Timeline of Church History

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(Modern era (1821-1917))
(Communist era (1917-1991))
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*1919-1922 [[w:Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922)|Greco-Turkish War]]; a million refugees flee to Greece joining half a million Greeks who had fled earlier; [[w:Pontic Greek Genocide|Pontic Greek Genocide]] eliminates the Christian population of Trebizond.
 
*1919-1922 [[w:Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922)|Greco-Turkish War]]; a million refugees flee to Greece joining half a million Greeks who had fled earlier; [[w:Pontic Greek Genocide|Pontic Greek Genocide]] eliminates the Christian population of Trebizond.
 
*1920 Death of [[Nektarios of Aegina]]; publication of Encyclical Letters by Constantinople on Christian unity and on the Ecumenical Movement.
 
*1920 Death of [[Nektarios of Aegina]]; publication of Encyclical Letters by Constantinople on Christian unity and on the Ecumenical Movement.
*1921 [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]] renounces all claims to jurisdiction in any part of Africa, with Alexandrian primate thenceforth known as ''Pope and Patriarch of [[Church of Alexandria|Alexandria and All Africa]]''; [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek Archdiocese of America]] formed.
+
*1921 [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]] renounces all claims to jurisdiction in any part of Africa, with Alexandrian primate thenceforth known as ''Pope and Patriarch of [[Church of Alexandria|Alexandria and All Africa]]''; [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek Archdiocese of America]] formed ; Archbishop Saint Tikhon (Belavin) elected Patriarch of Moscow ; Bishop Saint Gorazd (Pavlik) consecrated as bishop for the Western Rite Diocese of Moravia and Silesia by Patriarch Dimitri of Serbia, Metropolitan Antony (Khrapovitsky) of Kiev, and Serbian bishops Barnabas, Dositheus, and Joseph.
*1922 [[Church of Albania]] declares [[autocephaly]] from [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]]; formation of the [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia]]; [[w:British Mandate of Palestine|British Mandate of Palestine]] begins; Vladimir Lenin proclaims establishment of the [[w:Soviet Union|Soviet Union]]; [[Solovetsky Monastery]] converted by Lenin's decree to the [[w:Solovki|"Solovki Special Purpose Camp"]], one of the earliest forced-labor camps of the Gulag where 75 bishops died, along with tens of thousands of laity.
+
*1922 [[Church of Albania]] declares [[autocephaly]] from [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]]; formation of the [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia]]; [[w:British Mandate of Palestine|British Mandate of Palestine]] begins; Vladimir Lenin proclaims establishment of the [[w:Soviet Union|Soviet Union]]; [[Solovetsky Monastery]] converted by Lenin's decree to the [[w:Solovki|"Solovki Special Purpose Camp"]], one of the earliest forced-labor camps of the Gulag where 75 bishops died, along with tens of thousands of laity ; The Alcuin Club in England prints the Holy Synod of Russia's report in favour of adapting the Book of Common Prayer for Orthodox use.
 
*1923 [[Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia]] granted [[autonomy]] by [[Church of Constantinople]].
 
*1923 [[Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia]] granted [[autonomy]] by [[Church of Constantinople]].
 
*1924 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Poland]]; Bp. Daniel William Alexander convenes meeting in Kimberley, South Africa, which decides to secede from the African Church (a Protestant denomination) and affiliate with the "African Orthodox Church" in New York under George McGuire; Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church in the USA splits into two separate jurisdictions, one for those from Galicia, and another for those from Carpatho-Ukraine, Croatia, Hungary and Slovakia.
 
*1924 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Poland]]; Bp. Daniel William Alexander convenes meeting in Kimberley, South Africa, which decides to secede from the African Church (a Protestant denomination) and affiliate with the "African Orthodox Church" in New York under George McGuire; Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church in the USA splits into two separate jurisdictions, one for those from Galicia, and another for those from Carpatho-Ukraine, Croatia, Hungary and Slovakia.
 
