[w:Khwarezm|Khwarezmian]] mercenaries (Oghuz Turks) serving under the [[w:Ayyubid dynasty|Ayyubid]] ruler of Egypt Salih Ayyub, triggering Seventh Crusade.     
 +
*1247 [[w:Ayyubid dynasty|Ayyubids]] conquer Jerusalem, driving out the Khwarezmian Turks.     
 +
*1258 [[Michael VIII Palaiologos]] seizes the throne of the Nicaean Empire, founding the last Roman (Byzantine) dynasty, beginning reconquest of Greek peninsula from Latins. 
 +
*1259 Byzantines defeat Latin [[w:Principality of Achaea|Principality of Achaea]] at the [[w:Battle of Pelagonia|Battle of Pelagonia]], marking the beginning of the Byzantine recovery of Greece. 
 +
*ca. 1259-80 Martyrdom by Latins of monks of [[Iveron Monastery (Athos)|Iveron Monastery]].
 +
*1260 Subjugation of [[Church of Cyprus]] to the [[Roman Catholic Church]]. 
 +
*1261 End of Latin occupation of Constantinople and restoration of Orthodox patriarchs; Emperor [[Michael VIII Palaiologos]] makes [[Mystras]] seat of the new [[w:Despotate of Morea|Despotate of Morea]], where a Byzantine renaissance occurred. 
 +
*1268 Egyptian Mamelukes capture Antioch. 
 +
*1269 Orthodox patriarch returns to Antioch after a 171-year exile and usurpation by Latin patriarch.
 +
*1274 Second [[Council of Lyons]] held, proclaiming union between the Orthodox East and the Roman Catholic West, but generally unaccepted in the East.
 +
*1275 Unionist Patriarch of Constantinople [[John XI Beccus of Constantinople|John XI Beccus]] elected to replace Patriarch [[Joseph I Galesiotes of Constantinople|Joseph I Galesiotes]], who opposed [[Council of Lyons]]; 26 martyrs of Zographou monastery on [[Mount Athos|Mt. Athos]], martyred by the Latins. 
 +
*ca. 1280 ''[[w:Kebra Nagast|Kebra Nagast]]'' ("Book of the Glory of Kings") compiled, a repository of Ethiopian national and religious feelings. 
 +
*1281 [[w:Pope Martin IV|Pope Martin IV]] authorizes a Crusade against the newly re-established [[Byzantine Empire]] in Constantinople, excommunicating Emperor [[Michael VIII Palaiologos]] and the Greeks and renouncing the union of 1274; French and Venetian expeditions set out toward Constantinople but are forced to turn back in the following year due to the [[w:Sicilian Vespers|Sicilian Vespers]].     
 +
*1291 Fall of Acre; end of crusading in Holy Land. 
 +
*1298 [[Ambrose of Milan|Ambrose]], [[Augustine of Hippo|Augustine]], [[Jerome]], and [[Gregory the Dialogist|Pope Gregory I]] are named collectively as the first Great [[w:Doctor of the Church|Doctors]] of the Western Church.   
 +
*1302 Papal Bull ''[[w:Unam sanctum|Unam Sanctum]]'' issued by Pope [[Boniface VIII of Rome|Boniface VIII]] proclaims Papal supremacy. 
 +
*1326 Metr. [[Peter of Moscow|Peter]] moves his see from Kiev to Vladimir and then to Moscow.         
 +
*1332 [[w:Amda Seyon I of Ethiopia|Amda Syon]], Emperor of Ethiopia begins his campaigns in the southern Muslim provinces, allowing for the spread of Christianity to frontier areas. 
 +
*1336 [[Meteora]] in Greece established as a center of Orthodox [[monasticism]]. 
 +
*1338 [[Gregory Palamas]] writes ''Triads in Defense of the Holy Hesychasts'', defending the Orthodox practice of [[hesychasm|hesychast spirituality]] and the use of the [[Jesus Prayer]].
 +
*1340 [[Holy Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra]] founded by [[Sergius of Radonezh]]. 
 +
*1341-51 Three sessions of the [[Ninth Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople, affirming [[hesychasm|hesychastic]] theology of [[Gregory Palamas]] and condemning rationalistic philosophy of [[Barlaam of Calabria]]. 
 +
*1342 Patriarchate of Antioch transferred to Damascus under [[Ignatius II of Antioch|Ignatius II]].   
 +
*1349 Prince [[Stephen Dushan]] of Serbia assumes the title of ''Tsar'' (Caesar); principality of [[w:Galicia (Central Europe)|Galicia]] (Halitsh) comes under Polish control.     
 +
*1354 Ottoman Turks make first settlement in Europe at Gallipoli. 
 +
*1359 Death of [[Gregory Palamas]].   
 +
*1360 Death of [[John Koukouzelis]] the Hymnographer.     
 +
*1379 Western Great Schism ensues, including simultaneous reign of three Popes of Rome. 
 +
*ca. 1380 English Church reformer John Wyclif writes that the true faith is preserved only in the East, "among the Greeks."   
 +
*1382-95 [[w:Wyclif's Bible|First English Bible]] translated by John Wyclif. 
 +
*1383 [[Stephen of Perm]], missionary to Zyrians, consecrated bishop; appearance of [[Theotokos of Tikhvin]] icon. 
 +
*1385 [[w:Union of Krewo|Kreva Agreement]] provides for conversion of Lithuanian nobles and all pagan Lithuanians to Roman Catholicism, joining Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the Kingdom of Poland through a dynastic union. 
 +
*1387 [[w:Christianization of Lithuania|Lithuania converts to Roman Catholicism]], while most [[w:Ruthenians|Ruthenian]] lands (Belarus and Ukraine) remain Orthodox. 
 +
*1389 Serbs defeated by Ottoman Turks of Sultan Murad I at the battle of Kosovo Polje; death of [[Lazar of Serbia|Lazar]], prince of Serbia. 
 +
*1390 Ottomans take [[w:Alaşehir|Philadelphia]], last significant Byzantine enclave in Anatolia.   
 +
*1391-98 Ottoman Turks unsuccessfully besiege Constantinople for the first time. 
 +
*1410 Iconographer [[Andrei Rublev]] paints his most famous icon depicting the three angels who appeared to Abraham and Sarah, the angels being considered a type of the [[Holy Trinity|Holy Trinity]].   
 +
*1414-18 Council of Constance in Roman Catholic Church represents high point for [[w:Conciliarism|Conciliar Movement]] over authority of pope. 
 +
*1417 End of Western Great Schism at the [[Council of Constance]]. 
 +
*1418 Latin monk [[w:Thomas à Kempis|Thomas à Kempis]] authors ''[[w:The Imitation of Christ (book)|The Imitation of Christ]]''. 
 +
*1422 [[w:Siege of Constantinople (1422)|Second unsuccessful Ottoman siege]] of Constantinople. 
 +
*1423-24 [[w:Council of Siena|Council of Siena]] in the Roman Catholic Church was the high point of [[w:Conciliarism|conciliarism]], emphasizing the leadership of the bishops gathered in council, but the conciliarism expressed there was later branded as a heresy. 
 +
*1439 Ecclesiastical reunion with West attempted at [[Council of Florence]], where only [[Mark of Ephesus]] refuses to capitulate to demands of delegates from Rome. 
 +
*1440-41 Encyclical Letter of [[Mark of Ephesus]]. 
 +
*1444 ''[[Donation of Constantine]]'' proved forgery. 
 +
*1448 [[Church of Russia]] unilaterally declares its independence from the [[Church of Constantinople]].
 +
*1452 Unification of Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox Churches in [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] on West's terms, when Emperor [[Constantine XI Palaiologos]], under pressure from Rome, allows the union to be proclaimed. 
 +
*1453 [[Fall of Constantinople|Constantinople falls]] to invasion of the Ottoman Turks, ending Roman Empire; [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] turned into a mosque; martyrdom of [[Constantine XI Palaiologos]], last of the [[List of Byzantine Emperors|Byzantine Emperors]]; many Greek scholars escape to the West with books that become translated into Latin, triggering the [[w:Renaissance|Renaissance]].

