Timeline of Church History

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(Late Byzantine era (843-1453))
(Byzantine era (451-843))
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*543 Doctrine of [[apokatastasis]] condemned by Synod of Constantinople.  
 
*543 Doctrine of [[apokatastasis]] condemned by Synod of Constantinople.  
 
*544 [[Jacob Baradeus]] consecrates Sergius of Tella as bishop of Antioch, opening the lasting schism between the [[Church of Antioch (Syriac)|Syriac Orthodox Church]] and the Chalcedonian [[Church of Antioch]]; founding of the monastery at Clonmacnoise in Ireland by [[Ciaran of Clonmacnoise|Ciaran]].
 
*544 [[Jacob Baradeus]] consecrates Sergius of Tella as bishop of Antioch, opening the lasting schism between the [[Church of Antioch (Syriac)|Syriac Orthodox Church]] and the Chalcedonian [[Church of Antioch]]; founding of the monastery at Clonmacnoise in Ireland by [[Ciaran of Clonmacnoise|Ciaran]].
*545 [[Synod of Brefi]] at Llandewi Brefi in Wales condemns [[Pelagianism]].
+
*545 [[Synod of Brefi]] at Llandewi Brefi in Wales condemns [[Pelagianism]] ; Saint [[David of Wales]] moved the Primatial See of Britain from Caerleon to Menevia (St. Davids's).
 
*546 [[Columba of Iona|Columba]] founds monastery of Derry in Ireland.
 
*546 [[Columba of Iona|Columba]] founds monastery of Derry in Ireland.
*547 [[Convent of Our Lady of Saydnaya]] founded in Damascus of Syria.
+
*547 [[Convent of Our Lady of Saydnaya]] founded in Damascus of Syria ; Saint [[David of Wales]] does obeisance to the Patriarch of Jerusalem.
*ca. 550 [[David of Wales]] takes Christianity to Wales.
+
 
*553 [[Fifth Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople in an attempt to reconcile Chalcedonians with non-Chalcedonians—the ''[[Three Chapters]]'' of [[Theodore of Mopsuestia]], [[Theodoret of Cyrrhus]], and [[Ibas of Edessa]] are condemned for their [[Nestorianism]], and [[Origen]] and his writings are also condemned.
 
*553 [[Fifth Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople in an attempt to reconcile Chalcedonians with non-Chalcedonians—the ''[[Three Chapters]]'' of [[Theodore of Mopsuestia]], [[Theodoret of Cyrrhus]], and [[Ibas of Edessa]] are condemned for their [[Nestorianism]], and [[Origen]] and his writings are also condemned.
 
*553 Bishops of Aquileia, Milan, Venetia and the Istrian peninsula in Italy all refuse to condemn the Three Chapters, causing [[Schism of the Three Chapters]] in those areas, leading to independence of [[Patriarch of Venice]] from [[Patriarch of Aquileia]]; Ostrogoth kingdom conquered by the Byzantines after the [[w:Battle of Mons Lactarius|Battle of Mons Lactarius]].
 
*553 Bishops of Aquileia, Milan, Venetia and the Istrian peninsula in Italy all refuse to condemn the Three Chapters, causing [[Schism of the Three Chapters]] in those areas, leading to independence of [[Patriarch of Venice]] from [[Patriarch of Aquileia]]; Ostrogoth kingdom conquered by the Byzantines after the [[w:Battle of Mons Lactarius|Battle of Mons Lactarius]].
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*596 [[Gregory the Dialogist]] sends [[Augustine of Canterbury|Augustine]] along with forty other monks to southern Britain to convert pagans.
 
*596 [[Gregory the Dialogist]] sends [[Augustine of Canterbury|Augustine]] along with forty other monks to southern Britain to convert pagans.
 
*597 Death of [[Columba of Iona]].
 
*597 Death of [[Columba of Iona]].
 +
*598 Glastonbury Abbey founded - the Church in the British Isles numbers 120 bishops, hundreds of monasteries and parishes organized under a Primate with his See at Menevia.
 