*1925 [[Church of Romania]] becomes a [[patriarchate]]; first Africans in sub-Saharan Africa baptized in Tanganyika by Fr. Nikodemos Sarikas; death of [[Tikhon of Moscow]].
 
*1925 [[Church of Romania]] becomes a [[patriarchate]]; first Africans in sub-Saharan Africa baptized in Tanganyika by Fr. Nikodemos Sarikas; death of [[Tikhon of Moscow]].
*1927 Daniel William Alexander travels from South Africa to America to be consecrated a bishop of the African Orthodox Church; Orthodox Archbishopric of Johannesburg established.
+
*1926 The Polish Catholic National Church received as a Western rite Diocese in Poland of the Russian Orthodox Church under Bishop Alexis of Grodno ; Saint John (Maximovitch) of Shanghai tonsured by Metropolitan Anthony (Khrapovitsky), First Hierarch of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia.
 +
*1927 Daniel William Alexander travels from South Africa to America to be consecrated a bishop of the African Orthodox Church; Orthodox Archbishopric of Johannesburg established ; the Synod of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church in America authorize a Western rite missionary outreach.
 
*1928 [[Fellowship of St. Alban and St. Sergius]] founded to pray and work for Christian unity.
 
*1928 [[Fellowship of St. Alban and St. Sergius]] founded to pray and work for Christian unity.
*1929 Papal Bull ''Cum data fuerit'' regulates Uniate clergy in the US, mandating celibacy, resulting in the return of several parishes back to Orthodoxy in 1938; kingdom of Italy and Papacy ratify [[w:Lateran Treaty|Lateran Treaty]], recognizing sovereignty of Papacy within the new state of the [[w:Vatican City|Vatican City]]; "[[w:Collegium Russicum|Russicum]]" (Russian College or 'College of St. Therese') founded in Vatican City by Pope Pius XI and run by the [[w:Society of Jesus|Jesuits]].
+
*1929 Papal Bull ''Cum data fuerit'' regulates Uniate clergy in the US, mandating celibacy, resulting in the return of several parishes back to Orthodoxy in 1938; kingdom of Italy and Papacy ratify [[w:Lateran Treaty|Lateran Treaty]], recognizing sovereignty of Papacy within the new state of the [[w:Vatican City|Vatican City]]; "[[w:Collegium Russicum|Russicum]]" (Russian College or 'College of St. Therese') founded in Vatican City by Pope Pius XI and run by the [[w:Society of Jesus|Jesuits]] ; Russian Fraternity of Saint Irenee in France celebrates Western Rite (headed by Vladimir Lossky and Eugraph Kovalevsky.)
 
*1931 Reception of the [[Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of Russian Tradition in Western Europe]] into the [[Ecumenical Patriarchate]], led by Metr. [[Eulogius (Georgievsky) of Paris]]; USSR bans sale or importation of [[Holy Scripture|Bibles]]; the [[w:Bonn Agreement (religion)|Bonn Agreement]] established full communion between the [[Anglican Communion|Church of England]] and [[w:Old Catholic Church|Old Catholic Churches]] of the [[w:Utrecht Union|Union of Utrecht]].  
 
*1931 Reception of the [[Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of Russian Tradition in Western Europe]] into the [[Ecumenical Patriarchate]], led by Metr. [[Eulogius (Georgievsky) of Paris]]; USSR bans sale or importation of [[Holy Scripture|Bibles]]; the [[w:Bonn Agreement (religion)|Bonn Agreement]] established full communion between the [[Anglican Communion|Church of England]] and [[w:Old Catholic Church|Old Catholic Churches]] of the [[w:Utrecht Union|Union of Utrecht]].  
 
*1932 Daniel William Alexander travels to Uganda to meet Reuben Spartas, establishing African Orthodox Church there.
 
*1932 Daniel William Alexander travels to Uganda to meet Reuben Spartas, establishing African Orthodox Church there.
 