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Eras New Testament Era | Apostolic Era (33-100) | Ante-Nicene Era (100-325) | Nicene Era (325-451) | Byzantine Era (451-843) | Late Byzantine Era (843-1054) | Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453) | Post-Imperial Era (1453-1821) | Modern Era (1821-1917) | Communist Era (1917-1991) | Post-Communist Era (1991-Present) |
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This article forms part of the series
Introduction to
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Holy Tradition
Holy Scripture
The Symbol of Faith
Ecumenical Councils
Church Fathers
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The Holy Spirit
The Church
Ecclesiology
History
Holy Mysteries
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The History of the Church is a vital part of the Orthodox Christian faith. Orthodox Christians are defined significantly by their continuity with all those who have gone before, those who first received and preached the truth of Jesus Christ to the world, those who helped to formulate the expression and worship of our faith, and those who continue to move forward in the unchanging yet ever-dynamic Holy Tradition of the Orthodox Church.

Contents

New Testament era

Main article: Timeline of Church History (New Testament Era)

Apostolic era (33-100)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Apostolic Era (33-100))

Ante-Nicene era (100-325)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Ante-Nicene Era (100-325))

Nicene era (325-451)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Nicene Era (325-451))

Byzantine era (451-843)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Byzantine Era (451-843))

Late Byzantine era (843-1453)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Late Byzantine Era (843-1453))

Post-Roman Schism

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