*ca. 600 ''[[The Ladder of Divine Ascent]]'' written by [[John Climacus]]; [[Gregory the Dialogist]] inspires development of [[Gregorian Chant]] through his liturgical reforms.
 
*ca. 600 ''[[The Ladder of Divine Ascent]]'' written by [[John Climacus]]; [[Gregory the Dialogist]] inspires development of [[Gregorian Chant]] through his liturgical reforms.
 
*601 [[Augustine of Canterbury]] converts King [[Ethelbert of Kent]] and establishes see of Canterbury.
 
*601 [[Augustine of Canterbury]] converts King [[Ethelbert of Kent]] and establishes see of Canterbury.
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*662 Death of [[Maximus the Confessor]].
 
*662 Death of [[Maximus the Confessor]].
 
*663 Emperor [[Constans II]] is last Eastern emperor to set foot in Rome; [[Constans II]] declares the Pope of Rome to have no jurisdiction over the Archbishop of Ravenna, since that city was the seat of the exarch, his immediate representative.
 
*663 Emperor [[Constans II]] is last Eastern emperor to set foot in Rome; [[Constans II]] declares the Pope of Rome to have no jurisdiction over the Archbishop of Ravenna, since that city was the seat of the exarch, his immediate representative.
*664 [[Synod of Whitby]] held in northern England, harmonizing Celtic and Roman liturgical practices in England; [[Iona|Ionian]] monk [[Wilfrid of York|Wilfrid]] appointed as Archbishop of York; death of [[Cedd]].
+
*664 [[Synod of Whitby]] held in northern England, adopting Roman calendar and tonsures in Northumbria; [[Iona|Ionian]] monk [[Wilfrid of York|Wilfrid]] appointed as Archbishop of York; death of [[Cedd]].
 
*668 [[Theodore of Tarsus]] appointed Archbishop of Canterbury.
 
*668 [[Theodore of Tarsus]] appointed Archbishop of Canterbury.
 
*669-78 [[w:Siege of Constantinople (674)|First Arab siege of Constantinople]]; at [[w:Battle of Syllaeum|Battle of Syllaeum]] Arab fleet destroyed by Byzantines through use of [[w:Greek Fire|Greek Fire]], ending immediate Arab threat to eastern Europe.
 
*669-78 [[w:Siege of Constantinople (674)|First Arab siege of Constantinople]]; at [[w:Battle of Syllaeum|Battle of Syllaeum]] Arab fleet destroyed by Byzantines through use of [[w:Greek Fire|Greek Fire]], ending immediate Arab threat to eastern Europe.
 
*670 Composition of ''Caedmon's Hymn'' by [[Caedmon]] of [[Whitby Abbey|Whitby]].
 
*670 Composition of ''Caedmon's Hymn'' by [[Caedmon]] of [[Whitby Abbey|Whitby]].
 +
*672 The First Synod of Hertford called by [[Theodore of Tarsus]], adoption of ten decrees paralleling the canons of the Council of Chalcedon.
 +
*673 The Second Council of Hatfield upholds Orthodoxy against [[Monothelitism]].
 
*680-681 [[Sixth Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople, condemning [[Monothelitism]] and affirming [[Christology]] of [[Maximus the Confessor]], affirming that Christ has both a human will and a divine will; Patr. [[Sergius of Constantinople]] and Pope [[Honorius of Rome]] are both explicitly [[anathema]]tized for their support of Monothelitism.
 
*680-681 [[Sixth Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople, condemning [[Monothelitism]] and affirming [[Christology]] of [[Maximus the Confessor]], affirming that Christ has both a human will and a divine will; Patr. [[Sergius of Constantinople]] and Pope [[Honorius of Rome]] are both explicitly [[anathema]]tized for their support of Monothelitism.
 
*680 [[w:First Bulgarian Empire|First Bulgarian Empire]] established after a successful war with Byzantium.
 