*1933 [[Church of Greece]] bans [[Freemasonry]].
 
*1933 [[Church of Greece]] bans [[Freemasonry]].
*1934 Daniel William Alexander travels to Kenya, establishing African Orthodox Church led by Arthur Gathuna; clergy who oppose the Nazi regime in Germany have homes raided by secret police.
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*1934 Daniel William Alexander travels to Kenya, establishing African Orthodox Church led by Arthur Gathuna; clergy who oppose the Nazi regime in Germany have homes raided by secret police ; Saint John of Shanghai consecrated bishop by Metropolitan Anthony (Khrapovitsky).
 
*1935 Critical edition of [[Septuagint]] published in Gottingen Germany by Alfred Rahlfs at the Septuaginta-Unternehmens (Institute).  
 
*1935 Critical edition of [[Septuagint]] published in Gottingen Germany by Alfred Rahlfs at the Septuaginta-Unternehmens (Institute).  
 
*1935-40 Italian forces occupy Ethiopia and begin intermittent persecutions of the [[Church of Ethiopia|Ethiopian Orthodox Church]].
 
*1935-40 Italian forces occupy Ethiopia and begin intermittent persecutions of the [[Church of Ethiopia|Ethiopian Orthodox Church]].
 +
*1936 Ukase of Moscow Patriarchate establishes the Western Orthodox Church in France using the Western rite.
 
*1936-37 Many Russian Orthodox Clerics die in Joseph Stalin's [[w:Great Purge|Great Purge]].  
 
*1936-37 Many Russian Orthodox Clerics die in Joseph Stalin's [[w:Great Purge|Great Purge]].  
 
*1937 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Albania]].
 
*1937 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Albania]].
 
*1938 [[St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary (Crestwood, New York)]] and [[St. Tikhon's Orthodox Theological Seminary (South Canaan, Pennsylvania)]] founded; death of [[Silouan the Athonite]]; [[American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese]] founded, when a group of 37 Carpatho-Russian Eastern Catholic parishes, under the leadership of Fr. [[Orestes (Chornock) of Agathonikeia|Orestes Chornock]], were received into the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.
 
*1938 [[St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary (Crestwood, New York)]] and [[St. Tikhon's Orthodox Theological Seminary (South Canaan, Pennsylvania)]] founded; death of [[Silouan the Athonite]]; [[American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese]] founded, when a group of 37 Carpatho-Russian Eastern Catholic parishes, under the leadership of Fr. [[Orestes (Chornock) of Agathonikeia|Orestes Chornock]], were received into the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.
 
*1939 [[w:Galicia (Central Europe)|Galicia]] is divided as Poland gets partitioned between the German Empire and Soviet Union approximately along the Curzon Line, so that Western Galicia goes to the German Empire, and Eastern Galicia is affiliated with Soviet Ukraine.  
 
*1939 [[w:Galicia (Central Europe)|Galicia]] is divided as Poland gets partitioned between the German Empire and Soviet Union approximately along the Curzon Line, so that Western Galicia goes to the German Empire, and Eastern Galicia is affiliated with Soviet Ukraine.  
 +
*1941 Martyrdom of Bishop Saint Gorazd (Pavlik) of Moravia and Silesia by Nazis, September 4th.
 
*1941-45 Croatian [[w:Ustaše|Ustasa]] terrorists kill 500,000 Orthodox Serbs, expel 250,000 and force 250,000 to convert to [[Roman Catholic Church|Catholicism]].
 
*1941-45 Croatian [[w:Ustaše|Ustasa]] terrorists kill 500,000 Orthodox Serbs, expel 250,000 and force 250,000 to convert to [[Roman Catholic Church|Catholicism]].
 