*680 [[w:First Bulgarian Empire|First Bulgarian Empire]] established after a successful war with Byzantium.
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*687 Destruction of [[Whitby Abbey]] by Danish raiders; death of [[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne]].
 
*687 Destruction of [[Whitby Abbey]] by Danish raiders; death of [[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne]].
 
*688 Emperor [[Justinian II]] and Caliph [[w:Abd al-Malik|al-Malik]] sign treaty neutralizing Cyprus.
 
*688 Emperor [[Justinian II]] and Caliph [[w:Abd al-Malik|al-Malik]] sign treaty neutralizing Cyprus.
 +
*690c. The Witenagamot of England forbade appeals from the Local Church to the Patriarch of Rome.
 
*691 [[w:Dome of the Rock|Dome of the Rock]] completed in Jerusalem.
 
*691 [[w:Dome of the Rock|Dome of the Rock]] completed in Jerusalem.
 
*692 [[Quinisext Council]] (also called the ''Penthekte Council'' or ''Council in Trullo'') held in Constantinople, issuing [[canon]]s which are seen as completing the work of the Fifth and Sixth [[Ecumenical Councils]], and declaring the [[Church of Jerusalem]] to be a [[patriarchate]].
 
*692 [[Quinisext Council]] (also called the ''Penthekte Council'' or ''Council in Trullo'') held in Constantinople, issuing [[canon]]s which are seen as completing the work of the Fifth and Sixth [[Ecumenical Councils]], and declaring the [[Church of Jerusalem]] to be a [[patriarchate]].
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*742 After a forty-year vacancy, [[Stephen IV of Antioch|Stephen IV]] becomes Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch, at the suggestion of Umayyad caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik.   
 
*742 After a forty-year vacancy, [[Stephen IV of Antioch|Stephen IV]] becomes Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch, at the suggestion of Umayyad caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik.   
 
*746 Byzantine forces regain Cyprus from the Arabs.
 
*746 Byzantine forces regain Cyprus from the Arabs.
 +
*747 The Witenagamot of England again forbids appeals to the Roman Patriarch ; [[Council of Clovesho]]I adopts Roman calendar, observance of the feasts of St. Gregory the Great and Augustine of Canterbury, and adopts the Rogation Days.
 
*749 Death of [[John of Damascus]].
 
*749 Death of [[John of Damascus]].
 
*750 ''[[Donation of Constantine]]'' accepted as a legitimate document, used by Pope [[Stephen II of Rome|Stephen II]] to prove territorial and jurisdictional claims.
 
*750 ''[[Donation of Constantine]]'' accepted as a legitimate document, used by Pope [[Stephen II of Rome|Stephen II]] to prove territorial and jurisdictional claims.
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*754 Death of [[Boniface]].
 
*754 Death of [[Boniface]].
 
*756 [[w:Donation of Pepin|Donation of Pepin]] cedes lands including Ravenna that became basis of [[w:Papal States|Papal States]].
 
*756 [[w:Donation of Pepin|Donation of Pepin]] cedes lands including Ravenna that became basis of [[w:Papal States|Papal States]].
*768 Wales adopts Orthodox [[Paschalion]] at teaching of Elbodugus.  
+
*768 Wales adopts Orthodox [[Paschalion]] and other decrees of the Synod of Whitby at teaching of Elfoddw of Gwynedd.  
 
*769 Pope [[Stephen III of Rome]] holds a council changing papal election procedure and confirming veneration of icons.
 
*769 Pope [[Stephen III of Rome]] holds a council changing papal election procedure and confirming veneration of icons.
 
*772 Charlemagne starts fighting Saxons and Frisians; Saxony is subdued and converted to Christianity.
 
*772 Charlemagne starts fighting Saxons and Frisians; Saxony is subdued and converted to Christianity.
 
*781 King [[Charlemagne]] of the Franks summons [[Alcuin]] of York to head palace school at Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) to inspire revival of education in Europe.
 
*781 King [[Charlemagne]] of the Franks summons [[Alcuin]] of York to head palace school at Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) to inspire revival of education in Europe.
 +
*785 The Synod of Cealchythe erects the Archbishopric of Lichfield.
 
*786 [[w:Beatus of Liébana|Beatus of Liébana]] publishes ''Commentary on the Apocalypse''.
 
*786 [[w:Beatus of Liébana|Beatus of Liébana]] publishes ''Commentary on the Apocalypse''.
 
*787 [[Seventh Ecumenical Council]] held in Nicea, condemning [[iconoclasm]] and affirming [[veneration]] of [[iconography|icons]]; two councils held in England, one in the north at Pincanhale, and the other in the south at Chelsea, reaffirming the faith of the first Six Ecumenical Councils (the decrees of the Seventh having not yet been received), and establishing a third archbishopric at Lichfield.
 
*787 [[Seventh Ecumenical Council]] held in Nicea, condemning [[iconoclasm]] and affirming [[veneration]] of [[iconography|icons]]; two councils held in England, one in the north at Pincanhale, and the other in the south at Chelsea, reaffirming the faith of the first Six Ecumenical Councils (the decrees of the Seventh having not yet been received), and establishing a third archbishopric at Lichfield.
 +
*792 The Synod of Regensburg condemned Adoptionism.
 
*793 Sack of [[Lindisfarne|Lindisfarne Priory]], beginning Viking attacks on England.
 
*793 Sack of [[Lindisfarne|Lindisfarne Priory]], beginning Viking attacks on England.
 
*794 Charlemagne convenes council in Frankfurt-in-Main, rejecting decrees of Seventh Ecumenical Council and inserting [[Filioque]] into [[Nicene-Constantinipolitan Creed]].
 
*794 Charlemagne convenes council in Frankfurt-in-Main, rejecting decrees of Seventh Ecumenical Council and inserting [[Filioque]] into [[Nicene-Constantinipolitan Creed]].
 
*796 [[Alcuin]] made Abbot of Saint-Martin in Tours by [[Charlemagne]].
 
*796 [[Alcuin]] made Abbot of Saint-Martin in Tours by [[Charlemagne]].
 
*800 [[Charlemagne]] crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by [[Leo III of Rome]] on [[Christmas]] day, marking the break of Frankish civilisation away from the Orthodox Christian Roman Empire; [[Book of Kells]] produced in Ireland.  
 
*800 [[Charlemagne]] crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by [[Leo III of Rome]] on [[Christmas]] day, marking the break of Frankish civilisation away from the Orthodox Christian Roman Empire; [[Book of Kells]] produced in Ireland.  
*800 Ambassadors of Caliph Harunu al-Rashid give keys to the [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Holy Sepulchre]] to Charlemagne, acknowledging some Frankish control over the interests of Christians in Jerusalem.
+
*800 Ambassadors of Caliph Harunu al-Rashid give keys to the [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Holy Sepulchre]] to Charlemagne, acknowledging some Frankish control over the interests of Christians in Jerusalem ; establishment of the [[Western Rite]] Monastery of Saint Mary in Jerusalem.
*803 [[Council of Clovesho]] abolishes archbishopric of Lichfield, restoring the pattern of the two metropolitan archbishoprics (Canterbury and York) which had prevailed before 787.
+
*801 Controversy in Jerusalem over Frankish pilgrims using [[Filioque]].
 +
*803 [[Council of Clovesho II]] abolishes archbishopric of Lichfield, restoring the pattern of the two metropolitan archbishoprics (Canterbury and York) which had prevailed before 787, and requires the use of the [[Western Rite]] amongst the English speaking peoples.
 +
*810 Pope Leo III refused permission for the [[Filioque]] to be inserted in the Creed.
 
*814 Bulgarians lay siege to Constantinople; conflict erupts between Emperor [[Leo V the Armenian|Leo V]] and Patr. [[Nicephorus I of Constantinople|Nicephorus]] on the subject of iconoclasm; Leo deposes Nicephorus, Nicephorus excommunicates Leo.
 