*1943 [[Church of Russia]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Georgia]]; first constitution of the African Orthodox Church in East Africa signed by Reuben Spartas and Arthur Gathuna; Joseph Stalin meets with hierarchs of Russian Orthodox Church to establish a "patriotic union," granting concessions to the church, including the gathering of the holy synod and the election of [[Sergius I (Stragorodsky) of Moscow|Sergius I]] as patriarch of Moscow.
 
*1943 [[Church of Russia]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Georgia]]; first constitution of the African Orthodox Church in East Africa signed by Reuben Spartas and Arthur Gathuna; Joseph Stalin meets with hierarchs of Russian Orthodox Church to establish a "patriotic union," granting concessions to the church, including the gathering of the holy synod and the election of [[Sergius I (Stragorodsky) of Moscow|Sergius I]] as patriarch of Moscow.
 
*1943-44 Hundreds of Orthodox priests of the [[Church of Ukraine|Ukrainian Orthodox Church]] eliminated, tortured and drowned by Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists - [[w:Ukrainian Insurgent Army|Ukrainian Rebel Army]], aided by [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniate]] Metr. Josyf Slipyj who was a spiritual leader of Nazi military units and later condemned by the Nuremberg tribunal.
 
*1943-44 Hundreds of Orthodox priests of the [[Church of Ukraine|Ukrainian Orthodox Church]] eliminated, tortured and drowned by Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists - [[w:Ukrainian Insurgent Army|Ukrainian Rebel Army]], aided by [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniate]] Metr. Josyf Slipyj who was a spiritual leader of Nazi military units and later condemned by the Nuremberg tribunal.
 +
*1944 Fr. Eugraph (Kovalevsky) completes a restoration of the ancient first millenium Gallican liturgy - the Liturgy of St. Germanus de Paris.
 
*1945 [[Church of Bulgaria]]'s [[autocephaly]] generally recognized; library of early Christian texts discovered at Nag Hammadi in Egypt; Soviet Union annexes Czechoslovakia; [[Church of Russia]] claims jurisdiction over the [[Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia]].  
 
*1945 [[Church of Bulgaria]]'s [[autocephaly]] generally recognized; library of early Christian texts discovered at Nag Hammadi in Egypt; Soviet Union annexes Czechoslovakia; [[Church of Russia]] claims jurisdiction over the [[Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia]].  
 
*1946 Reuben Spartas of the African Orthodox Church visits Alexandria; Holy Synod of the [[Church of Alexandria]] officially recognizes and accepts the African Greek Orthodox Church in Kenya and Uganda; state-sponsored synod is held at Lviv, Ukraine in March, which officially dissolves the [[Union of Brest-Litovsk]] and integrates the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church into the Russian Orthodox Church, Soviet authorities arresting resisters or deporting them to Siberia.
 
*1946 Reuben Spartas of the African Orthodox Church visits Alexandria; Holy Synod of the [[Church of Alexandria]] officially recognizes and accepts the African Greek Orthodox Church in Kenya and Uganda; state-sponsored synod is held at Lviv, Ukraine in March, which officially dissolves the [[Union of Brest-Litovsk]] and integrates the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church into the Russian Orthodox Church, Soviet authorities arresting resisters or deporting them to Siberia.
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*1951 [[Church of Russia]] grants [[autocephaly]] to the [[Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia]]; 1500th anniversary celebration of the [[Church of Jerusalem|Patriarchate of Jerusalem]].
 
*1951 [[Church of Russia]] grants [[autocephaly]] to the [[Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia]]; 1500th anniversary celebration of the [[Church of Jerusalem|Patriarchate of Jerusalem]].
 
*1952 New Monastery of Panagia Soumela built in the village of Kastania, in Macedonia, Greece, housing the wonderworking icon of [[Panagia Soumela]], becoming a center of religious pilgrimage.
 
*1952 New Monastery of Panagia Soumela built in the village of Kastania, in Macedonia, Greece, housing the wonderworking icon of [[Panagia Soumela]], becoming a center of religious pilgrimage.
 +
*1953 Metropolitan Anthony (Bashir) accepts three Western rite parishes into the Syrian Metropolitanate in America.
 