*814 Bulgarians lay siege to Constantinople; conflict erupts between Emperor [[Leo V the Armenian|Leo V]] and Patr. [[Nicephorus I of Constantinople|Nicephorus]] on the subject of iconoclasm; Leo deposes Nicephorus, Nicephorus excommunicates Leo.
 
*824 Byzantine [[w:Crete|Crete]] falls to Arab insurgents fleeing from the Umayyad Emir of Cordoba Al-Hakam I, establishing an emirate on the island until the Byzantine reconquest in 960.
 
*824 Byzantine [[w:Crete|Crete]] falls to Arab insurgents fleeing from the Umayyad Emir of Cordoba Al-Hakam I, establishing an emirate on the island until the Byzantine reconquest in 960.

Revision as of 14:23, July 28, 2008

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The History of the Church is a vital part of the Orthodox Christian faith. Orthodox Christians are defined significantly by their continuity with all those who have gone before, those who first received and preached the truth of Jesus Christ to the world, those who helped to formulate the expression and worship of our faith, and those who continue to move forward in the unchanging yet ever-dynamic Holy Tradition of the Orthodox Church.

Contents

New Testament era

Apostolic era (33-100)

Ante-Nicene era (100-325)

Nicene era (325-451)

Byzantine era (451-843)

Late Byzantine era (843-1453)

Post-Imperial era (1453-1821)

Modern era (1821-1917)

Communist era (1917-1991)

Post-Communist era (1991-Present)

Notes

  • Some of these dates are necessarily a bit vague, as records for some periods are particularly difficult to piece together accurately.
  • The division of Church History into separate eras as done here will always be to some extent arbitrary, though it was attempted to group periods according to major watershed events.
  • This timeline is necessarily biased toward the history of the Orthodox Church, though a number of non-Orthodox or purely political events are mentioned for their importance in history related to Orthodoxy or for reference.

See also

Published works

The following are published writings that provide an overview of Church history:

From an Orthodox perspective

From a Heterodox perspective

  • Boer, Harry R. A Short History of the Early Church. (ISBN 0802813399)
  • Cairns, Earle E. Christianity Through the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 0310208122)
  • Chadwick, Henry. The Early Church. (ISBN 0140231994)
  • Collins, Michael, ed.; Price, Matthew Arlen. Story of Christianity: A Celebration of 2000 Years of Faith. (ISBN 0789446057)
  • Eusebius Pamphilus; Cruse, C.F. (translator). Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History. (ISBN 1565633717)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 1: From the Beginnings to the Council of Chalcedon. (ISBN 0687171822)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 2: From Augustine to the Eve of the Reformation. (ISBN 0687171830)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 3: From the Protestant Reformation to the Twentieth Century. (ISBN 0687171849)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity, Volume 1: The Early Church to the Reformation. (ISBN 0060633158)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity, Volume 2: Reformation to the Present Day. (ISBN 0060633166)
  • Hall, Stuart G. Doctrine and Practice in the Early Church. (ISBN 0802806295)
  • Hastings, Adrian, ed. A World History of Christianity. (ISBN 0802848753)
  • Hussey, J. M. The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire: Oxford History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 0198264569)
  • Jones, Timothy P. Christian History Made Easy. (ISBN 1890947105)
  • Noll, Mark A. Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity. (ISBN 080106211X)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 1: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600). (ISBN 0226653714)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 2: The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600-1700). (ISBN 0226653730)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 3: The Growth of Medieval Theology (600-1300). (ISBN 0226653749)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 4: Reformation of Church and Dogma (1300-1700). (ISBN 0226653773)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 5: Christian Doctrine and Modern Culture (since 1700). (ISBN 0226653803)
  • Schaff, Philip. History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 156563196X)
  • Wace, Henry; Piercy, William C., ed. A Dictionary of Christian Biography: Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A.D. With an Account of the Principal Sects and Heresies. (ISBN 1565630572)
  • Walton, Robert C. Chronological and Background Charts of Church History. (ISBN 0310362814)

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