*1957 [[Church of Russia]] grants [[autonomy]] to [[Church of China]].
 
*1957 [[Church of Russia]] grants [[autonomy]] to [[Church of China]].
*1958 Creation of [[Western Rite Vicariate]] in the [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America]] with the reception of multiple [[Western Rite]] parishes into Orthodoxy.
+
*1958 The Patriarch of Antioch adopts the provisions of the Russian Holy Synods of 1879 and 1907 for use of the Western rite in America ; Western Orthodox Church of France comes under the omophorion of Archbishop Saint John (Maximovitch) who authorizes the use of the restored Gallican rite.
 
*1959 Abp. [[Anastasios (Yannoulatos) of Albania]] establishes inter-Orthodox mission agency ''Porefthentes'' to revive the church's mission activities; autocephaly granted to the [[Church of Ethiopia]] by Coptic Pope [[Cyril VI (Atta) of Alexandria]].
 
*1959 Abp. [[Anastasios (Yannoulatos) of Albania]] establishes inter-Orthodox mission agency ''Porefthentes'' to revive the church's mission activities; autocephaly granted to the [[Church of Ethiopia]] by Coptic Pope [[Cyril VI (Atta) of Alexandria]].
 +
*1961 Creation of [[Western Rite Vicariate]] in the [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America]]
 
*1962-1965 Second Vatican Council held in Rome, initiating major liturgical and theological reforms for the [[Roman Catholic Church]], including restriction of ancient [[Tridentine Mass]] and introduction of the Novus Ordo.
 
*1962-1965 Second Vatican Council held in Rome, initiating major liturgical and theological reforms for the [[Roman Catholic Church]], including restriction of ancient [[Tridentine Mass]] and introduction of the Novus Ordo.
 
*1961 Death of [[Luke (Voino-Yasenetsky) of Crimea]]; consecration of first Orthodox Church in Uganda; first Pan-Orthodox Conference in Rhodes; Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man to fly in outer space.   
 
*1961 Death of [[Luke (Voino-Yasenetsky) of Crimea]]; consecration of first Orthodox Church in Uganda; first Pan-Orthodox Conference in Rhodes; Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man to fly in outer space.   
 
*1963 1900th anniversary of martyrdom of [[Apostle Mark]]; second Pan-Orthodox Conference in Rhodes; 1000th anniversary celebration of founding of [[Mount Athos]].  
 
*1963 1900th anniversary of martyrdom of [[Apostle Mark]]; second Pan-Orthodox Conference in Rhodes; 1000th anniversary celebration of founding of [[Mount Athos]].  
 
*1964 Meeting of Pope [[Paul VI of Rome]] and Patr. [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople]] in Jerusalem; third Pan-Orthodox Conference in Rhodes; [[Synaxis of the Saints of Rostov]] established by resolution of His Holiness Patriarch [[Alexei I (Simansky) of Moscow|Alexis I]] and the Holy Synod of the [[Church of Russia|Russian Orthodox Church]].
 
*1964 Meeting of Pope [[Paul VI of Rome]] and Patr. [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople]] in Jerusalem; third Pan-Orthodox Conference in Rhodes; [[Synaxis of the Saints of Rostov]] established by resolution of His Holiness Patriarch [[Alexei I (Simansky) of Moscow|Alexis I]] and the Holy Synod of the [[Church of Russia|Russian Orthodox Church]].
*1965 Pope Paul VI of Rome and Patriarch [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople]] mutually nullify the [[excommunication]]s of 1054.
+
*1965 Pope Paul VI of Rome and Patriarch [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople]] mutually nullify the [[excommunication]]s of 1054 ; Archbishop Saint John (Maximovitch) consecrates Bishop Jean-Nectaire (Kovalevsky) of Saint-Denys for the Western Orthodox Church of France.
 
*1967 [[Macedonian Orthodox Church |Church of Macedonia]] unilaterally declares its [[autocephaly]], making it independent of the [[Church of Serbia]] (as yet unrecognized).
 
*1967 [[Macedonian Orthodox Church |Church of Macedonia]] unilaterally declares its [[autocephaly]], making it independent of the [[Church of Serbia]] (as yet unrecognized).
 
*1968 Visit to [[Patriarchate of Alexandria]] by Vatican representatives; fourth Pan-Orthodox Conference in Chambesy, Switzerland.
 
*1968 Visit to [[Patriarchate of Alexandria]] by Vatican representatives; fourth Pan-Orthodox Conference in Chambesy, Switzerland.

Revision as of 12:47, July 26, 2008

This article forms part of the series
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The History of the Church is a vital part of the Orthodox Christian faith. Orthodox Christians are defined significantly by their continuity with all those who have gone before, those who first received and preached the truth of Jesus Christ to the world, those who helped to formulate the expression and worship of our faith, and those who continue to move forward in the unchanging yet ever-dynamic Holy Tradition of the Orthodox Church.

Contents

New Testament era

Apostolic era (33-100)

Ante-Nicene era (100-325)

Nicene era (325-451)

Byzantine era (451-843)

Late Byzantine era (843-1453)

Post-Imperial era (1453-1821)

Modern era (1821-1917)

Communist era (1917-1991)

Post-Communist era (1991-Present)

Notes

  • Some of these dates are necessarily a bit vague, as records for some periods are particularly difficult to piece together accurately.
  • The division of Church History into separate eras as done here will always be to some extent arbitrary, though it was attempted to group periods according to major watershed events.
  • This timeline is necessarily biased toward the history of the Orthodox Church, though a number of non-Orthodox or purely political events are mentioned for their importance in history related to Orthodoxy or for reference.

See also

Published works

The following are published writings that provide an overview of Church history:

From an Orthodox perspective

From a Heterodox perspective

  • Boer, Harry R. A Short History of the Early Church. (ISBN 0802813399)
  • Cairns, Earle E. Christianity Through the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 0310208122)
  • Chadwick, Henry. The Early Church. (ISBN 0140231994)
  • Collins, Michael, ed.; Price, Matthew Arlen. Story of Christianity: A Celebration of 2000 Years of Faith. (ISBN 0789446057)
  • Eusebius Pamphilus; Cruse, C.F. (translator). Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History. (ISBN 1565633717)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 1: From the Beginnings to the Council of Chalcedon. (ISBN 0687171822)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 2: From Augustine to the Eve of the Reformation. (ISBN 0687171830)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 3: From the Protestant Reformation to the Twentieth Century. (ISBN 0687171849)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity, Volume 1: The Early Church to the Reformation. (ISBN 0060633158)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity, Volume 2: Reformation to the Present Day. (ISBN 0060633166)
  • Hall, Stuart G. Doctrine and Practice in the Early Church. (ISBN 0802806295)
  • Hastings, Adrian, ed. A World History of Christianity. (ISBN 0802848753)
  • Hussey, J. M. The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire: Oxford History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 0198264569)
  • Jones, Timothy P. Christian History Made Easy. (ISBN 1890947105)
  • Noll, Mark A. Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity. (ISBN 080106211X)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 1: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600). (ISBN 0226653714)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 2: The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600-1700). (ISBN 0226653730)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 3: The Growth of Medieval Theology (600-1300). (ISBN 0226653749)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 4: Reformation of Church and Dogma (1300-1700). (ISBN 0226653773)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 5: Christian Doctrine and Modern Culture (since 1700). (ISBN 0226653803)
  • Schaff, Philip. History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 156563196X)
  • Wace, Henry; Piercy, William C., ed. A Dictionary of Christian Biography: Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A.D. With an Account of the Principal Sects and Heresies. (ISBN 1565630572)
  • Walton, Robert C. Chronological and Background Charts of Church History. (ISBN 0310362814)

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